ACC 350 Week 10 Quiz – Strayer

ACC/350 Week 10 Quiz – Strayer

Click on the Link Below to Purchase A+ Graded Course Material

http://budapp.net/ACC-350-Week-10-Quiz-Strayer-347.htm

 

Chapter 9

Inventory Costing and Capacity Analysis

1)

The two most common methods of costing inventories in manufacturing companies are variable costing and fixed costing.

2)

Absorption costing “absorbs” only variable manufacturing costs.

3)

Variable costing includes all variable costsboth manufacturing and nonmanufacturingin inventory.

4)

Under both variable and absorption costing, all variable manufacturing costs are inventoriable costs.

5)

The main difference between variable costing and absorption costing is the way in which fixed manufacturing costs are accounted for.

6)

Under variable costing, fixed manufacturing costs are treated as an expense of the period.

7)

The contribution-margin format of the income statement is used with absorption costing.

8)

The contribution-margin format of the income statement distinguishes manufacturing costs from nonmanufacturing costs.

9)

The gross-margin format of the income statement highlights the lump sum of fixed manufacturing costs.

10)

In absorption costing, all nonmanufacturing costs are subtracted from gross margin.

11)

Direct costing is a perfect way to describe the variable-costing inventory method.

12)

When variable costing is used, an income statement will show gross margin.

13)

The income under variable costing will always be the same as the income under absorption costing.

14)

Absorption costing is required by GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) for external reporting.

15)

When production deviates from the denominator level, a production-volume variance always exists under absorption costing.

16)

Fixed manufacturing costs included in cost of goods available for sale + the production-volume variance will always = total fixed manufacturing costs under absorption costing.

17)

The production-volume variance only exists under absorption costing and not under variable costing.

18)

When the unit level of inventory increases during an accounting period, operating income is greater under variable costing than absorption costing.

19)

The difference in operating income under absorption costing and variable costing is due solely to the timing difference of expensing fixed manufacturing costs.
20)

If managers report inventories of zero at the start and end of each accounting period, operating incomes under absorption costing and variable costing will be the same.

21)

Under absorption costing, managers can increase operating income by holding more inventories at the end of the period.

22)

Many companies use variable costing for internal reporting to reduce the undesirable incentive to build up inventories.

23)

Under variable costing, managers can increase operating income by simply producing more inventory at the end of the accounting period even if that inventory never gets sold.

24)

Nonfinancial measures such as comparing units in ending inventory this period to units in ending inventory last period can help reduce buildup of excess inventory.

25)

One of the most common problems reported by companies using variable costing is the difficulty of classifying costs into fixed or variable categories.

26)

Managers can increase operating income when absorption costing is used by producing more inventory.

27)

A manager can increase operating income by deferring maintenance beyond the current accounting period when absorption costing is used.

28)

Throughput costing considers only direct materials and direct manufacturing labor to be truly variable costs.

29)

Throughput costing is also referred to as super-variable costing.

30)

When production quantity exceeds sales, throughput costing results in reporting greater operating income than variable costing.

31)

Throughput costing provides more incentive to produce for inventory than does absorption costing.

32)

A company may use absorption costing for external reports and still choose to use throughput costing for internal reports.

33)

Throughput contribution equals revenues minus all product costs.

34)

Throughput costing results in a higher amount of manufacturing costs being placed in inventory than either variable or absorption costing.

35)

Determining the “right” level of capacity is one of the most strategic and difficult decisions managers face.

36)

Both theoretical and practical capacity measure capacity in terms of demand for the output.

37)

Normal capacity utilization is the expected level of capacity utilization for the current budget period, which is typically one year.

38)

Normal capacity utilization is not the same as master-budget capacity utilization.

39)

Theoretical capacity is generally much larger than master-budget capacity utilization.

40)

Theoretical capacity allows time for regular machine maintenance.

41)

Estimates of human factors such as the increased risk of injury when machines work at faster speeds are important when estimating practical capacity.

42)

Theoretical capacity is unattainable in the real world.

43)

Theoretical capacity is the capacity level that represents what the firm is able to obtain under reasonable circumstances.

44)

Fixed manufacturing cost per unit will be the same no matter what capacity concept is used.

45)

Data from normal costing and standard costing are used in pricing and product-mix decisions.

46)

If a company chooses practical capacity for planning purposes, it must also use practical capacity for performance evaluation.

47)

Theoretical capacity is most often used to cost a product.

48)

Practical capacity highlights capacity acquired but currently not used.

49)

For benchmarking purposes it is best to use master-budget capacity because all competitors use about the same about of capacity for production.

50)

Using normal capacity for pricing decisions can lead to setting noncompetitive selling prices.

51)

Using master-budget capacity for pricing purposes can lead to a downward demand spiral.

52)

Using practical capacity is best for evaluating the marketing manager’s performance for a particular year.

53)

The production-volume variance is affected by the choice of capacity concept used to determine the denominator level.

54)

The higher the denominator level the higher the budgeted fixed manufacturing cost rate per unit.

55)

Master-budget capacity utilization can be more reliably estimated than normal capacity utilization.

56)

Unused capacity is considered wasted resources and the result of poor planning.

57)

Challenges only result from estimating the denominator level, but not the costs in the numerator of the fixed manufacturing cost rate.

58)

Estimating capacity costs is unique to manufacturing and it is not applicable to nonmanufacturing entities.

59)

If the capacity level chosen to calculate the budgeted fixed overhead cost rate is more than the actual production, an unfavorable production-volume variance will result.
60)

The breakeven points are the same under both variable costing and absorption costing.

61)

Which of the following cost(s) are inventoried when using variable costing?
A)

direct manufacturing costs
B)

variable marketing costs
C)

fixed manufacturing costs
D)

Both A and B are correct.

62)

Which of the following cost(s) are inventoried when using absorption costing?
A)

direct manufacturing costs
B)

variable marketing costs
C)

fixed manufacturing costs
D)

Both A and C are correct.

63)

________ is a method of inventory costing in which all variable and fixed manufacturing costs are included as inventoriable costs.
A)

Variable costing
B)

Mixed costing
C)

Absorption costing
D)

Standard costing

64)

Absorption costing is required for all of the following EXCEPT:
A)

generally accepted accounting principles
B)

determining a competitive selling price
C)

external reporting to shareholders
D)

income tax reporting

65)

Absorption costing:
A)

expenses marketing costs as cost of goods sold
B)

treats direct manufacturing costs as a period cost
C)

includes fixed manufacturing overhead as an inventoriable cost
D)

is required for internal reports to managers

66)

Variable costing:
A)

expenses administrative costs as cost of goods sold
B)

treats direct manufacturing costs as a product cost
C)

includes fixed manufacturing overhead as an inventoriable cost
D)

is required for external reporting to shareholders

67)

________ method(s) expense(s) variable marketing costs in the period incurred.
A)

Variable costing
B)

Absorption costing
C)

Throughput costing
D)

All of these answers are correct.

68)

________ method(s) include(s) fixed manufacturing overhead costs as inventoriable costs.
A)

Variable costing
B)

Absorption costing
C)

Throughput costing
D)

All of these answers are correct.

69)

________ method(s) expense(s) direct material costs as cost of goods sold.
A)

Variable costing
B)

Absorption costing
C)

Throughput costing
D)

All of these answers are correct.

70)

________ method(s) is required for tax reporting purposes.
A)

Variable costing
B)

Absorption costing
C)

Throughput costing
D)

All of these answers are correct.

71)

________ is a method of inventory costing in which only variable manufacturing costs are included as inventoriable costs.
A)

Fixed costing
B)

Variable costing
C)

Absorption costing
D)

Mixed costing

72)

Variable costing regards fixed manufacturing overhead as a(n):
A)

administrative cost
B)

inventoriable cost
C)

period cost
D)

product cost

73)

The only difference between variable and absorption costing is the expensing of:
A)

direct manufacturing costs
B)

variable marketing costs
C)

fixed manufacturing costs
D)

Both A and C are correct.

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Marie’s Decorating produces and sells a mantel clock for $100 per unit. In 20X5, 100,000 clocks were produced and 80,000 were sold. Other information for the year includes:

Direct materials $30.00 per unit
Direct manufacturing labor $ 2.00 per unit
Variable manufacturing costs $ 3.00 per unit
Sales commissions $ 5.00 per part
Fixed manufacturing costs $25.00 per unit
Administrative expenses, all fixed $15.00 per unit

74)

What is the inventoriable cost per unit using variable costing?
A)

$32
B)

$35
C)

$40
D)

$60

75)

What is the inventoriable cost per unit using absorption costing?
A)

$32
B)

$35
C)

$60
D)

$80

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Gabe’s Auto produces and sells an auto part for $30.00 per unit. In 20X5, 100,000 parts were produced and 75,000 units were sold. Other information for the year includes:

Direct materials $12.00 per unit
Direct manufacturing labor $ 2.25 per unit
Variable manufacturing costs $ 0.75 per unit
Sales commissions $ 3.00 per part
Fixed manufacturing costs $375,000 per year
Administrative expenses, all fixed $135,000 per year

76)

What is the inventoriable cost per unit using variable costing?
A)

$14.25
B)

$15.00
C)

$18.00
D)

$21.75

77)

What is the inventoriable cost per unit using absorption costing?
A)

$15.00
B)

$18.00
C)

$18.75
D)

$21.75

78)

Which of the following inventory costing methods shown below is required by GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) for external financial reporting?
A)

absorption costing
B)

variable costing
C)

throughput costing
D)

direct costing

79)

The contribution-margin format of the income statement:
A)

is used with absorption costing
B)

calculates gross margin
C)

distinguishes between manufacturing and nonmanufacturing costs
D)

is used with variable costing

80)

The gross-margin format of the income statement:
A)

is used with variable costing
B)

is used with absorption costing
C)

calculates contribution margin
D)

distinguishes variable costs from fixed costs

81)

The contribution-margin format of the income statement:
A)

is used with absorption costing
B)

highlights the lump sum of fixed manufacturing costs
C)

distinguishes manufacturing costs from nonmanufacturing costs
D)

calculates gross margin

82)

The gross-margin format of the income statement:
A)

distinguishes between manufacturing and nonmanufacturing costs
B)

distinguishes variable costs from fixed costs
C)

is used with variable costing
D)

calculates contribution margin

83)

________ are subtracted from sales to calculate contribution margin.
A)

Variable manufacturing costs
B)

Variable marketing costs
C)

Fixed manufacturing costs
D)

Both A and B are correct.

84)

________ are subtracted from sales to calculate gross margin.
A)

Variable manufacturing costs
B)

Variable marketing costs
C)

Fixed manufacturing costs
D)

Both A and C are correct.

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Peggy’s Pillows produces and sells a decorative pillow for $75.00 per unit. In the first month of operation, 2,000 units were produced and 1,750 units were sold. Actual fixed costs are the same as the amount budgeted for the month. Other information for the month includes:

Variable manufacturing costs $20.00 per unit
Variable marketing costs $ 3.00 per unit
Fixed manufacturing costs $ 7.00 per unit
Administrative expenses, all fixed $15.00 per unit
Ending inventories:
Direct materials -0-
WIP -0-
Finished goods 250 units

85)

What is cost of goods sold per unit using variable costing?
A)

$20
B)

$23
C)

$30
D)

$45

86)

What is cost of goods sold using variable costing?
A)

$35,000
B)

$40,000
C)

$47,250
D)

$54,000

87)

What is contribution margin using variable costing?
A)

$96,250
B)

$91,000
C)

$104,000
D)

$110,000

88)

What is operating income using variable costing?
A)

$52,500
B)

$78,750
C)

$65,750
D)

$47,000

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Andrea’s Hobbies produces and sells a luxury animal pillow for $40.00 per unit. In the first month of operation, 3,000 units were produced and 2,250 units were sold. Actual fixed costs are the same as the amount budgeted for the month. Other information for the month includes:

Variable manufacturing costs $19 per unit
Variable marketing costs $ 1 per unit
Fixed manufacturing costs $30,000 per month
Administrative expenses, all fixed $6,000 per month
Ending inventories:
Direct materials -0-
WIP -0-
Finished goods 750 units

89)

What is cost of goods sold per unit when using absorption costing?
A)

$19
B)

$20
C)

$29
D)

$32

90)

What is gross margin when using absorption costing?
A)

$45,000
B)

$54,750
C)

$77,250
D)

$24,750

91)

What is operating income when using absorption costing?
A)

$4,000
B)

$16,500
C)

($11,750)
D)

$18,750

92)

An unfavorable production-volume variance occurs when:
A)

production exceeds the denominator level
B)

the denominator level exceeds production
C)

production exceeds unit sales
D)

unit sales exceed production

93)

If the unit level of inventory increases during an accounting period, then:
A)

less operating income will be reported under absorption costing than variable costing
B)

more operating income will be reported under absorption costing than variable costing
C)

operating income will be the same under absorption costing and variable costing
D)

the exact effect on operating income cannot be determined

94)

The difference between operating incomes under variable costing and absorption costing centers on how to account for:
A)

direct materials costs
B)

fixed manufacturing costs
C)

variable manufacturing costs
D)

Both B and C are correct.

95)

One possible means of determining the difference between operating incomes for absorption costing and variable costing is by:
A)

subtracting sales of the previous period from sales of this period
B)

subtracting fixed manufacturing overhead in beginning inventory from fixed manufacturing overhead in ending inventory
C)

multiplying the number of units produced by the budgeted fixed manufacturing cost rate
D)

adding fixed manufacturing costs to the production-volume variance

96)

When comparing the operating incomes between absorption costing and variable costing, and beginning finished inventory exceeds ending finished inventory, it may be assumed that:
A)

sales increased during the period
B)

variable cost per unit is less than fixed cost per unit
C)

there is an unfavorable production-volume variance
D)

variable costing operating income exceeds absorption costing operating income

97)

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A)

Absorption costing allocates fixed manufacturing overhead to actual units produced during the period.
B)

Nonmanufacturing costs are expensed in the future under variable costing.
C)

Fixed manufacturing costs in ending inventory are expensed in the future under absorption costing.
D)

Operating income under absorption costing is higher than operating income under variable costing when production units exceed sales units.

98)

Helton Company has the following information for the current year:

Beginning fixed manufacturing overhead in inventory $95,000
Fixed manufacturing overhead in production 375,000
Ending fixed manufacturing overhead in inventory 25,000

Beginning variable manufacturing overhead in inventory $10,000
Variable manufacturing overhead in production 50,000
Ending variable manufacturing overhead in inventory 15,000

What is the difference between operating incomes under absorption costing and variable costing?
A)

$70,000
B)

$50,000
C)

$40,000
D)

$5,000

99)

The following information pertains to Brian Stone Corporation:

Beginning fixed manufacturing overhead in inventory $60,000
Ending fixed manufacturing overhead in inventory 45,000
Beginning variable manufacturing overhead in inventory $30,000
Ending variable manufacturing overhead in inventory 14,250

Fixed selling and administrative costs $724,000
Units produced 5,000 units
Units sold 4,800 units

What is the difference between operating incomes under absorption costing and variable costing?
A)

$750
B)

$7,500
C)

$15,000
D)

$30,750

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Heinrich Corporation incurred fixed manufacturing costs of $6,000 during 20X5. Other information for 20X5 includes:
The budgeted denominator level is 1,000 units.
Units produced total 750 units.
Units sold total 600 units.
Beginning inventory was zero.

The company uses absorption costing and the fixed manufacturing cost rate is based on the budgeted denominator level. Manufacturing variances are closed to cost of goods sold.

100)

Fixed manufacturing costs expensed on the income statement (excluding adjustments for variances) total:
A)

$3,600
B)

$4,800
C)

$6,000
D)

101)

Fixed manufacturing costs included in ending inventory total:
A)

$1,200
B)

$1,500
C)

$900
D)

102)

The production-volume variance is:
A)

$2,000
B)

$1,500
C)

$2,400
D)

0
103)

Operating income using absorption costing will be ________ than operating income if using variable costing.
A)

$2,400 higher
B)

$2,400 lower
C)

$900 higher
D)

$3,600 lower

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Veach Corporation incurred fixed manufacturing costs of $6,000 during 20X5. Other information for 20X5 includes:
The budgeted denominator level is 1,000 units.
Units produced total 750 units.
Units sold total 600 units.
Beginning inventory was zero.

The company uses VARIABLE COSTING and the fixed manufacturing cost rate is based on the budgeted denominator level. Manufacturing variances are closed to cost of goods sold.

104)

Fixed manufacturing costs expensed on the income statement (excluding adjustments for variances) total:
A)

$3,600
B)

$4,800
C)

$6,000
D)

0

105)

Fixed manufacturing costs included in ending inventory total:
A)

$1,200
B)

$1,500
C)

$900
D)

0

106)

The production-volume variance totals:
A)

$2,000
B)

$1,500
C)

$2,400
D)

0

107)

Operating income using variable costing will be ________ than operating income if using absorption costing.
A)

$2,400 higher
B)

$2,400 lower
C)

$3,600 higher
D)

$900 lower

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Morse Corporation incurred fixed manufacturing costs of $7,200 during 20X5. Other information for 20X5 includes:
The budgeted denominator level is 800 units.
Units produced total 1,000 units.
Units sold total 950 units.
Beginning inventory was zero.

The fixed manufacturing cost rate is based on the budgeted denominator level. Manufacturing variances are closed to cost of goods sold.

108)

Under absorption costing, fixed manufacturing costs expensed on the income statement (excluding adjustments for variances) total:
A)

$8,550
B)

$9,000
C)

$7,200
D)

0

109)

Under absorption costing, the production-volume variance is:
A)

$450
B)

$1,350
C)

$1,800
D)

0

110)

Under variable costing, the fixed manufacturing costs expensed on the income statement (excluding adjustments for variances) total:
A)

$8,550
B)

$7,200
C)

$9,000
D)

0

111)

Operating income using absorption costing will be ________ operating income if using variable costing.
A)

$450 higher than
B)

$900 higher than
C)

$1,350 lower than
D)

the same as

112)

At the end of the accounting period Susan Corporation reports operating income of $30,000 and the fixed overhead cost rate is $20 per unit. Under absorption costing, if this company now produces an additional 100 units of inventory, then operating income:
A)

will increase by $2,000
B)

will increase by $2,000 only if the additional 100 units of inventory are sold
C)

will not be affected
D)

is indeterminable

113)

At the end of the accounting period Bumsted Corporation reports operating income of $30,000 and the fixed overhead cost rate is $20 per unit. Under variable costing, if this company produces 100 more units of inventory, then operating income:
A)

will increase by $2,000
B)

will increase by $2,000 only if the 100 additional units of inventory are sold
C)

will not be affected
D)

is indeterminable

114)

Given a constant contribution margin per unit and constant fixed costs, the period-to-period change in operating income under variable costing is driven solely by:
A)

changes in the quantity of units actually sold
B)

changes in the quantity of units produced
C)

changes in ending inventory
D)

changes in sales price per unit

115)

Companies have recently been able to reduce inventory levels because:
A)

there is better sharing of information between suppliers and manufacturers
B)

just-in-time production strategies are being implemented
C)

production quotas are being implemented
D)

Both A and B are correct.

116)

Many companies have switched from absorption costing to variable costing for internal reporting:
A)

to comply with external reporting requirements
B)

to increase bonuses for managers
C)

to reduce the undesirable incentive to build up inventories
D)

so the denominator level is more accurate

117)

Ways to “produce for inventory” that result in increasing operating income include:
A)

switching production to products that absorb the least amounts of fixed manufacturing costs
B)

delaying items that absorb the greatest amount of fixed manufacturing costs
C)

deferring maintenance to accelerate production
D)

All of these answers are correct.

118)

Switching production to products that absorb the highest amount of fixed manufacturing costs is also called:
A)

cost reduction
B)

cherry picking
C)

producing for sales
D)

throughput costing

119)

To discourage producing for inventory, management can:
A)

evaluate nonfinancial measures such as units in ending inventory compared to units in sales
B)

evaluate performance over a three- to five-year period rather than a single year
C)

incorporate a carrying charge for inventory in the internal accounting system
D)

All of these answers are correct.

120)

Which method is NOT a way to discourage producing for inventory?
A)

incorporate a carrying charge for inventory
B)

focus on careful budgeting and inventory planning
C)

include nonfinancial measures when evaluating performance
D)

evaluate performance on a quarterly basis only

121)

Under absorption costing, if a manager’s bonus is tied to operating income, then increasing inventory levels compared to last year would result in:
A)

increasing the manager’s bonus
B)

decreasing the manager’s bonus
C)

not affecting the manager’s bonus
D)

being unable to determine the manager’s bonus using only the above information

122)

Under variable costing, if a manager’s bonus is tied to operating income, then increasing inventory levels compared to last year would result in:
A)

increasing the manager’s bonus
B)

decreasing the manager’s bonus
C)

not affecting the manager’s bonus
D)

being unable to determine the manager’s bonus using only the above information

123)

Critics of absorption costing suggest to evaluate management on their ability to:
A)

exceed production quotas
B)

increase operating income
C)

decrease inventory costs
D)

All of these answers are correct.

124)

Differences between absorption costing and variable costing are much smaller when a:
A)

large part of the manufacturing process is subcontracted out
B)

just-in-time inventory strategy is implemented
C)

significant portion of manufacturing costs are fixed
D)

Both A and B are correct.

125)

All of the following are examples of drawbacks of using absorption costing EXCEPT:
A)

management has the ability to manipulate operating income via production schedules
B)

manipulation of operating income may ultimately increase the company’s costs incurred over the long run
C)

operating income solely reflects income from the sale of units and excludes the effects of manipulating production schedules
D)

decreasing maintenance activities and increasing production result in increased operating income

126)

Which of the following inventory costing methods shown below is MOST likely to cause undesirable incentives for managers to build up finished goods inventory?
A)

absorption costing
B)

variable costing
C)

throughput costing
D)

direct costing

127)

Throughput costing is also called:
A)

absorption costing
B)

super-variable costing
C)

mixed costing
D)

direct costing

128)

Advocates of throughput costing argue that:
A)

only direct materials are truly variable
B)

direct manufacturing labor is relatively fixed
C)

variable manufacturing costs are a cost of the period
D)

All of these answers are correct.

129)

Variable and absorption costing may be combined with all costing systems EXCEPT:
A)

mixed costing
B)

actual costing
C)

normal costing
D)

standard costing

130)

Throughput contribution equals:
A)

variable costs minus fixed costs
B)

revenues minus all direct labor costs
C)

revenues minus all direct material cost of goods sold
D)

revenues minus manufacturing overhead

131)

If 600 units are produced and only 400 units are sold, ________ results in the greatest amount of expense reported on the income statement.
A)

throughput costing
B)

variable costing
C)

absorption costing
D)

period costing

132)

If 400 units are produced and 600 units are sold, ________ results in the greatest amount of operating income.
A)

throughput costing
B)

variable costing
C)

absorption costing
D)

period costing

133)

Advocates of throughput costing maintain that:
A)

both variable and fixed are necessary to produce goods; therefore, both types of costs should be inventoried
B)

all manufacturing costs plus some design costs should be inventoried
C)

fixed manufacturing costs are related to the capacity to produce rather than to the actual production of specific units
D)

Both A and C are correct.

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Reusser Company produces wood statues. Management has provided the following information:

Actual sales 80,000 statues
Budgeted production 100,000 statues
Selling price $20.00 per statue

Direct material costs $5.00 per statue
Variable manufacturing costs $1.50 per statue
Variable administrative costs $2.50 per statue
Fixed manufacturing overhead $2.00 per statue

134)

What is the cost per statue if throughput costing is used?
A)

$11.00
B)

$9.50
C)

$7.50
D)

$5.00

135)

What is the total throughput contribution?
A)

$1,500,000
B)

$2,000,000
C)

$720,000
D)

$1,200,000

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Stober Company produces a specialty item. Management has provided the following information:

Actual sales 60,000 units
Budgeted production 50,000 units
Selling price $40.00 per unit

Direct material costs $10.00 per unit
Variable manufacturing overhead $3.00 per unit
Variable administrative costs $5.00 per unit
Fixed manufacturing overhead $4.00 per unit

136)

What is the cost per statue if throughput costing is used?
A)

$22.00
B)

$19.00
C)

$15.00
D)

$10.00

137)

What is the total throughput contribution?
A)

$1,500,000
B)

$1,620,000
C)

$1,380,000
D)

$1,800,000

138)

Which of the following inventory costing methods results in the least amount of costs being inventoried?
A)

absorption costing
B)

variable costing
C)

throughput costing
D)

direct costing

139)

Which of the following inventory costing methods shown below is LEAST likely to cause undesirable incentives for managers to build up finished goods inventory?
A)

absorption costing
B)

variable costing
C)

throughput costing
D)

direct costing

140)

Practical capacity is the denominator-level concept that:
A)

reduces theoretical capacity for unavoidable operating interruptions
B)

is the maximum level of operations at maximum efficiency
C)

is based on the level of capacity utilization that satisfies average customer demand over periods generally longer than one year
D)

is based on anticipated levels of capacity utilization for the coming budget period

141)

________ reduces theoretical capacity for unavoidable operating interruptions.
A)

Practical capacity
B)

Theoretical capacity
C)

Master-budget capacity utilization
D)

Normal capacity utilization

142)

________ is based on the level of capacity utilization that satisfies average customer demand over periods generally longer than one year.
A)

Practical capacity
B)

Theoretical capacity
C)

Master-budget capacity utilization
D)

Normal capacity utilization

143)

________ is (are) based on the demand for the output of the plant.
A)

Practical capacity
B)

Master-budget capacity utilization
C)

Normal capacity utilization
D)

Both B and C are correct.

144)

________ is the level of capacity based on producing at full efficiency all the time.
A)

Practical capacity
B)

Theoretical capacity
C)

Normal capacity
D)

Demand capacity

145)

Theoretical capacity allows for:
A)

preventive machine maintenance
B)

interruptions due to uncontrollable power failures
C)

rework of the expected number of defective units
D)

None of these answers is correct.

146)

Theoretical capacity:
A)

is unattainable in the real world
B)

represents an ideal goal of capacity usage
C)

is based on engineering studies that provide information about the technical capabilities of machines used in production
D)

All of these answers are correct.

147)

The budgeted fixed manufacturing cost rate is the lowest for:
A)

practical capacity
B)

theoretical capacity
C)

master-budget capacity utilization
D)

normal capacity utilization

148)

________ provides the lowest estimate of denominator-level capacity.
A)

Practical capacity
B)

Theoretical capacity
C)

Master-budget capacity utilization
D)

Normal capacity utilization

149)

________ is the level of capacity utilization that satisfies average customer demand over a period that includes seasonal, cyclical, and trend factors.
A)

Normal capacity utilization
B)

Theoretical capacity
C)

Master-budget capacity utilization
D)

Practical capacity

Answer the following questions using the information below:

A manufacturing firm is able to produce 1,000 pairs of shoes per hour, at maximum efficiency. There are three eight-hour shifts each day. Due to unavoidable operating interruptions, production averages 800 units per hour. The plant actually operates only 27 days per month.

150)

What is the theoretical capacity for the month of April?
A)

1,000,000 units
B)

720,000 units
C)

518,400 units
D)

240,000 units

151)

What is the practical capacity for the month of April?
A)

1,000,000 units
B)

720,000 units
C)

518,400 units
D)

240,000 units

152)

Theoretical capacity:
A)

represents real capacity available to the company
B)

provides the best perspective of actual long-run costs
C)

when used for product costing results in the lowest cost estimate of the four capacity options
D)

replicates the cost of capacity in a competitor’s cost structure

153)

The use of theoretical capacity results in an unrealistically low fixed manufacturing cost per unit because it is based on:
A)

real available capacity
B)

an unattainable level of capacity
C)

normal capacity utilization
D)

normal costing

154)

Budgeted fixed manufacturing costs of a product using practical capacity:
A)

represents the cost per unit of supplying capacity
B)

can result in setting selling prices that are not competitive
C)

includes the cost of unused capacity
D)

should be used to evaluate a marketing manager’s performance in the current year

155)

Normal capacity utilization:
A)

represents real capacity available to the company
B)

can result in setting selling prices that are not competitive
C)

when used for product costing results in the lowest cost estimate of the four capacity options
D)

represents the maximum units of production intended for current capacity

156)

Master-budget capacity utilization:
A)

hides the amount of unused capacity
B)

represents the maximum units of production intended for current capacity
C)

provides the best cost estimate for benchmarking purposes
D)

when used for product costing results in the lowest cost estimate of the four capacity options

157)

From the perspective of long-run product costing it is best to use:
A)

master-budget capacity utilization to highlight unused capacity
B)

normal capacity utilization for benchmarking purposes
C)

practical capacity for pricing decisions
D)

theoretical capacity for performance evaluation

158)

Customers expect to pay a price that includes:
A)

the cost of unused capacity
B)

the cost of actual capacity used
C)

no capacity costs
D)

Both A and B are correct.

159)

The marketing manager’s performance evaluation is most fair when based on a denominator level using:
A)

practical capacity
B)

theoretical capacity
C)

master-budget capacity utilization
D)

normal capacity utilization

160)

________ is the continuing reduction in the demand for a company’s products that occurs when competitor prices are not met.
A)

Downward demand spiral
B)

Theoretical capacity
C)

Normal capacity
D)

Practical capacity

161)

Using master-budget capacity to set selling prices:
A)

avoids the recalculation of unit costs when expected demand levels change
B)

spreads fixed costs over available capacity
C)

can result in a downward demand spiral
D)

uses the perspective of long-run product pricing

162)

When large differences exist between practical capacity and master-budget capacity utilization, companies may:
A)

classify the difference as planned unused capacity
B)

use master-budget capacity utilization for setting selling prices
C)

use practical capacity for meaningful feedback to the marketing manager
D)

All of these answers are correct.

163)

The effect of spreading fixed manufacturing costs over a shrinking master-budget capacity utilization amount results in:
A)

greater utilization of capacity
B)

increased unit costs
C)

more competitive selling prices
D)

greater demand for the product

164)

The higher the denominator level, the:
A)

higher the budgeted fixed manufacturing cost rate
B)

lower the amount of fixed manufacturing costs allocated to each unit produced
C)

higher the favorable production-volume variance
D)

more likely actual output will exceed the denominator level

165)

Operating income reported on the end-of-period financial statements is changed when ________ is (are) used to handle the production-volume variance at the end of the accounting period.
A)

the adjusted allocation-rate approach
B)

the proration approach
C)

the write-off variances to cost of goods sold approach
D)

All of these answers are correct.

166)

Practical capacity may:
A)

increase over time due to improvements in plant layout
B)

decrease over time due to efficiencies offered by new technologies
C)

cannot be altered unless there is a major plant expansion
D)

Both A and B are correct.

167)

The Internal Revenue Service requires the use of ________ for calculating fixed manufacturing costs per unit.
A)

practical capacity
B)

theoretical capacity
C)

master-budget capacity utilization
D)

normal capacity utilization

168)

It is most difficult to estimate ________ because of the need to predict demand for the next few years.
A)

practical capacity
B)

theoretical capacity
C)

master-budget capacity utilization
D)

normal capacity utilization

169)

Managers face uncertainty when estimating:
A)

demand of the product
B)

the denominator level for practical capacity
C)

total fixed manufacturing costs for the next accounting period
D)

All of these answers are correct.

170)

Unused capacity:
A)

is a definite sign of wasted resources
B)

is intended for future use
C)

provides capacity for potential demand surges
D)

Both B and C are correct.

171)

Capacity costs:
A)

are difficult to estimate
B)

don’t provide a useful planning tool for nonmanufacturing firms
C)

cannot be used with activity-based costing
D)

All of these answers are correct.

172)

The breakeven point using absorption costing depends on all of the following factors, EXCEPT:
A)

the number of units sold during the current period
B)

the budgeted level of production
C)

the denominator level chosen for the fixed manufacturing overhead rate
D)

fulfillment of current production quotas

173)

There is not an output-level variance for variable costing, because:
A)

the inventory level decreased during the period
B)

the inventory level increased during the period
C)

fixed manufacturing overhead is allocated to work in process
D)

fixed manufacturing overhead is not allocated to work in process

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Ms. Andrea Chadwick, the company president, has heard that there are multiple breakeven points for every product. She does not believe this and has asked you to provide the evidence of such a possibility. Some information about the company for 20X5 is as follows:

Total fixed manufacturing overhead $180,000
Total other fixed expenses $200,000
Total variable manufacturing expenses $120,000
Total other variable expenses $120,000
Units produced 30,000 units
Budgeted production 30,000 units
Units sold 25,000 units
Selling price $40

174)

What are breakeven sales in units using variable costing?
A)

5,625 units
B)

5,769 units
C)

11,875 units
D)

12,180 units

175)

What are breakeven sales in units using absorption costing?
A)

5,625 units
B)

6,667 units
C)

7,692 units
D)

8,000 units

176)

What are breakeven sales in units using absorption costing if the production units are actually 25,000?
A)

5,625 units
B)

6,667 units
C)

7,667 units
D)

8,847 units

Answer the following questions using the information below:

The following information pertains to the Bean Company:

Selling price per unit $123
Standard fixed manufacturing costs per unit $60
Variable selling and administrative costs per unit $12
Standard variable manufacturing costs per unit $3
Fixed selling and administrative costs $48,000
Units produced 10,000 units
Units sold 9,600 units

177)

What is the variable costing breakeven point in units?
A)

833 units
B)

5,556 units
C)

5,838 units
D)

6,000 units

178)

What is the absorption costing breakeven point in units?
A)

917 units
B)

1,000 units
C)

5,838 units
D)

6,000 units

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Greene Manufacturing incurred the following expenses during 20X5:

Fixed manufacturing costs $45,000
Fixed nonmanufacturing costs $35,000
Unit selling price $100
Total unit cost $40
Variable manufacturing cost rate $20
Units produced 1,340 units

179)

What will be the breakeven point if variable costing is used?
A)

1,334 units
B)

1,125 units
C)

1,000 units
D)

563 units

180)

What will be the breakeven point in units if absorption costing is used?
A)

1,330 units
B)

1,000 units
C)

887 units
D)

563 units

181)

What is the breakeven point in units using absorption costing if the units produced are actually 2,250?
A)

1,330 units
B)

1,000 units
C)

887 units
D)

584 units

182)

The formula for computing the breakeven point in units under variable costing includes all of the following EXCEPT:
A)

total fixed costs
B)

contribution margin percentage
C)

target operating income
D)

contribution margin per unit

183)

Bosely Corporation is in the business of selling computers. The following expenses were incurred in March 20X8:

Fixed manufacturing costs $75,000
Fixed nonmanufacturing costs $35,000
Unit selling price $1,200
Variable manufacturing cost $700
Units produced 1,500

What will be the breakeven point if variable costing is used?
A)

150 units
B)

220 units
C)

157 units
D)

92 units

184)

For 20X5, Nichols, Inc., had sales of 75,000 units and production of 100,000 units. Other information for the year included:

Direct manufacturing labor $187,500
Variable manufacturing overhead 100,000
Direct materials 150,000
Variable selling expenses 100,000
Fixed administrative expenses 100,000
Fixed manufacturing overhead 200,000

There was no beginning inventory.

Required:

a. Compute the ending finished goods inventory under both absorption and variable costing.
b. Compute the cost of goods sold under both absorption and variable costing.

185)

Normandeau Corporation manufactures and sells laptop computers and uses standard costing. For the month of September there was no beginning inventory, there were 1,500 units produced and 1,250 units sold. The manufacturing variable cost per unit is $770 and the operating cost per unit was $625. The fixed manufacturing cost is $450,000 and the fixed operating cost is $75,000. The selling price per unit is $1,850.

Required:

Prepare the income statement for Normandeau Corporation for September under variable costing.

186)

Bruster Company sells its products for $66 each. The current production level is 25,000 units, although only 20,000 units are anticipated to be sold.

Unit manufacturing costs are:
Direct materials $12.00
Direct manufacturing labor $18.00
Variable manufacturing costs $9.00
Total fixed manufacturing costs $180,000
Marketing expenses $6.00 per unit, plus $60,000 per year

Required:
a. Prepare an income statement using absorption costing.
b. Prepare an income statement using variable costing.

187)

Ireland Corporation planned to be in operation for three years.

∙ During the first year, 20×1, it had no sales but incurred $120,000 in variable manufacturing expenses and $40,000 in fixed manufacturing expenses.
∙ In 20×2, it sold half of the finished goods inventory from 20×1 for $100,000 but it had no manufacturing costs.
∙ In 20×3, it sold the remainder of the inventory for $120,000, had no manufacturing expenses and went out of business.
∙ Marketing and administrative expenses were fixed and totaled $20,000 each year.

Required:

a. Prepare an income statement for each year using absorption costing.
b. Prepare an income statement for each year using variable costing.

188)

Jarvis Golf Company sells a special putter for $20 each. In March, it sold 28,000 putters while manufacturing 30,000. There was no beginning inventory on March 1. Production information for March was:

Direct manufacturing labor per unit 15 minutes
Fixed selling and administrative costs $ 40,000
Fixed manufacturing overhead 132,000
Direct materials cost per unit 2
Direct manufacturing labor per hour 24
Variable manufacturing overhead per unit 4
Variable selling expenses per unit 2

Required:

a. Compute the cost per unit under both absorption and variable costing.
b. Compute the ending inventories under both absorption and variable costing.
c. Compute operating income under both absorption and variable costing.

189)

Johnson Realty bought a 2,000-acre island for $10,000,000 and divided it into 200 equal size lots.
As the lots are sold, they are cleared at an average cost of $5,000.
Storm drains and driveways are installed at an average cost of $8,000 per site.
Sales commissions are 10% of selling price.
Administrative costs are $850,000 per year.
The average selling price was $160,000 per lot during 20X5 when 50 lots were sold.

During 20X6, the company bought another 2,000-acre island and developed it exactly the same way. Lot sales in 20X6 totaled 300 with an average selling price of $160,000. All costs were the same as in 20X5.

Required:

Prepare income statements for both years using both absorption and variable costing methods.

190)

Megredy Company prepared the following absorption-costing income statement for the year ended May 31, 20X5.

Sales (16,000 units) $320,000
Cost of goods sold 216,000
Gross margin $104,000
Selling and administrative expenses 46,000
Operating income $ 58,000

Additional information follows:

Selling and administrative expenses include $1.50 of variable cost per unit sold. There was no beginning inventory, and 17,500 units were produced. Variable manufacturing costs were $11 per unit. Actual fixed costs were equal to budgeted fixed costs.

Required:

Prepare a variable-costing income statement for the same period.

191)

The following data are available for Ruggles Company for the year ended September 30, 20X5.

Sales: 24,000 units at $50 each
Expected and actual production: 30,000 units
Manufacturing costs incurred:
Variable: $525,000
Fixed: $372,000
Nonmanufacturing costs incurred:
Variable: $144,800
Fixed: $77,400
Beginning inventories: none

Required:

a. Determine operating income using the variable-costing approach.
b. Determine operating income using the absorption-costing approach.
c. Explain why operating income is not the same under the two approaches.

192)

Bobby Smith and Sons Company was concerned that increased sales did not result in increased profits for 20X6. Both variable unit and total fixed manufacturing costs for 20X5 and 20X6 remained constant at $20 and $2,000,000, respectively.

In 20X5, the company produced 100,000 units and sold 80,000 units at a price of $50 per unit. There was no beginning inventory in 20X5. In 20X6, the company made 70,000 units and sold 90,000 units at a price of $50. Selling and administrative expenses were all fixed at $100,000 each year.

Required:

a. Prepare income statements for each year using absorption costing.
b. Prepare income statements for each year using variable costing.
c. Explain why the income was different each year using the two methods. Show computations.

193)

Ernsting Bottling Works manufactures glass bottles. January and February operations were identical in every way except for the planned production.

January had a production denominator of 35,000 units.
February had a production denominator of 36,000 units.
Fixed manufacturing costs totaled $126,000.

Sales for both months totaled 45,000 units with variable manufacturing costs of $4 per unit. Selling and administrative costs were $0.40 per unit variable and $60,000 fixed. The selling price was $10 per unit.

Required:

Compute the operating income for both months using absorption costing.

194)

Calvin Enterprises produces a specialty statue item. The following information has been provided by management:

Actual sales 150,000 units
Budgeted production 160,000 units
Selling price $34 per unit

Direct manufacturing costs $9 per unit
Fixed manufacturing costs $5 per unit
Variable manufacturing costs $4 per unit
Variable administrative costs $2 per unit

Required:

a. What is the cost per statue if absorption costing is used?
b. What is the cost per statue if “super-variable costing” is used?
c. What is the total throughput contribution?

195)

Match each of the following items with one or more of the denominator-level capacity concepts by putting the appropriate letter(s) by each item:
a. Theoretical capacity
b. Practical capacity
c. Normal capacity utilization
d. Master-budget capacity utilization

1. Reduces theoretical capacity by considering unavoidable operating interruptions
2. Producing at full efficiency all the time
3. Measures capacity levels in terms of demand
4. Level of capacity utilization that satisfies average customer demand over a period
5. Does not allow for plant maintenance
6. Engineering and human resource factors are important when estimating capacity
7. Level of capacity utilization that managers expect for the current budget period
8. Ideal goal of capacity utilization
9. Takes into account seasonal, cyclical, and trend factors
10. Measures capacity levels in terms of what a plant can supply

196)

Wallace’s Wrench Company manufactures socket wrenches.
∙ For next month, the vice president of production plans on producing 4,400 wrenches per day.
∙ The company can produce as many as 5,000 wrenches per day, but is more likely to produce 4,500 per day.
∙ The demand for wrenches for the next three years is expected to average 4,250 wrenches per day.
∙ Fixed manufacturing costs per month total $336,600.
∙ The company works 20 days a month.
∙ Fixed manufacturing overhead is charged on a per-wrench basis.

Required:

a. What is the theoretical fixed manufacturing overhead rate per wrench?
b. What is the practical fixed manufacturing overhead rate per wrench?
c. What is the normal fixed manufacturing overhead rate per wrench?
d. What is the master-budget fixed manufacturing overhead rate per wrench?

197)

Sutton Hot Dog Stand sells hot dogs for $1.35. Variable costs are $1.05 per unit with fixed production costs of $90,000 per month at a level of 400,000 units. Fixed administrative costs total $30,000. Sales average 400,000 units per month, with planned production of 400,000 hot dogs.

Required:

a. What are breakeven unit sales under variable costing?
b. What are breakeven unit sales under absorption costing if she sells everything she prepares?
c. What are breakeven unit sales under absorption costing if average sales are 498,000 and planned production is changed to 500,000?

198)

a. Explain the difference between the variable and absorption costing methods.
b. Which method(s) are required for external reporting? For internal reporting?

199)

Explain the difference between the gross margin format and the contribution margin format for the income statement. What information is highlighted with each?

200)

The manager of the manufacturing division of Iowa Windows does not understand why income went down when sales went up. Some of the information he has selected for evaluation include:
January February
Units produced 40,000 30,000
Units sold 30,000 40,000

Sales $600,000 $800,000
Beginning inventory 0 150,000
Cost of production 600,000 550,000
Ending inventory 150,000 0
Operating income 70,000 35,000

The division operated at normal capacity during January.
Variable manufacturing cost per unit was $5, and the fixed costs were $400,000.
Selling and administrative expenses were all fixed.

Required:
Explain the profit differences. How would variable costing income statements help the manager understand the division’s operating income?

201)

Galliart Company has two identical divisions, East and West. Their sales, production volume, and fixed manufacturing costs have been the same for the last five years. The amounts for each division were as follows:
20X1 20X2 20X3 20X4 20X5
Units produced 50,000 55,000 55,000 44,000 44,000
Units sold 45,000 45,000 50,000 50,000 50,000
Fixed manufacturing costs $55,000 $55,000 $55,000 $55,000 $55,000

East Division uses absorption costing and West Division uses variable costing.
Both use FIFO inventory methods.
Variable manufacturing costs are $5 per unit.
Selling and administrative expenses were identical for each division.
There were no inventories at the beginning of 20X1.

Which division reports the highest income each year? Explain.

202)

Kaiser Company just hired its fourth production manager in three years. All three previous managers had quit because they could not get the company above the break-even point, even though sales had increased somewhat each year. The company was operating at about 60 % of plant capacity. The flatware industry was growing, so increased sales were not out of the question.

I. R. Thinking took the job as manager of the production division with a very attractive salary package. After interviewing for the position, he proposed a salary and bonus package that would give him a very small salary but a large bonus if he took the operating income (using absorption costing) above the breakeven point during his very first year.

Required:

What do you think Mr. Thinking had in mind for increasing the company’s operating income?

203)

Explain three methods under absorption costing that managers can use to improve operating income.

204)

Briefly discuss two methods of reducing the undesirable incentives associated with the use of absorption costing to evaluate the performance of a plant manager.

205)

What is throughput costing? What advantages is it purported to have over variable and absorption costing?

206)

a. List the four different measures of capacity.
b. Which measure of capacity is best for setting prices? Why?
c. Which measure of capacity is best for evaluating the performance of the marketing manager for the current year? Why?

207)

Explain how using master-budget capacity utilization for setting prices can lead to a downward demand spiral.

208)

Should a company with high fixed costs and unused capacity raise selling prices to try to fully recoup its costs?

209)

How does the capacity level chosen to compute the budgeted fixed overhead cost rate affect the production-volume variance?

210)

Discuss the three methods to dispose of production volume variance.