ACC 350 Week 4 Quiz – Strayer

ACC/350 Week 4 Quiz – Strayer

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Chapter 3

Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis

1)

To perform cost-volume-profit analysis, a company must be able to separate costs into fixed and variable components.

2)

Cost-volume-profit analysis may be used for multi-product analysis when the proportion of different products remains constant.

3)

It is assumed in CVP analysis that the unit selling price, unit variable costs, and unit fixed costs are known and constant.

4)

In CVP analysis, the number of output units is the only revenue driver.

5)

Many companies find even the simplest CVP analysis helps with strategic and long-range planning.

6)

In CVP analysis, total costs can be separated into a fixed component that does not vary with output and a component that is variable with output level.

7)

In CVP analysis, variable costs include direct variable costs, but do not include indirect variable costs.

8)

In CVP analysis, an assumption is made that the total revenues are linear with respect to output units, but that total costs are non-linear with respect to output units.

9)

A revenue driver is defined as a variable that causes changes in prices.

10)

If the selling price per unit is $20 and the contribution margin percentage is 30%, then the variable cost per unit must be $6.

11)

Total revenues less total fixed costs equal the contribution margin.

12)

Gross margin is reported on the contribution income statement.

13)

If the selling price per unit of a product is $30, variable costs per unit are $20, and total fixed costs are $10,000 and a company sells 5,000 units, operating income would be $40,000.

14)

The selling price per unit is $30, variable cost per unit $20, and fixed cost per unit is $3. When this company operates above the breakeven point, the sale of one more unit will increase net income by $7.

15)

A company with sales of $100,000, variable costs of $70,000, and fixed costs of $50,000 will reach its breakeven point if sales are increased by $20,000.

16)

Breakeven point is not a good planning tool since the goal of business is to make a profit.

17)

Breakeven point is that quantity of output where total revenues equal total costs.

18)

In the graph method of CVP analysis, the breakeven point is the (X-axis) quantity of units sold for which the total revenues line crosses the total costs line.

19)

In the graph method of CVP analysis, the total revenue line can be calculated by determining the total revenue at only one real output level because the starting point of the line is always the intersection of the X and Y axes.

20)

A profit-volume graph shows the impact on operating income from changes in the output level.

21)

If the selling price per unit of a product is $50, variable costs per unit are $40, and total fixed costs are $50,000, a company must sell 6,000 units to make a target operating income of $10,000.

22)

An increase in the tax rate will increase the breakeven point.

23)

When making net income evaluations, CVP calculations for target income must be stated in terms of target operating income instead of target net income.

24)

If operating income is $70,000 and the income tax rate is 30%, then net income will be $49,000.

25)

If planned net income is $21,000 and the tax rate is 30%, then planned operating income would be $27,300.

26)

Sensitivity analysis is a “what-if” technique that managers use to examine how a result will change if the originally predicted data are not achieved or if an underlying assumption changes.

27)

Margin of safety measures the difference between budgeted revenues and breakeven revenues.

28)

If a company’s breakeven revenue is $100 and its budgeted revenue is $125, then its margin of safety percentage is 25%.

29)

Sensitivity analysis helps to evaluate the risk associated with decisions.

30)

If contribution margin decreases by $1 per unit, then operating profits will increase by $1 per unit.

31)

If variable costs per unit increase, then the breakeven point will decrease.

32)

A planned increase in advertising would be considered an increase in fixed costs in CVP analysis.

33)

A planned decrease in selling price would be expected to cause an increase in the quantity sold.

34)

Companies with a greater proportion of fixed costs have a greater risk of loss than companies with a greater proportion of variable costs.

35)

The degree of operating leverage at a specific level of sales helps the managers calculate the effect that potential changes in sales will have on operating income.

36)

If a company increases fixed costs, then the breakeven point will be lower.

37)

Companies that are substituting fixed costs for variable costs receive a greater per unit return above the breakeven point.

38)

A company with a high degree of operating leverage is at lesser risk during downturns in the economy.

39)

Whether the purchase cost of a machine is treated as fixed or variable depends heavily on the time horizon being considered.

40)

If a company has a degree of operating leverage of 2.0, that means a 20% increase in sales will result in a 40% increase in variable costs.

41)

When a company has at least some fixed costs, the degree of operating leverage is different at different levels of sales.

42)

Passenger-miles are a potential measure of output for the airline industry.

43)

Pounds of yeast used by a bake shop is a potential measure of output for the bakery industry.

44)

In multiproduct situations when sales mix shifts toward the product with the lowest contribution margin, the breakeven quantity will decrease.

45)

In multiproduct situations when sales mix shifts toward the product with the highest contribution margin, operating income will be higher.

46)

To calculate the breakeven point in a multi-product situation, one must assume that the sales mix of the various products remains constant.

47)

If a company’s sales mix is 2 units of product A for every 3 units of product B, and the company sells 1,000 units in total of both products, only 200 units of product A will be sold.

48)

Barbies Beer Emporium sells beer and ale in both pint and quart sizes. If Barbies sells twice as many pints as it sells quarts, and sells 1,200 items total, it will sell 400 quarts of ale.

49)

There is no unique breakeven point when there are multiple cost drivers.

50)

When there are multiple cost drivers the simple CVP formula of Q = (FC + OI)/CMU can still be used.

51)

Service sector companies will never report gross margin on an income statement.

52)

For merchandising firms, contribution margin will always be a lesser amount than gross margin.

53)

Contribution margin and gross margin are terms that can be used interchangeably.

54)

Gross Margin will always be greater than contribution margin.

55)

If Johnson’s Manufacturing presented a Financial Accounting Income Statement emphasizing gross margin showing operating income of $18,000, a Contribution Income Statement emphasizing contribution margin would show a different operating income.

56)

An expected value is the weighted average of the outcomes, with the probability of each outcome serving as the weight.

57)

Cost-volume-profit analysis is used PRIMARILY by management:
A)

as a planning tool
B)

for control purposes
C)

to prepare external financial statements
D)

to attain accurate financial results

58)

One of the first steps to take when using CVP analysis to help make decisions is:
A)

finding out where the total costs line intersects with the total revenues line on a graph.
B)

identifying which costs are variable and which costs are fixed.
C)

calculation of the degree of operating leverage for the company.
D)

estimating how many products will have to be sold to make a decent profit.

59)

Cost-volume-profit analysis assumes all of the following EXCEPT:
A)

all costs are variable or fixed
B)

units manufactured equal units sold
C)

total variable costs remain the same over the relevant range
D)

total fixed costs remain the same over the relevant range

60)

Which of the following items is NOT an assumption of CVP analysis?
A)

Total costs can be divided into a fixed component and a component that is variable with respect to the level of output.
B)

When graphed, total costs curve upward.
C)

The unit-selling price is known and constant.
D)

All revenues and costs can be added and compared without taking into account the time value of money.

61)

Which of the following items is NOT an assumption of CVP analysis?
A)

Costs may be separated into separate fixed and variable components.
B)

Total revenues and total costs are linear in relation to output units.
C)

Unit selling price, unit variable costs, and unit fixed costs are known and remain constant.
D)

Proportion of different products will remain constant when multiple products are sold.

62)

A revenue driver is defined as:
A)

any factor that affects costs and revenues
B)

any factor that affects revenues
C)

only factors that can influence a change in selling price
D)

only factors that can influence a change in demand

63)

Operating income calculations use:
A)

net income
B)

income tax expense
C)

cost of goods sold and operating costs
D)

nonoperating revenues and nonoperating expenses

64)

Which of the following statements about net income (NI) is TRUE?
A)

NI = operating income plus nonoperating revenue.
B)

NI = operating income plus operating costs.
C)

NI = operating income less income taxes.
D)

NI = operating income less cost of goods sold.

65)

Which of the following is true about the assumptions underlying basic CVP analysis?
A)

Only selling price is known and constant.
B)

Only selling price and variable cost per unit are known and constant.
C)

Only selling price, variable cost per unit, and total fixed costs are known and constant.
D)

Selling price, variable cost per unit, fixed cost per unit, and total fixed costs are known and constant.

66)

The contribution income statement:
A)

reports gross margin
B)

is allowed for external reporting to shareholders
C)

categorizes costs as either direct or indirect
D)

can be used to predict future profits at different levels of activity

67)

Contribution margin equals:
A)

revenues minus period costs
B)

revenues minus product costs
C)

revenues minus variable costs
D)

revenues minus fixed costs

68)

The selling price per unit less the variable cost per unit is the:
A)

fixed cost per unit
B)

gross margin
C)

margin of safety
D)

contribution margin per unit

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Kaiser’s Kraft Korner sells a single product. 7,000 units were sold resulting in $70,000 of sales revenue, $28,000 of variable costs, and $12,000 of fixed costs.

69)

Contribution margin per unit is:
A)

$4.00
B)

$4.29
C)

$6.00
D)

None of these answers are correct.

70)

Breakeven point in units is:
A)

2,000 units
B)

3,000 units
C)

5,000 units
D)

None of these answers are correct.

71)

The number of units that must be sold to achieve $60,000 of operating income is:
A)

10,000 units
B)

11,666 units
C)

12,000 units
D)

None of these answers are correct.

72)

If sales increase by $25,000, operating income will increase by:
A)

$10,000
B)

$15,000
C)

$22,200
D)

None of these answers are correct.

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Holly’s Ham, Inc. sells hams during the major holiday seasons. During the current year 11,000 hams were sold resulting in $220,000 of sales revenue, $55,000 of variable costs, and $24,000 of fixed costs.

73)

Contribution margin per ham is:
A)

$5.00
B)

$15.00
C)

$20.00
D)

None of these answers are correct.

74)

Breakeven point in units is:
A)

1,000 hams
B)

1,200 hams
C)

1,600 hams
D)

None of these answers are correct.

75)

The number of hams that must be sold to achieve $75,000 of operating income is:
A)

6,600 hams
B)

7,500 hams
C)

8,400 hams
D)

None of these answers are correct.

76)

If sales increase by $40,000, operating income will increase by:
A)

$10,000
B)

$20,000
C)

$30,000
D)

None of these answers are correct.

77)

Schuppener Company sells its only product for $18 per unit, variable production costs are $6 per unit, and selling and administrative costs are $3 per unit. Fixed costs for 10,000 units are $10,000. The contribution margin is:
A)

$12 per unit
B)

$9 per unit
C)

$11 per unit
D)

$8 per unit

78)

The contribution income statement highlights:
A)

gross margin
B)

products costs and period costs
C)

different product lines
D)

variable and fixed costs

79)

Fixed costs equal $12,000, unit contribution margin equals $20, and the number of units sold equal 1,600. Operating income is:
A)

$12,000
B)

$20,000
C)

$32,000
D)

$40,000

80)

If selling price per unit is $30, variable costs per unit are $20, total fixed costs are $10,000, the tax rate is 30%, and the company sells 5,000 units, net income is:
A)

$12,000
B)

$14,000
C)

$28,000
D)

$40,000

81)

At the breakeven point of 200 units, variable costs total $400 and fixed costs total $600. The 201st unit sold will contribute ________ to profits.
A)

$1
B)

$2
C)

$3
D)

$5

82)

The breakeven point is the activity level where:
A)

revenues equal fixed costs
B)

revenues equal variable costs
C)

contribution margin equals variable costs
D)

revenues equal the sum of variable and fixed costs

83)

Breakeven point is:
A)

total costs divided by variable costs per unit
B)

contribution margin per unit divided by revenue per unit
C)

fixed costs divided by contribution margin per unit
D)

the sum of fixed and variable costs divided by contribution margin per unit

84)

Sales total $200,000 when variable costs total $150,000 and fixed costs total $30,000. The breakeven point in sales dollars is:
A)

$200,000
B)

$120,000
C)

$ 40,000
D)

$ 30,000

85)

The breakeven point in CVP analysis is defined as:
A)

when fixed costs equal total revenues
B)

fixed costs divided by the contribution margin per unit
C)

revenues less variable costs equal operating income
D)

when the contribution margin percentage equals total revenues divided by variable costs

86)

Which of the following statements about determining the breakeven point is FALSE?
A)

Operating income is equal to zero.
B)

Contribution margin – fixed costs is equal to zero.
C)

Revenues equal fixed costs plus variable costs.
D)

Breakeven revenues equal fixed costs divided by the variable cost per unit.

87)

What is the breakeven point in units, assuming a product’s selling price is $100, fixed costs are $8,000, unit variable costs are $20, and operating income is $32,000?
A)

100 units
B)

300 units
C)

400 units
D)

500 units

88)

If unit outputs exceed the breakeven point:
A)

there is a loss
B)

total sales revenue exceeds total costs
C)

there is a profit
D)

Both total sales revenue exceeds total costs and there is a profit.

89)

How many units would have to be sold to yield a target operating income of $22,000, assuming variable costs are $15 per unit, total fixed costs are $2,000, and the unit selling price is $20?
A)

4,800 units
B)

4,400 units
C)

4,000 units
D)

3,600 units

90)

If the breakeven point is 100 units and each unit sells for $50, then:
A)

selling 125 units will result in a profit
B)

sales of $4,000 will result in a loss
C)

sales of $5,000 will result in zero profit
D)

All of these answers are correct.

91)

If breakeven point is 100 units, each unit sells for $30, and fixed costs are $1,000, then on a graph the:
A)

total revenue line and the total cost line will intersect at $3,000 of revenue
B)

total cost line will be zero at zero units sold
C)

revenue line will start at $1,000
D)

All of these answers are correct.

92)

When fixed costs are $100,000 and variable costs are 20% of the selling price, then breakeven sales are:
A)

$100,000
B)

$125,000
C)

$500,000
D)

indeterminable

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Ruben intends to sell his customers a special round-trip airline ticket package. He is able to purchase the package from the airline carrier for $150 each. The round-trip tickets will be sold for $200 each and the airline intends to reimburse Ruben for any unsold ticket packages. Fixed costs include $5,000 in advertising costs.

93)

What is the contribution margin per ticket package?
A)

$50
B)

$100
C)

$150
D)

$200

94)

How many ticket packages will Ruben need to sell to break even?
A)

34 packages
B)

50 packages
C)

100 packages
D)

150 packages

95)

How many ticket packages will Ruben need to sell in order to achieve $60,000 of operating income?
A)

367 packages
B)

434 packages
C)

1,100 packages
D)

1,300 packages

96)

For every $25,000 of ticket packages sold, operating income will increase by:
A)

$6,250
B)

$12,500
C)

$18,750
D)

an indeterminable amount

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Northenscold Company sells several products. Information of average revenue and costs is as follows:

Selling price per unit $20.00
Variable costs per unit:
Direct material $4.00
Direct manufacturing labor $1.60
Manufacturing overhead $0.40
Selling costs $2.00
Annual fixed costs $96,000

97)

The contribution margin per unit is:
A)

$6
B)

$8
C)

$12
D)

$14

98)

The number of units that Northenscold’s must sell each year to break even is:
A)

8,000 units
B)

12,000 units
C)

16,000 units
D)

indeterminable

99)

The number of units that Northenscold’s must sell annually to make a profit of $144,000 is:
A)

12,000 units
B)

18,000 units
C)

20,000 units
D)

30,000 units

100)

All of the following are assumed in the above analysis EXCEPT:
A)

a constant product mix
B)

fixed costs increase when activity increases
C)

cost and revenue relationships are reflected accurately
D)

all costs can be classified as either fixed or variable

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Franscioso Company sells several products. Information of average revenue and costs is as follows:

Selling price per unit $28.50
Variable costs per unit:
Direct material $5.25
Direct manufacturing labor $1.15
Manufacturing overhead $0.25
Selling costs $1.85
Annual fixed costs $110,000

101)

The contribution margin per unit is:
A)

$15
B)

$20
C)

$22
D)

$125

102)

The number of units that Franscioso must sell each year to break even is:
A)

1,000 units
B)

4,000 units
C)

5,500 units
D)

indeterminable

103)

The number of units that Franscioso must sell annually to make a profit of $90,000 is:
A)

10,000 units
B)

12,000 units
C)

15,000 units
D)

20,000 units

104)

All of the following are assumed in the above analysis EXCEPT:
A)

a constant product mix
B)

all costs can be classified as either fixed or variable
C)

cost and revenue relationships are reflected accurately
D)

per unit variable costs increase when activity increases

Answer the following questions using the information below:

The following information is for Nichols Company:

Selling price $150 per unit
Variable costs $90 per unit
Total fixed costs $300,000

105)

The number of units that Nichols Company must sell to reach targeted operating income of $90,000 is:
A)

5,000 units
B)

6,500 units
C)

3,334 units
D)

4,334 units

106)

If targeted operating income is $120,000, then targeted sales revenue is:
A)

$1,050,000
B)

$700,000
C)

$500,000
D)

$750,000

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Stephanie’s Bridal Shoppe sells wedding dresses. The average selling price of each dress is $1,000, variable costs are $400, and fixed costs are $90,000.

107)

What is the Bridal Shoppe’s operating income when 200 dresses are sold?
A)

$30,000
B)

$80,000
C)

$200,000
D)

$100,000

108)

How many dresses are sold when operating income is zero?
A)

225 dresses
B)

150 dresses
C)

100 dresses
D)

90 dresses

109)

How many dresses must the Bridal Shoppe sell to yield after-tax net income of $18,000, assuming the tax rate is 40%?
A)

200 dresses
B)

170 dresses
C)

150 dresses
D)

145 dresses

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Assume the following cost information for Fernandez Company:

Selling price $120 per unit
Variable costs $80 per unit
Total fixed costs $80,000
Tax rate 40%

110)

What minimum volume of sales dollars is required to earn an aftertax net income of $30,000?
A)

$465,000
B)

$330,000
C)

$390,000
D)

$165,000

111)

What is the number of units that must be sold to earn an after-tax net income of $42,000?
A)

3,750 units
B)

4,625 units
C)

3,050 units
D)

1,875 units

112)

In CVP analysis, focusing on target net income rather than operating income:
A)

will increase the breakeven point
B)

will decrease the breakeven point
C)

will not change the breakeven point
D)

does not allow calculation of breakeven point

113)

To determine the effect of income tax on a decision, managers should evaluate:
A)

target operating income
B)

contribution margin
C)

target net income
D)

selling price

114)

If the tax rate is t, it is possible to calculate planned operating income by:
A)

dividing net operating income by t
B)

dividing net operating income by 1- t
C)

multiplying net operating income by t
D)

multiplying net operating income by 1- t

115)

If Springfield Realtor plans an operating income of $105,000 and the tax rate is 30%, then Springfield’s planned net income should be:
A)

$31,500
B)

$73,500
C)

$136,500
D)

$178,500

116)

Assume only the specified parameters change in a cost-volume-profit analysis. If the contribution margin increases by $2 per unit, then operating profits will:
A)

also increase by $2 per unit
B)

increase by less than $2 per unit
C)

decrease by $2 per unit
D)

be indeterminable

117)

The Tessmer Company has fixed costs of $400,000 and variable costs are 75% of the selling price. To realize profits of $100,000 from sales of 500,000 units, the selling price per unit:
A)

must be $1.00
B)

must be $1.33
C)

must be $4.00
D)

is indeterminable

118)

The breakeven point decreases if:
A)

the variable cost per unit increases
B)

total fixed costs decrease
C)

the contribution margin per unit decreases
D)

the selling price per unit decreases

119)

(CPA adapted, November 1992) The strategy MOST likely to reduce the breakeven point would be to:
A)

increase both the fixed costs and the contribution margin
B)

decrease both the fixed costs and the contribution margin
C)

decrease the fixed costs and increase the contribution margin
D)

increase the fixed costs and decrease the contribution margin

120)

________ is the process of varying key estimates to identify those estimates that are the most critical to a decision.
A)

The graph method
B)

A sensitivity analysis
C)

The degree of operating leverage
D)

Sales mix

121)

Assume only the specified parameters change in a CVP analysis. The contribution margin percentage increases when:
A)

total fixed costs increase
B)

total fixed costs decrease
C)

variable costs per unit increase
D)

variable costs per unit decrease

122)

Which of the following will increase a company’s breakeven point?
A)

increasing variable cost per unit
B)

increasing contribution margin per unit
C)

reducing its total fixed costs
D)

increasing the selling price per unit

123)

Assume there is a reduction in the selling price and all other CVP parameters remain constant. This change will:
A)

increase contribution margin
B)

reduce fixed costs
C)

increase variable costs
D)

reduce operating income

124)

Assume there is an increase in advertising expenditures and all other CVP parameters remain constant. This change will:
A)

reduce operating income
B)

reduce contribution margin
C)

increase variable costs
D)

increase selling price

125)

The margin of safety is the difference between:
A)

budgeted expenses and breakeven expenses
B)

budgeted revenues and breakeven revenues
C)

actual operating income and budgeted operating income
D)

actual contribution margin and budgeted contribution margin

126)

Trailhound Company operates on a contribution margin of 30% and currently has fixed costs of $200,000. Next year, sales are projected to be $1,000,000. An advertising campaign is being evaluated that costs an additional $30,000. How much would sales have to increase to justify the additional expenditure?
A)

$60,000
B)

$90,000
C)

$100,000
D)

$300,000

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Dr. Charles Hunter, MD, performs a certain outpatient procedure for $1,000. His fixed costs are $20,000, while his variable costs are $500 per procedure. Dr. Hunter currently plans to perform 200 procedures this month.

127)

What is the budgeted revenue for the month assuming that Dr. Hunter plans to perform this procedure 200 times?
A)

$100,000
B)

$200,000
C)

$300,000
D)

$400,000

128)

What is the budgeted operating income for the month assuming that Dr. Hunter plans to perform the procedure 200 times?
A)

$200,000
B)

$100,000
C)

$80,000
D)

$40,000

129)

What is the breakeven point for the month assuming that Dr. Hunter plans to perform the procedure 200 times?
A)

40 times
B)

30 times
C)

20 times
D)

10 times

130)

What is the margin of safety assuming 100 procedures are budgeted?
A)

$40,000 or 40 times
B)

$50,000 or 50 times
C)

$60,000 or 60 times
D)

$100,000 or 100 times

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Nancy’s Niche sells a single product. 8,000 units were sold resulting in $80,000 of sales revenue, $20,000 of variable costs, and $10,000 of fixed costs.

131)

The contribution margin percentage is:
A)

12.5%
B)

25.0%
C)

37.5%
D)

75.0%

132)

The breakeven point in total sales dollars is:
A)

$40,000
B)

$13,334
C)

$100,000
D)

None of these answers are correct.

133)

To achieve $100,000 in operating income, sales must total:
A)

$440,000
B)

$160,000
C)

$130,000
D)

None of these answers are correct.

134)

If variable costs decrease by $1 per unit, the new breakeven point is:
A)

1,539 units.
B)

492 units.
C)

$11,765 in total sales dollars.
D)

None of these answers are correct.

135)

If a change is made in one parameter of CVP analysis, it is an example of:
A)

sensitivity analysis
B)

incremental budgeting
C)

operating leverage
D)

multiple cost drivers

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Martha Manufacturing produces a single product that sells for $80. Variable costs per unit equal $32. The company expects total fixed costs to be $72,000 for the next month at the projected sales level of 2,000 units. In an attempt to improve performance, management is considering a number of alternative actions. Each situation is to be evaluated separately.

136)

What is the current breakeven point in terms of number of units?
A)

1,500 units
B)

2,250 units
C)

3,333 units
D)

None of these answers are correct.

137)

Suppose management believes that a $16,000 increase in the monthly advertising expense will result in a considerable increase in sales. Sales must increase by how much to justify this additional expenditure?
A)

200 units
B)

334 units
C)

500 units
D)

None of these answers are correct.

138)

Suppose that management believes that a 10% reduction in the selling price will result in a 10% increase in sales. If this proposed reduction in selling price is implemented:
A)

operating income will decrease by $8,000
B)

operating income will increase by $8,000
C)

operating income will decrease by $16,000
D)

operating income will increase by $16,000

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Cheaney Manufacturing produces a single product that sells for $200. Variable costs per unit equal $50. The company expects total fixed costs to be $120,000 for the next month at the projected sales level of 2,000 units. In an attempt to improve performance, management is considering a number of alternative actions. Each situation is to be evaluated separately.

139)

What is the current breakeven point in terms of number of units?
A)

800 units
B)

900 units
C)

2,400 units
D)

None of these answers are correct.

140)

Suppose that management believes that a $24,000 increase in the monthly advertising expense will result in a considerable increase in sales. Sales must increase by how much to justify this additional expenditure?
A)

320 units
B)

480 units
C)

160 units
D)

None of these answers are correct.

141)

Suppose that management believes that a 20% reduction in the selling price will result in a 20% increase in sales. If this proposed reduction in selling price is implemented:
A)

operating income will decrease by $36,000
B)

operating income will increase by $36,000
C)

operating income will decrease by $80,000
D)

operating income will increase by $44,000

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Southwestern College is planning to hold a fundraising banquet at one of the local country clubs. It has two options for the banquet:

OPTION 1: Crestview Country Club
a. Fixed rental cost of $1,000
b. $12 per person for food

OPTION 2: Tallgrass Country Club
a. Fixed rental cost of $3,000
b. A caterer who charges $8.00 per person for food

Southwestern College has budgeted $1,800 for administrative and marketing expenses. It plans to hire a band which will cost another $800. Tickets are expected to be $30 per person. Local business supporters will donate any other items required for the event.

142)

Which option provides the least amount of risk?
A)

Option one
B)

Option two
C)

Both options provide the same amount of risk.
D)

Neither option has risks.

143)

Which option has the lowest breakeven point?
A)

Option one
B)

Option two
C)

Both options have the same breakeven point.
D)

The lowest breakeven point cannot be determined.

144)

Which option provides the greatest operating income if 600 people attend?
A)

Option one
B)

Option two
C)

Operating incomes are identical.
D)

Operating income is indeterminable.
145)

Which option provides the greatest degree of operating leverage if 600 people attend?
A)

Option one
B)

Option two
C)

Both options provide equal degrees of operating leverage.
D)

Operating leverage is indeterminable.

146)

Option 1: Fixed costs of $10,000 and a breakeven point of 500 units.
Option 2: Fixed costs of $20,000 and a breakeven point of 700 units.
Which option should you choose if you are expecting to produce 600 units?
A)

Option one
B)

Option two
C)

Both options are equally desirable.
D)

The best option is indeterminable.

147)

Mrs. Granberry is going to sell Christmas tree lights for $20 a box. The lights cost Marsha $5 a unit and any unsold lights can be returned for a full refund. She is planning to rent a booth at the upcoming Happy Holidays Convention, which offers three options:
1. paying a fixed fee of $1,500, or
2. paying a $500 fee plus 10% of revenues made at the convention, or
3. paying 25% of revenues made at the convention.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A)

Her decision will determine the risk she faces.
B)

Contribution margin will vary depending upon the option chosen.
C)

One of the options will allow Marsha to break even, even if she doesn’t sell any lights.
D)

Operating income will be the greatest for Option 3.

148)

In a company with low operating leverage:
A)

fixed costs are high and variable costs are low
B)

large changes in sales volume result in small changes in net income
C)

there is a higher possibility of net loss than a higher-leveraged firm
D)

less risk is assumed than in a highly leveraged firm

149)

If the contribution margin ratio is 0.30, targeted net income is $76,800, and targeted sales volume in dollars is $480,000, then total fixed costs are:
A)

$23,000
B)

$44,160
C)

$67,200
D)

$144,000

150)

If the contribution margin ratio is 0.40, targeted net income is $50,000, and fixed costs are $75,000, then sales volume in dollars is:
A)

$250,000
B)

$312,500
C)

$275,000
D)

$350,000

151)

If the contribution margin ratio is 0.25, targeted net income is $25,000, and targeted sales volume in dollars is $200,000, then total fixed costs are:
A)

$50.000
B)

$100,000
C)

$75,000
D)

$25,000

152)

Fixed costs:
A)

are considered variable costs over the long run
B)

provide less operating leverage
C)

reduce the risk of loss
D)

are graphed as a steeply sloped line

153)

When a greater proportion of costs are fixed costs, then:
A)

a small increase in sales results in a small decrease in operating income
B)

when demand is low the risk of loss is high
C)

when demand is high the breakeven point is increased
D)

a decrease in sales reduces the cost per unit

Answer the following questions using the information below:

The following information is for Barnett Corporation:

Product X: Revenue $10.00
Variable Cost $2.50

Product Y: Revenue $15.00
Variable Cost $5.00

Total fixed costs $50,000

154)

What is the breakeven point assuming the sales mix consists of two units of Product X and one unit of Product Y?
A)

1,000 units of Y and 2,000 units of X
B)

1012.5 units of Y and 2,025 units of X
C)

2012.5 units of Y and 4,025 units of X
D)

2,000 units of Y and 4,000 units of X

155)

What is the operating income, assuming actual sales total 150,000 units, and the sales mix is two units of Product X and one unit of Product Y?
A)

$1,200,000
B)

$1,250,000
C)

$1,750,000
D)

None of these answers are correct.

156)

If the sales mix shifts to one unit of Product X and two units of Product Y, then the weighted-average contribution margin will:
A)

increase per unit
B)

stay the same
C)

decrease per unit
D)

be indeterminable

157)

If the sales mix shifts to one unit of Product X and two units of Product Y, then the breakeven point will:
A)

increase
B)

stay the same
C)

decrease
D)

be indeterminable

Answer the following questions using the information below:

The following information is for the Jeffries Corporation:

Product A: Revenue $16.00
Variable Cost $12.00

Product B: Revenue $24.00
Variable Cost $16.00

Total fixed costs $75,000

158)

What is the breakeven point, assuming the sales mix consists of three units of Product A and one unit of Product B?
A)

10,000 units of A and 5,000 units of B
B)

11,250 units of A and 3,750 units of B
C)

12,000 units of A and 4,000 units of B
D)

4,000 units of A and 12,000 units of B

159)

What is the operating income, assuming actual sales total 25,000 units, and the sales mix is three units of Product A and one unit of Product B?
A)

$50,000
B)

$60,000
C)

$75,000
D)

None of these answers are correct.

160)

If the sales mix shifts to four units of Product A and one unit of Product B, then the weighted-average contribution margin will:
A)

increase per unit
B)

stay the same
C)

decrease per unit
D)

be indeterminable

161)

If the sales mix shifts to four units of Product A and one unit of Product B, then the breakeven point will:
A)

increase
B)

stay the same
C)

decrease
D)

be indeterminable

162)

Assuming a constant mix of 3 units of Small for every 1 unit of Large.
Small Large Total
Sales $20 $30
VC 14 18
Total fixed costs $48,000

The breakeven point in units would be:
A)

4,800 units of Small and 1,600 units of Large
B)

1,200 units of Small and 400 units of Large
C)

1,600 units of Small and 4,800 units of Large
D)

400 units of Small and 1,200 units of Large

163)

In multiproduct situations, when sales mix shifts toward the product with the highest contribution margin then:
A)

total revenues will decrease
B)

breakeven quantity will increase
C)

total contribution margin will decrease
D)

operating income will increase

164)

If a company has a degree of operating leverage of 2.0 and sales increase by 25%, then:
A)

total variable costs will increase by 50%
B)

total variable costs will not change
C)

profit will increase by 20%
D)

profit will increase by 50%

165)

If a company would like to increase its degree of operating leverage it should:
A)

increase its inventories relative to its receivables
B)

increase its receivables relative to its inventories
C)

increase its variable costs relative to its fixed costs
D)

increase its fixed costs relative to its variable costs

166)

Multiple cost drivers:
A)

have only one revenue driver
B)

can utilize the simple CVP formula
C)

have no unique breakeven point
D)

are the result of multiple products

167)

A nonprofit organization aids the unemployed by supplementing their incomes by $3,200 annually, while they seek new employment skills. The organization has fixed costs of $240,000 and the budgeted appropriation for the year totals $800,000. How many individuals can receive financial assistance this year?
A)

175 people
B)

130 people
C)

100 people
D)

75 people

168)

Helping Hands is a nonprofit organization that supplies electric fans during the summer for individuals in need. Fixed costs are $200,000. The fans cost $20.00 each. The organization has a budgeted appropriation of $480,000. How many people can receive a fan during the summer?
A)

12,000 people
B)

14,000 people
C)

24,000 people
D)

34,000 people

169)

Mount Carmel Company sells only two products, Product A and Product B.

Product A Product B Total
Selling price $40 $50
Variable cost per unit $24 $40
Total fixed costs $840,000

Mount Carmel sells two units of Product A for each unit it sells of Product B. Mount Carmel faces a tax rate of 30%. Mount Carmel desires a net after-tax income of $73,500. The breakeven point in units would be:
A)

21,750 units of Product A and 43,500 units of Product B
B)

22,500 units of Product A and 45,000 units of product B
C)

43,500 units of Product A and 21,750 units of Product B
D)

45,000 units of Product A and 22,500 units of Product B

170)

Gross margin is:
A)

sales revenue less variable costs
B)

sales revenue less cost of goods sold
C)

contribution margin less fixed costs
D)

contribution margin less variable costs

171)

In the merchandising sector:
A)

only variable costs are subtracted to determine gross margin
B)

fixed overhead costs are subtracted to determine gross margin
C)

fixed overhead costs are subtracted to determine contribution margin
D)

all operating costs are subtracted to determine contribution margin

172)

In the manufacturing sector:
A)

only variable costs are subtracted to determine gross margin
B)

fixed overhead costs are subtracted to determine gross margin
C)

fixed overhead costs are subtracted to determine contribution margin
D)

all operating costs are subtracted to determine contribution margin

173)

To determine contribution margin use:
A)

only variable manufacturing costs
B)

only fixed manufacturing costs
C)

both variable and fixed manufacturing costs
D)

both variable manufacturing costs and variable nonmanufacturing costs

174)

“Uncertainty” may be defined as:
A)

the possibility that an actual amount will be the same as an expected amount
B)

the possibility that an actual amount will be either higher or lower than the expected amount
C)

the possibility that a budgeted amount will be higher than the estimated amount
D)

the possibility that the budgeted amount will be lower than the estimated amount

175)

Events, as distinguished from actions, would include:
A)

personnel policy options
B)

decisions on time schedules
C)

decisions on direct material vendors
D)

a financial recession

176)

Expected monetary value may be defined as:
A)

the probability that each outcome will occur
B)

the probability that each outcome will not occur
C)

the weighted average of the outcomes with the probability of each outcome serving as the weight
D)

the average of all possible outcomes

177)

What would be the expected monetary value for the following data using the probability method?
Probability Cash Inflows
0.20 $100,000
0.30 $80,000
0.15 $60,000
0.35 $0

A)

$20,000
B)

$94,000
C)

$53,000
D)

$30,000

178)

Lobster Liquidators will make $500,000 if the fishing season weather is good, $200,000 if the weather is fair, and would actually lose $50,000 if the weather is poor during the season. If the weather service gives a 40% probability of good weather, a 25% probability of fair weather, and a 35% probability of poor weather, what is the expected monetary value for Lobster Liquidators?
A)

$500,000
B)

$232,500
C)

$267,500
D)

$200,000

Answer the following questions using the information below:

Patrick Ross has three booth rental options at the county fair where he plans to sell his new product. The booth rental options are:

Option 1: $1,000 fixed fee, or
Option 2: $750 fixed fee + 5% of all revenues generated at the fair, or
Option 3: 20% of all revenues generated at the fair.

The product sells for $37.50 per unit. He is able to purchase the units for $12.50 each.

179)

How many actions and events will a decision table contain?
A)

1 action and 3 events
B)

1 action and 6 events
C)

2 actions and 3 events
D)

3 actions and 6 events

180)

Which option should Patrick choose to maximize income assuming there is a 40% probability that 70 units will be sold and a 60% probability that 40 units will be sold?
A)

Option one
B)

Option two
C)

Option three
D)

All options maximize income equally.

181)

Gilley, Inc., sells a single product. The company’s most recent income statement is given below.

Sales (4,000 units) $120,000
Less variable expenses (68,000)
Contribution margin 52,000
Less fixed expenses (40,000)
Net income $ 12,000

Required:

a. Contribution margin per unit is $ ________ per unit

b. If sales are doubled to $240,000,
total variable costs will equal $ ________

c. If sales are doubled to $240,000,
total fixed costs will equal $ ________

d. If 10 more units are sold, profits will increase by $ ________

e. Compute how many units must be sold to break even. # ________

f. Compute how many units must be sold
to achieve profits of $20,000. # ________

182)

Blankinship, Inc., sells a single product. The company’s most recent income statement is given below.

Sales $200,000
Less variable expenses (120,000)
Contribution margin 80,000
Less fixed expenses (50,000)
Net income $ 30,000

Required:

a. Contribution margin ratio is ________ %

b. Breakeven point in total sales dollars is $ ________

c. To achieve $40,000 in net income, sales must total $ ________

d. If sales increase by $50,000, net income will increase by $ ________

183)

In 2004, Grant Company has sales of $800,000, variable costs of $200,000, and fixed costs of $300,000. In 2005, the company expects annual property taxes to decrease by $15,000.

Required:
a. Calculate operating income and the breakeven point for 2004.
b. Calculate the breakeven point for 2005.

184)

Berhannan’s Cellular sells phones for $100. The unit variable cost per phone is $50 plus a selling commission of 10%. Fixed manufacturing costs total $1,250 per month, while fixed selling and administrative costs total $2,5000.

Required:
a. What is the contribution margin per phone?
b. What is the breakeven point in phones?
c. How many phones must be sold to earn pretax income of $7,500?

185)

The Holiday Card Company, a producer of specialty cards, has asked you to complete several calculations based upon the following information:

Income tax rate 30%
Selling price per unit $6.60
Variable cost per unit $5.28
Total fixed costs $46,200.00

Required:

a. What is the breakeven point in cards?
b. What sales volume is needed to earn an after-tax net income of $13,028.40?
c. How many cards must be sold to earn an after-tax net income of $18,480?

186)

Royer Corporation gathered the following information:

Variable costs $945,000
Income tax rate 40%
Contribution-margin ratio 30%

Required:

a. Compute total fixed costs assuming a breakeven volume in dollars of $1,350,000.
b. Compute sales volume in dollars to produce an after-tax net income of $108,000.

187)

Alex Miller, Inc., sells car batteries to service stations for an average of $30 each. The variable cost of each battery is $20 and monthly fixed manufacturing costs total $10,000. Other monthly fixed costs of the company total $8,000.

Required:

a. What is the breakeven point in batteries?
b. What is the margin of safety, assuming sales total $60,000?
c. What is the breakeven level in batteries, assuming variable costs increase by 20%?
d. What is the breakeven level in batteries, assuming the selling price goes up by 10%, fixed manufacturing costs decline by 10%, and other fixed costs decline by $100?

188)

Furniture, Inc., sells lamps for $30. The unit variable cost per lamp is $22. Fixed costs total $9,600.

Required:

a. What is the contribution margin per lamp?
b. What is the breakeven point in lamps?
c. How many lamps must be sold to earn a pretax income of $8,000?
d. What is the margin of safety, assuming 1,500 lamps are sold?

189)

Tom’s Tire Tower, Inc., sells tires for $110. The unit variable cost per tire is $85. Fixed costs total $475,000.

Required:

a. What is the contribution margin per tire?
b. What is the breakeven point in tires?
c. How many tires must be sold to earn a pretax income of $450,000?
d. What is the margin of safety, assuming 33,000 tires are sold?

190)

Query Company sells pillows for $25.00 each. The manufacturing cost, all variable, is $10 per pillow. The company is planning on renting an exhibition booth for both display and selling purposes at the annual crafts and art convention. The convention coordinator allows three options for each participating company. They are:
1. paying a fixed booth fee of $5,010, or
2. paying an $4,000 fee plus 10% of revenue made at the convention, or
3. paying 20% of revenue made at the convention.

Required:
a. Compute the breakeven sales in pillows of each option.
b. Which option should Query Company choose, assuming sales are expected to be 800 pillows?

191)

Karen Hefner, a florist, operates retail stores in several shopping malls. The average selling price of an arrangement is $30 and the average cost of each sale is $18. A new mall is opening where Karen wants to locate a store, but the location manager is not sure about the rent method to accept. The mall operator offers the following three options for its retail store rentals:
1. paying a fixed rent of $15,000 a month, or
2. paying a base rent of $9,000 plus 10% of revenue received, or
3. paying a base rent of $4,800 plus 20% of revenue received up to a maximum rent of $25,000.

Required:
a. For each option, compute the breakeven sales and the monthly rent paid at break-even.
b. Beginning at zero sales, show the sales levels at which each option is preferable up to 5,000 units.

192)

Yurus Manufacturing Company produces two products, X and Y. The following information is presented for both products:
X Y
Selling price per unit $36 $24
Variable cost per unit 28 12

Total fixed costs are $234,000.

Required:

a. Calculate the contribution margin for each product.
b. Calculate breakeven point in units of both X and Y if the sales mix is 3 units of X for every unit of Y.
c. Calculate breakeven volume in total dollars if the sales mix is 2 units of X for every 3 units of Y.

193)

Bob’s Textile Company sells shirts for men and boys. The average selling price and variable cost for each product are as follows:

Men’s Boys’
Selling Price $28.80 Selling Price $24.00
Variable Cost $20.40 Variable Cost $16.80

Fixed costs are $38,400.

Required:

a. What is the breakeven point in units for each type of shirt, assuming the sales mix is 2:1 in favor of men’s shirts?
b. What is the operating income, assuming the sales mix is 2:1 in favor of men’s shirts, and sales total 9,000 shirts?

194)

Mount Carmel Company sells only two products, Product A and Product B.

Product A Product B Total
Selling price $40 $50
Variable cost per unit $24 $40
Total fixed costs $840,000

Mount Carmel sells two units of Product A for each unit it sells of Product B. Mount Carmel faces a tax rate of 30%.

Required:

a. What is the breakeven point in units for each product assuming the sales mix is 2 units of Product A for each unit of Product B?
b. What is the breakeven point if Mount Carmel’s tax rate is reduced to 25%, assuming the sales mix is 2 units of Product A for each unit of Product B?
c. How many units of each product would be sold if Mount Carmel desired an after-tax net income of $73,500, facing a tax rate of 30%?

195)

Atlanta Radio Supply sells only two products, Product X and Product Y.

Product X Product Y Total
Selling price $25 $45
Variable cost per unit $20 $35
Total fixed costs $350,000

Atlanta Radio Supply sells three units of Product X for each two units it sells of Product Y. Atlanta Radio Supply has a tax rate of 25%.

Required:

a. What is the breakeven point in units for each product, assuming the sales mix is 3 units of Product X for each two units of Product Y?
b. How many units of each product would be sold if Atlanta Radio Supply desired an after-tax net income of $210,000, using its tax rate of 25%?

196)

Ballpark Concessions currently sells hot dogs. During a typical month, the stand reports a profit of $9,000 with sales of $50,000, fixed costs of $21,000, and variable costs of $0.64 per hot dog.

Next year, the company plans to start selling nachos for $3 per unit. Nachos will have a variable cost of $0.72 and new equipment and personnel to produce nachos will increase monthly fixed costs by $8,808. Initial sales of nachos should total 5,000 units. Most of the nacho sales are anticipated to come from current hot dog purchasers, therefore, monthly sales of hot dogs are expected to decline to $20,000.

After the first year of nacho sales, the company president believes that hot dog sales will increase to $33,750 a month and nacho sales will increase to 7,500 units a month.

Required:

a. Determine the monthly breakeven sales in dollars before adding nachos.
b. Determine the monthly breakeven sales during the first year of nachos sales, assuming a constant sales mix of 1 hotdog and 2 units of nachos.

197)

Stephanie’s Stuffed Animals reported the following:

Revenues $1,000
Variable manufacturing costs $ 200
Variable nonmanufacturing costs $ 230
Fixed manufacturing costs $ 150
Fixed nonmanufacturing costs $ 140

Required:
a. Compute contribution margin.
b. Compute gross margin.
c. Compute operating income.

198)

Arthur’s Plumbing reported the following:

Revenues $4,500
Variable manufacturing costs $ 900
Variable nonmanufacturing costs $ 810
Fixed manufacturing costs $ 630
Fixed nonmanufacturing costs $ 545

Required:
a. Compute contribution margin.
b. Compute contribution margin percentage.
c. Compute gross margin.
d. Compute gross margin percentage.
e. Compute operating income.

199)

Produce Company needs to know the pounds of apples to have on hand each day. Each pound of apples costs $0.50 and can be sold for $0.80. Unsold apples are worthless at the end of the day. The following demands were found after studying the last six months’ sales:

200 pounds of apples 30% of the time
300 pounds of apples 40% of the time
400 pounds of apples 30% of the time

Required:
Determine whether Produce Company should order 200, 300, or 400 pounds of apples.

200)

Explain when a manager would use cost-volume-profit analysis and sensitivity analysis.

201)

What is meant by the term breakeven point? Why should a manager be concerned about the breakeven point?

202)

Auto Tires has been in the tire business for four years. It rents a building but owns all of its equipment. All employees are paid a fixed salary except for the busy season (April-June), when temporary help is hired by the hour. Utilities and other operating charges remain fairly constant during each month except those in the busy season.

Selling prices per tire average $75 except during the busy season. Because a large number of customers buy tires prior to winter, discounts run above average during the busy season. A 15% discount is given when two tires are purchased at one time. During the busy months, selling prices per tire average $60.

The president of Auto Tires is somewhat displeased with the company’s management accounting system because the cost behavior patterns displayed by the monthly breakeven charts are inconsistent; the busy months’ charts are different from the other months of the year. The president is never sure if the company has a satisfactory margin of safety or if it is just above the breakeven point.

Required:
a. What is wrong with the accountant’s computations?
b. How can the information be presented in a better format for the president?

203)

Dolph and Evan started the DE Restaurant in 20X3. They rented a building, bought equipment, and hired two employees to work full time at a fixed monthly salary. Utilities and other operating charges remain fairly constant during each month.

During the past two years, the business has grown with average sales increasing 1% a month. This situation pleases both Dolph and Evan, but they do not understand how sales can grow by 1% a month while profits are increasing at an even faster pace. They are afraid that one day they will wake up to increasing sales but decreasing profits.

Required:
Explain why the profits have increased at a faster rate than sales. Use the terms variable costs and fixed costs in your response.

204)

What effect, and why, would a decrease in the tax rate have on a company’s breakeven point?

205)

Freddie’s company has mostly fixed costs and Valerie’s company has mostly variable costs. Which company has the greatest risk of a net loss? Explain why

206)

Suppose a company decided to automate a production line. Explain what effects this would have on a company’s cost structure using CVP terminology. Could these changes have any possible negative effect on the firm?

207)

Pennsylvania Valve Company makes three types of valves: Speedy Flow, Sure Flow, and Fine Flow. Each of the three products has a different contribution margin, and the proportions of the three products sold have remained steady over the years. How could Pennsylvania valve compute a breakeven point given this situation?

208)

Lauren had been a manager of a major hotel chain for 15 years. Due to a hotel owner’s illness, Lauren was offered the opportunity to purchase a hotel near a vacation area she had often visited. After obtaining a lawyer and an accountant to assist her, Lauren did an analysis of the business and evaluated several contingencies relating to various scenarios that might occur based on economic and weather season circumstances. Since the expected monetary value of the various scenarios was much higher than the price of the hotel, she decided to purchase the hotel. She resigned her position, obtained a loan, and purchased the hotel. The following year, there was a severe economic downturn and also a very bad weather season that reduced the number of guests and also caused a resulting mold situation in the hotel building that required expensive repair work. Lauren ran short of cash, became emotionally distraught, and eventually had to sell the hotel at a significant loss. Was it a bad decision for her to purchase the hotel instead of keeping her other managerial position? Explain.