BUS 309 Business Ethics Week 11 Quiz – Strayer
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Chapter 11—Job Discrimination
1. Which of the following is true based on documented evidence of discrimination?
a. African Americans have the third highest standard of living in the world.
b. Today, men are just as likely as women to be in so-called “pink collar” occupations.
c. There is little statistical evidence of job discrimination today.
d. Relatively few women and minorities have made it to the very top of their professions.
2. A historical view indicates which of the following is correct?
a. Statistical evidence is irrelevant to proving discrimination.
b. Women and blacks are sometimes victimized by stereotypes.
c. The idea that women may have difficulties fitting into a “male” work environment is outdated.
d. On average women earn between 1/3 and 1/2 of what men make for doing the very same work.
3. Which of these statements is true concerning court cases about discrimination?
a. Brown v. Board of Education upheld the principle of “separate but equal.”
b. The Bakke case outlawed affirmative action across the board.
c. In the 2004 Holtz case, the Supreme Court ruled that “race-conscious” admissions policies are unconstitutional.
d. In the recent University of Michigan cases (Gratz and Grutter), the Supreme Court upheld a moderate, flexible affirmative action program and rejected a rigid one.
4. Of these four arguments, which of the following is the most plausible argument FOR affirmative action?
a. It evens the score with young white men, who have had it good for too long.
b. It is necessary to break the cycle that keeps minorities and women locked into low-paying, low-prestige jobs.
c. It ignores the principle of equality.
d. It is a color-blind policy.
5. Of these four arguments, which of the following is the most plausible argument AGAINST affirmative action?
a. Compensatory justice forbids affirmative action.
b. Blacks and whites are already equal in socioeconomic terms.
c. Affirmative action violates the rights of white men to equal treatment.
d. Affirmative action is the same thing as fixed numerical quotas.
6. Advocates of “comparable worth”
a. say that all women do their job just as well as men.
b. base their doctrine on the free-market determination of wages.
c. believe it is necessary for getting rid of sexual harassment.
d. want women to be paid as much as men for jobs involving equivalent skill, effort, and responsibility.
7. Which of the following is an example of sexual harassment?
a. Unwelcome sexual offers a female employer gives to a male employee.
b. A female employee hugging a co-worker when he announces his engagement.
c. A manager enforcing a dress code for a work environment.
d. An employee pinning up comic strips in an office cubicle.
8. Sexual comments that one woman appreciates might distress another women. Who decides when such behavior is inappropriate?
a. The person to whom the comments are directed.
b. The person accused of harassment.
c. The hypothetical “reasonable person.”
d. The common law as modified by legislation.
9. The 1984 Supreme Court decision in Memphis Firefighters v. Stotts
a. treated sexual harassment as a form of discrimination.
b. upheld seniority over affirmative action.
c. upheld the legality of hiring quotas.
d. upheld the legality of mandatory drug testing.
10. In 1987, the Supreme Court affirmed, in the case of Johnson v. Transportation Agency, that
a. affirmative action is unconstitutional.
b. quotas based on considerations of race are unconstitutional.
c. considerations of sex are permissible as one factor in deciding whom to promote.
d. racially segregated schooling is unconstitutional.
11. Which of the following statements is accurate?
a. Men cannot be victims of sexual harassment.
b. The Supreme Court has established a hard and fast line between permissible and impermissible affirmative action plans.
c. The law treats sexual harassment as a form of sexual discrimination.
d. Differences in levels and types of education explain why, on the average, men earn more than women.
12. When investigators sent equally qualified young white and black men—all of them articulate and conventionally dressed—to apply for entry-level jobs in Chicago and Washington, D.C., the results clearly showed
a. sexual discrimination against young African-American men.
b. racial discrimination against young African-American men.
c. sexual discrimination against young white men.
d. racial discrimination against young white men.
13. What quality is more important in predicting who gets fired than job-performance ratings or even prior disciplinary history?
a. race b. sexual orientation c. age d. gender
14. Male managers frequently assume that women
a. will not place family demands above work considerations.
b. possess the necessary drive to succeed in business.
c. take negative feedback professionally rather than personally.
d. are too emotional to be good managers.
15. What do affirmative action programs involve?
a. Firms should prepare an oral equal-employment policy and an affirmative action commitment.
b. Firms should appoint an administrative assistant to direct and implement their program and to publicize their policy and affirmative action commitment.
c. Firms are expected to survey current
female and minority employment by department and job classification.
d. Whenever underrepresentation of females or minorities is evident, firms are to try a little harder.
16. Fill in the blank. Today most large corporations not only accept the necessity of affirmative action but also find that _______________ benefits when they make themselves more diverse?
a. the morale of the company c. the law department
b. the bottom line d. the managers
17. Many Americans oppose what issue because they fear it will lead to illegal quotas, preferential treatment of African Americans and women, and even reverse discrimination against white men?
a. affirmative action c. sexual harassment
b. sexual diversity d. age discrimination
18. Over the last two decades, how many sexual-harassment claims have emerged?
a. over 12,000 annually. c. over 25,000 annually.
b. over 15,000 annually. d. over 50,000 annually.
19. There are two legal types of sexual harassment:
a. male to female, female to male.
b. male to male, female to female.
c. boss to worker, worker to boss.
d. “quid pro quo’’ and “hostile work environment.’’
20. To answer the question of who determines what is objectionable or offensive in sexual harassment, the courts use what kind of hypothetical person?
a. reasonable person c. hysterical person
b. sensual person d. management person
21. One message that sexual harassment conveys is that managers view women as
a. assets. b. equals. c. high potentials. d. playthings.
22. What should a female employee do if she encounters sexual harassment?
a. She must decide if she likes the attention.
b. She should try to document it by keeping a record of what has occurred, who was involved, and when it happened.
c. Keep it to herself and never tell a soul.
d. Go on a talk show and tell her story.
23. According to Shaw and Barry, companies clearly have what kind of obligation to provide a work environment in which employees are free from sexual harassment?
a. legal b. moral c. environmental d. personal
24. Opponents of comparable worth insist which one of these ideas support their position?
a. Most women want a rigid schedule.
b. Most women want the most challenging job.
c. Most women have chosen the higher paying occupations.
d. Most women have freely chosen the lower paying occupations.
25. Affirmative action, comparable worth, and sexual harassment are connected to
a. job performance. b. job discrimination. c. job analysis. d. job description.
1. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.
2. Experts distinguish two types of sexual harassment. “Hostile work environment” is one of them.
3. The Supreme Court has ruled that sexual favoritism is a form of sexual harassment and is therefore illegal.
4. To discriminate in employment is to make an adverse decision against an employee or job applicant based solely on his or her membership in a certain class.
5. The Supreme Court, in its 1978 ruling in the case of Bakke v. Regents of the University of California, upheld the University’s right to reserve entrance places in its medical school for minorities.
6. The terms “affirmative action” and “reverse discrimination” are synonymous.
7. Kantians would repudiate sexual or racial job discrimination as disrespectful to our humanity.
8. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 allowed sexual and racial discrimination at work until overturned by the Supreme Court.
9. “Affirmative action” refers to programs taking the race and sex of employees and job candidates into account as part of an effort to correct imbalances in employment that exist as a result of past discrimination, either in the company itself or in the larger society.
10. The issue of comparable worth pits against each other two cherished American values: the ethic of nondiscrimination verses the free enterprise system.
11. The only true form of job discrimination is intentional and individual.
12. Catherine A. MacKinnon describes sexual harassment as sexual attention imposed on someone who is not in a position to refuse it.
13. An isolated or occasional remark or innuendo inevitably constitutes sexual harassment.
14. According to the Supreme Court, men cannot be the victims of sexual harassment.
15. The courts view sexual harassment as a kind of sexual discrimination.
16. The 1995 case Adarand Constructors v. Pena shows that, after years of disagreement, the Supreme Court is now unanimous on the issue of affirmative action.
17. Job discrimination involves prejudice, inaccurate stereotypes, or the assumption that a certain group is inferior and deserves unequal treatment.
18. Some companies view diversity in the workplace as a competitive advantage.
19. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 applies to all employers, both public and private, with twenty five or more employees.
20. Executive Order 10925 decreed that federal contractors should “make rigid quotas to ensure that applicants are employed without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.’’
21. Women entering male turf, or minority workers of either sex going into a predominantly white work environment, can find themselves uncomfortably being measured by a white male value system.
22. Statistics by themselves do not prove discrimination.
23. A survey shows that three out of four whites believe that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely than whites to prefer living on welfare, and a majority of whites also believe that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to be lazy, unpatriotic, and prone to violence.
24. Anti-discrimination laws do not address the present-day effects of past discrimination.
25. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (later amended by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972) prohibits all forms of discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.
1. Job discrimination occurs if three conditions are met. What are they?
2. Job discrimination can be individual or intentional. What are two other forms that job discrimination can take?
3. What is some of the statistical evidence of job discrimination?
4. What is some of the attitudinal evidence of job discrimination?
5. What did the Supreme Court decide in 1954 in the case of Brown v. Board of Education?
6. What does Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act say?
7. EEOC lists steps to affirmative action. Name two of them.
8. Explain the importance of the 1978 case, Bakke v. Regents of the University of California.
9. What is the Supreme Court’s current view of affirmative action (as evidenced by the Michigan cases Gratz and Grutter)?
10. Affirmative action should be distinguished from reverse discrimination. What is the difference?
11. What is the doctrine of comparable worth? On what grounds do opponents of comparable worth criticize it?
12. What evidence do we have that sexual harassment is harmful to people?
13. What is an example of strong evidence that racial or sexual discrimination exists?
14. What steps should a male or female employee take when encountering sexual harassment?
1. Explain in your own words the pros and cons of the against affirmative action that “affirmative action injures white men and violates their rights.”
2. Explain why sexual harassment is unethical considering two moral theories.
3. Explain why job discrimination is unethical considering two moral theories.
4. Is it unrealistic to imagine that there will be no sexual interaction between men and women in the workplace? Produce the reasoning on both sides of the argument.
5. Should the sexual orientation of gays and lesbians be protected against discrimination? Justify your answer.