BUS/309 Week 4 Quiz – Strayer
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Chapter 3—Justice and Economic Distribution
1. Talk of justice and injustice appeals to the related notions of
a. fairness, equality, desert c. feeling, sentiment, happiness
b. reason, reflection, deliberation d. fairness, impartiality, duty
2. Aristotle’s formal principle of justice states,
a. from each according to his or her ability, to each according to his or her need.
b. similar cases must be treated alike except where there is some relevant difference.
c. all people are to be treated the same in every situation.
d. from each according to his or her ability, to each according to his or her merit.
3. According to Mill’s utilitarianism,
a. rights are certain moral rules whose observance is of the utmost importance for the long-run, overall maximization of happiness.
b. there are no rights.
c. the rights possessed by human beings remain unchanged for all times and places.
d. rights are those rules that a majority of the society would agree to behind the “veil of ignorance.”
4. According to libertarianism,
a. there are no natural, Lockean rights.
b. we have a basic right to assistance from others.
c. it would be unjust to coerce people to give food or money to the starving.
d. happiness takes priority over other moral concerns.
5. According to John Rawls, people in “the original position” choose the principles of justice on the basis of
a. social utility.
b. their religion.
d. their intuitive knowledge of the natural rights of all human beings.
6. From John Stuart Mill’s viewpoint,
a. philosophical concern with justice began in the 19th century.
b. questions of morality form a subset of questions of justice.
c. for utilitarians, justice is a moral standard independent of the principle of utility.
d. not every issue of social utility was a matter of justice.
7. Mill justified utilitarianism from rival perspectives when he argued
a. that without utilitarianism to provide a determinate standard of justice, one is always left with a plethora of competing principles of justice, all of which seem to have plausibility but are mutually incompatible.
b. that social utility is irrelevant to issues of justice.
c. against worker participation.
d. that only utilitarianism itself, as a normative theory, can provide an answer to the question: What economic system will bring more good to society than any other system?
8. In Anarchy, State and Utopia, Robert Nozick advocates
a. Libertarianism. b. Kantianism. c. Utilitarianism. d. Egoism.
9. If libertarianism is true, which of these statements is true?
a. We should endorse utilitarianism’s concern for total social well-being.
b. Pleasure takes priority over any other moral concern.
c. We should have a “night-watchman” state.
d. If a person comes into possession of a holding through a legitimate transfer, then, morally speaking, she or he deserves that holding.
10. According to Locke,
a. individuals are morally entitled to take other people’s property.
b. property is a moral right.
c. individuals are not morally entitled to the products of their labor.
d. property acquisition is a duty.
11. According to John Rawls,
a. people in the original position choose the principles on the basis of self-interest.
b. in the original position, people must have full and complete knowledge.
c. justice forbids any social or economic inequalities.
d. liberty is of little or no importance compared to equality.
12. The veil of ignorance proposes that
a. those in the original position are supposed to choose principles on the basis of self-interest, agreement seems unlikely.
b. one group would be supportive of another group benefiting even though the rules are different.
c. people are fully knowledgeable about themselves or situation allowing them to have a partial or biased point of view.
d. agreement is difficult to attain.
13. The veil of ignorance assures us that people in the original position will be
a. difficult to come to agreement. c. biased.
b. impartial. d. forgiving.
14. Primary social goods include
a. poverty. c. status.
b. freedom of religion. d. leisure time activities.
15. John Rawls’ Theory of Justice lays within which type of tradition?
a. All for one and one for all. c. Feudal society.
b. Principled living. d. Social contract.
16. The difference principle of Rawls states
a. we are all created equal.
b. inequalities are only justified if they benefit the least advantaged.
c. we all deserve the same.
d. some do deserve more than others.
17. In association with labor and capital, Mill had contrasting views of
a. freedom of speech. c. welfare.
b. farmers’ markets profit. d. profit sharing.
18. Who is more likely to be sympathetic with the idea of reducing the disparities of income in society?
a. Utilitarians b. Libertarians c. Robert Nozick d. Milton Friedman
19. The first principle of Nozick’s entitlement theory concerns the original acquisition of
a. morals. c. case law.
b. goods, money, and property. d. the crown.
20. In Nozick’s example of Wilt Chamberlain, he argues that other theories of economic justice inevitably fail to respect people’s
a. liberty. b. power of choice. c. skills. d. height.
21. To the libertarians, their concept of liberty includes a commitment to
a. hedonism. b. charity. c. private property. d. happiness.
22. Rawls rejects utilitarianism because
a. he saw it as a threat.
b. it might permit an unfair distribution of burdens and benefits.
c. governments wanted it.
d. it values moral purity.
23. Eminent domain is the ancient right of government to take what from an individual?
a. food b. clothing c. liberties d. property
24. The Supreme Court gave decision making power for Eminent domain to the
a. feds. c. townships.
b. states and local communities d. parents.
25. What philosopher believes the maximin rule is relevant to justice?
a. John Rawls b. John Stuart Mill c. Robert Nozick d. Aristotle
1. According to Robert Nozick, the basic moral rights possessed by all human beings are both negative and natural.
2. Libertarians reject inheritance as a legitimate means of acquiring wealth.
3. Utilitarians are likely to be sympathetic to the argument that steps should be taken to reduce the great disparities of income that characterize our society.
4. The phrase “the declining marginal utility of money” means that successive additions to one’s income produce, on average, less happiness or welfare than did earlier additions.
5. Robert Nozick uses the Wilt Chamberlain story to show the importance of economic re-distribution.
6. Rawls’s theory of distributive justice is a form of utilitarianism.
7. According to Robert Nozick, property rights exist prior to any social arrangements and are morally antecedent to any legislative decisions that a society might make.
8. The United States leads the world in executive pay.
9. According to John Rawls, people in the original position do not know what social position or status they hold in society.
10. According to the “maximin” rule, you should select the alternative under which the worst that could happen to you is better than the worst that could happen to you under any other alternative.
11. Thanks to changes in the tax system, in recent years income in the United States has become more equal.
12. The distribution of income in Germany and Japan is far more unequal than that in the United States.
13. Many philosophers believe (as Aristotle did) that we are required, as a formal principle of justice, to treat similar cases alike except where there is some relevant difference.
14. Justice is frequently held to require that our treatment of people reflect their fundamental moral equality.
15. Distributive justice concerns the morally proper distribution of social benefits and burdens.
16. For utilitarians, justice is an independent moral standard distinct from their general principle.
17. According to Case 3.2, “Battling Over Bottled Water”, water is the lifeblood of the earth.
18. According to Mill, to say that I have a right to something is to say that I have a valid claim on society to protect me in the possession of that thing, either by force of law or through education and opinion.
19. In his Principles of Political Economy, J.S. Mill argued for the desirability of breaking down the sharp and hostile division between the producers or workers, on the one hand, and the capitalists or owners, on the other hand.
20. According to libertarianism, liberty is the prime value, and justice consists in being free from the interference of others.
21. Libertarianism involves a commitment to leaving market relations – buying, selling, and other exchanges – totally unrestricted.
22. Libertarians would find it immoral and unjust to coerce people to give food or money to the starving.
23. John Rawls’s second principle of justice states that insofar as inequalities are permitted — that is, insofar as it is compatible with justice for some jobs or positions to bring greater rewards than others — these positions must be open to all.
1. Talk of justice and injustice typically focuses on four related moral ideas. Explain what two of them are.
2. According to John Stuart Mill, what does it mean to say that a person has a right to something?
3. What do economists mean by “the declining marginal utility of money” and how does Brandt use the concept to argue for greater economic equality?
4. Briefly explain the basic principles of Nozick’s entitlement theory.
5. According to Smith, if the market is left without regulation, will it eventually reward those that deserve it?
6. What does Rawls mean by the original position and the veil of ignorance?
7. What is the “maximin” rule for making decisions and what role does it play in Rawls’s argument?
8. Define “Lockean rights” in your own words.
9. Explain the relationship between justice and fairness.
1. Compare and contrast how Mill and Nozick would explain why stealing is wrong.
2. Would Nozick’s theory of justice find the poverty in America to be just or unjust?
3. Is Bill Gates’s accumulation of wealth just or unjust, according to John Stuart Mill’s theory of justice?
4. How would Rawls view an inheritance from a family member?
5. Can wealth legitimately be spread equally among the people of a nation according to any theory of justice we have discussed?