BUS 335 Week 5 Quiz 4 Chapter 5 and 6 – Strayer

BUS 335 Staffing Organizations Week 5 Quiz – Strayer (All Possible Questions With Answers)

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Chapter 5
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Most organizational recruiting is done in-house. 
True False

2. Organizations with low turnover rates will probably prefer to use internal recruitment agencies. 
True False

3. Some organizations cooperate with one another during recruitment drives to minimize individual recruitment costs. 
True False

4. A centralized approach to recruiting can ensure that policy is being interpreted consistently across business units. 
True False

5. One advantage to centralized recruitment is that recruitment efforts may be undertaken in a more timely manner. 
True False

6. It is typically easy to determine the number of contacts with applicants needed to fill a vacancy. 
True False

7. One consistent finding in the research is that job seekers are more likely to find out about jobs through friends and family than they are through employment agencies. 
True False

8. Research has shown that greater employer involvement with prospective applicants does little to improve the image of the organization. 
True False

9. The practice of not charging the business unit may result in the business unit users not being concerned about minimizing recruitment costs. 
True False

10. Applicant tracking systems make it possible to assess how many individuals are attracted and hired through each recruiting source. 
True False

11. A recruitment guide is an informal set of principles suggesting, but not proscribing, how recruiting might proceed. 
True False

12. Most recruiters receive a great deal of training. 
True False

13. Research consistently shows that HR department employees make better recruiters than line managers. 
True False

14. Which of the following is an advantage of using an external recruiting agency? 
A. it ensures consistency from opening to closing
B. it is useful for companies too small to have dedicated recruiters
C. it is very inexpensive
D. all of the above

15. Which of the following are advantages of centralized recruitment? 
A. duplications of effort are reduced
B. increased responsiveness to immediate needs
C. closer links to day-to-day operations
D. decreased costs in the centralized HR function

16. Which of the following are components of a well-developed recruiting requisition? 
A. quantity of labor to be hired
B. affirmative action compliance methods
C. list of selection methods to be used
D. all of the above

17. Which of the following is not one of the major areas written into recruiting budgets? 
A. website development and administration
B. costs of signing bonuses
C. time spent making personal contacts and following up with candidates
D. bringing candidates onsite

18. A recruiting requisition is ________________________. 
A. a formal document that authorizes the filling of a job opening
B. a flowchart that enumerates costs of each selection tool
C. a formal document that details the process to be followed to attract applicants to a job
D. a description of the costs and benefits of various methods of selection

19. A recruitment guide is ________________________. 
A. a formal document that authorizes the filling of a job opening
B. a flowchart that enumerates costs of each selection tool
C. a document that details the process to be followed to attract applicants to a job
D. a description of the costs and benefits of various methods of selection

20. Research suggests that an ideal recruiter has ________________________. 
A. strong interpersonal skills
B. knowledge about the organization
C. extensive knowledge about the job
D. all of the above

21. With an open recruitment approach, organizations cast a wide net to identify potential applicants for specific job openings. 
True False

22. The growth of Web-based recruiting means that many employers have found that open recruiting yields too few applicants. 
True False

23. Targeted recruiting is done to find applicants with specific characteristics pertinent to person/job or person/organization match. 
True False

24. Targeted recruiting is a poor choice for diversity-conscious firms. 
True False

25. Targeted recruitment can achieve the same ends of inclusion as open recruitment, though by a different mechanism. 
True False

26. It is usually advised that a company either adopt open or targeted recruitment across the board for all employees. 
True False

27. One shortcoming of targeted recruitment is that by seeking out one group, one may exclude another from the same consideration. 
True False

28. Research indicates that recruits are bored by overly simple web-based recruiting systems and they prefer a more elaborate design. 
True False

29. Research shows that candidates prefer organizational Web sites that allow them to customize the information that they receive. 
True False

30. Most estimates suggest that employee referrals are one of the least commonly used recruiting methods. 
True False

31. Organizations sometimes use social networking sites like LinkedIn and Facebook to find job candidates. 
True False

32. One major problem with Internet-based recruiting is that there are too few applications for most jobs. 
True False

33. Niche employment websites are a popular method for finding recruits with a specific set of skills. 
True False

34. Research has shown that organization websites and electronic bulletin boards are seen as more informative and credible than campus recruiting. 
True False

35. Executive search firms are usually extremely expensive. 
True False

36. In a small number of states, there are employment or job service options to help employers find candidates for jobs. 
True False

37. Outplacement firms offer employees who are losing their jobs assistance finding new jobs in the form of counseling and training to help facilitate a good person/job match. 
True False

38. If a recruiting search is too narrow, the organization will likely be engaged in a long-term process of looking. 
True False

39. There has not been any research on the effectiveness of various recruitment sources. 
True False

40. What are the two major strategies for recruiting? 
A. open or shut
B. proactive or pensive
C. open or targeted
D. general or targeted

41. Which of the following is an advantage of open recruiting? 
A. it is seen as more fair
B. it ensures a diverse set of applicants
C. a small set of qualified applicants is considered
D. both a and b

42. Which of the following is an advantage of targeted recruiting? 
A. it is seen as more fair
B. it ensures a diverse set of applicants
C. a small set of qualified applicants is considered
D. both a and b

43. Which situation most strongly calls for open recruitment? 
A. a small number of applicants are required
B. specific skill sets are needed
C. pre-entry qualifications are not important
D. the organization is downsizing

44. Which situation most strongly calls for targeted recruitment? 
A. a small number of applicants are required
B. specific skill sets are needed
C. pre-entry qualifications are not important
D. the organization is downsizing

45. The recruitment approach in which an organization identifies those segments of the labor market where qualified candidates are likely to be is called __________. 
A. targeted recruitment
B. job requirements matrix recruitment
C. geographic area recruitment
D. strategic recruitment

46. Which of the following is an appropriate use of targeted recruiting? 
A. Using non-traditional sources to enhance minority hiring.
B. Broadening the geographical recruitment area to control selection costs.
C. Eliminating recruitment sources to minimize yield ratios.
D. Using demographics to avoid certain classes of potential applicants.

47. Which of the following are not components of a strong corporate recruiting website? 
A. exciting flash graphics presentations of opportunities
B. detailed information on career opportunities
C. résumé builders
D. self-assessment inventories

48. A study of the best practices of the Web sites of 140 high-profile organizations indicates that one of the features of a high-impact Web site is ____________. 
A. a job cart function
B. personal search engines
C. self-assessment inventories
D. all of the above

49. Which of the following statements about using employee referrals is true? 
A. those recruited by employee referrals tend to be less committed
B. those recruited by referrals are more qualified and committed
C. referral programs may be effective, but few are hired in this way
D. over 80% of organizations provide incentives for referrals

50. Which of the following statements is false? 
A. many employment sites now offer the ability to create and approve job requisitions online
B. employment sites sometimes cross-list jobs with local newspapers
C. at any given time there are millions of résumés available on employment websites
D. none of these statements is false

51. College placement offices are used because ___________. 
A. they reach individuals with diverse levels of skills for all job types
B. it really doesn’t matter which college you recruit from because they’re all the same
C. it’s fast and easy to establish relationships with campus recruiting offices
D. campus recruiting efforts are seen as more credible than websites or bulletin boards

52. The more broadly transmitted the organization’s search methods, the more likely that a ____________ will be attracted to apply. 
A. highly eager group of applicants
B. relatively homogenous population of individuals
C. uniformly high quality of individuals
D. large number of individuals

53. A high cost method of search may be worth the cost to the organization if ___________. 
A. the job is not crucial to the organization’s success
B. KSAOs are in short supply
C. only a small number of individuals are needed
D. none of the above

54. Evidence suggests that, overall, ___________ are likely to attract employees who have a better understanding of the organization and its culture. 
A. referrals and job trials
B. websites
C. newspaper advertising
D. employment agencies

55. A realistic recruitment message portrays the organization and the job as they really are, rather than describing what the organization thinks job applicants want to hear. 
True False

56. Research suggests that realistic job previews lead to massive reductions in turnover. 
True False

57. The hope with realistic job previews is that job applicants will self-select into and out of the organization. 
True False

58. There is some evidence that realistic job previews might scare away the most promising job candidates. 
True False

59. Realistic job previews should be part of the initial exposure of the organization to applicants because that is when they are most effective at increasing satisfaction and reducing turnover intentions. 
True False

60. Written or videotaped RJPs are more effective than verbal RJPs. 
True False

61. Realistic recruiting messages are less effective for those with considerable previous job experience. 
True False

62. Research shows that having an employment brand can attract applicants to an organization, even beyond job and organizational attributes. 
True False

63. An organization’s employment brand is completely different than its product market image. 
True False

64. A targeted recruiting message is designed to appeal to a particular audience. 
True False

65. A realistic job preview strategy is best for tight labor markets or higher-value jobs. 
True False

66. Word of mouth is one of the most powerful methods for communicating about job opportunities, and it is also a method that organizations cannot directly control. 
True False

67. Advertising is an ideal method for providing rich information to job candidates. 
True False

68. It doesn’t make a difference if recruiting information is seen as coming from the employees personally or from the organization’s recruiting offices. 
True False

69. Sending mass e-mails advertising positions may be an ineffective strategy because many applicants will regard these messages as junk mail or spam. 
True False

70. A realistic job preview is _________________________. 
A. a description of a job that integrates both positive and negative information
B. a method of recruiting that involves putting candidates in sink-or-swim opportunities to learn on the job
C. a series of structured video exercises showing a job’s task characteristics
D. a largely negative recruiting approach

71. Research suggests __________ realistic job previews lead to reduce turnover most. 
A. verbal
B. videotaped
C. written
D. computerized

72. What is the main reason for taking a realistic job preview approach to developing a job communication message? 
A. The approach aids applicants in self-selecting out of the organization.
B. The method enhances AA compliance.
C. The approach results in lower advertising costs.
D. The approach presents potential job applicants with the most attractive description of the job attributes.

73. Which method of recruiting is most effective at reducing turnover? 
A. realistic
B. targeted
C. considerate
D. branded

74. Which method of recruiting is most effective for tight labor markets and highly valued jobs? 
A. realistic
B. targeted
C. considerate
D. branded

75. Which method of recruiting is designed to be used when an organization is seeking a specific set of KSAOs? 
A. realistic
B. targeted
C. considerate
D. branded

76. Which of the following statements regarding the development of recruiting strategies is false? 
A. recruiting information coming from employees is seen as especially credible
B. the most effective messages also allow employees to find more information and customize their experience
C. recruiting advertisements in publications with large circulations will usually be more expensive
D. organizations need to be careful about over-promoting their brand because repetition of a message tends to decrease its persuasive appeal

77. Which communication medium refers to the informal information regarding an organization’s reputation, employment practices, and policies? 
A. recruitment brochures
B. word of mouth
C. advertising
D. organizational websites

78. Which of the following communication media is marked by low richness and high cost, but also with an especially broad audience of potential applicants? 
A. recruitment brochures
B. word of mouth
C. advertising
D. organizational websites

79. Most research shows that recruiters are even more important than job characteristics in attracting applicants to an organization. 
True False

80. Applicants have a strong preference for recruiters who are the same gender and race as they are. 
True False

81. Personal warmth and knowledge of the job are the two most important recruiter characteristics for attracting applicants. 
True False

82. Applicants also see recruiting processes as more fair if they have an opportunity to perform or demonstrate their ability to do the job. 
True False

83. Although delays in the recruiting process should not be ignored, in general, they don’t have much effect on applicant attraction to an organization. 
True False

84. The influence of the recruiter on the applicant is more likely to occur in the initial rather than the latter stages of the recruitment process. 
True False

85. Surveys suggest that only 25% of college students actually use Internet sources as an important part of making their decision to find and apply for jobs. 
True False

86. Women and minorities are especially interested in working for employers that endorse diversity through policy statements and in recruiting materials. 
True False

87. Traditional recruiting methods like campus recruiting and job fairs are an ideal method for increasing the age diversity of the workforce. 
True False

88. It is a bad idea to share too much information with applicants about the selection system during the later parts of the recruiting process because it’s likely that applicants will just learn how to game the system. 
True False

89. Applicants typically prefer recruiters who are ________________. 
A. well-informed about the job
B. in an HR-related function
C. the same gender
D. brusque

90. Recruiter characteristics are ________________. 
A. important in every stage of the selection process
B. not at all related to employee interested in a company
C. not as important as the actual job characteristics
D. equally related to applicant attitudes and behaviors

91. Recruiters should not _______________. 
A. be knowledgeable of the job rewards
B. be knowledgeable of job characteristics
C. show enthusiasm during recruiting interviews
D. try to avoid showing too much interest in candidates

92. Research suggests that an ideal recruiter possesses ________________. 
A. strong interpersonal skills
B. knowledge about the organization, jobs, and career issues
C. enthusiasm about the organization and job candidates
D. all of the above

93. Which of the following statements is false? 
A. applicants are very concerned about the fairness of recruiting processes
B. delay times in the recruiting process can reduce applicant interest
C. increasing expenditures on recruiting increases yields
D. none of the above

94. Which of the following techniques is helpful in improving diversity of applicants obtained through the recruiting process? 
A. advertisements showing women and minorities in positions of leadership
B. advertisements showing a relatively homogeneous workforce
C. advertising in publications that aim for a general audience
D. none of the above

95. Legally, an applicant is a person who has indicated an interest in being considered for hiring, promotion, or other employment opportunities. 
True False

96. Only those who fill out paperwork for employment need be considered applicants, for legal purposes. 
True False

97. If an organization does not define a policy for recruiting, virtually anyone who contacts the organization or expresses interest by any means could be considered an applicant. 
True False

98. According to the OFCCP, to be considered an Internet applicant the person has to submit an expression of interest, the employer has to consider the person, and the person has basic qualifications for the position. 
True False

99. The OFCCP provides very specific, strict guidelines for recruitment activities for organizations with affirmative action programs. 
True False

100. Electronic recruiting may lead to adverse impact because certain demographic groups are less likely to own and regularly use computers. 
True False

101. Making organizational websites compatible with screen readers is a very expensive proposition, but it is required for compliance with the ADA. 
True False

102. The EEOC bans the use of explicit age- or sex-based preferences in recruitment advertising. 
True False

103. It is quite difficult for applicants to successfully make a case that there has been fraud or misrepresentation in recruitment advertising. 
True False

104. Which of the following is not a good way to manage the recruiting process for optimal legal defense? 
A. require a formal application from all who seek to be considered
B. require that the applicant indicate the precise position applied for
C. keep applications on hold or on file for future consideration
D. keep track of applicants who drop out of the process

105. Which of the following is not required for someone to be considered an Internet applicant? 
A. the individual submits an expression of an interest in employment
B. the employer considers the individual for employment in a particular position
C. the individual possesses the basic qualifications for the position
D. evidence of a visit to the physical employment site

106. Employers need to keep track of which of the following for adverse impact calculations? 
A. demographic profiles of all who visit organizational websites
B. all expressions of interest submitted through the Internet
C. only applications backed up by paper files
D. none of the above

107. Which of the following statements is true regarding the OFCCP’s regulation of affirmative action plans? 
A. organizations may find that recruiting at secondary schools and community colleges with large minority enrollments may facilitate AAP success
B. language specifically encouraging women and minorities to apply is banned
C. ratios of applicants by race and gender categories must be adhered to strictly
D. none of the above

108. OFCCP suggested actions for the recruitment process include _____________. 
A. encourage white male employees to refer job applicants
B. carefully select and train all personnel included in staffing
C. eliminate the use of job descriptions
D. none of the above

109. What is the legal status of video résumés? 
A. they are considered a very low risk recruiting tool
B. they can lead to lawsuits related to “lookism”
C. they have been banned outright in most states
D. they reveal protected class characteristics that may form the basis of a lawsuit

110. Which of the following does not have to be shown by a plaintiff in fraud and misrepresentation lawsuit related to recruiting? 
A. that a misrepresentation occurred
B. that the plaintiff relied on the information to make a decision
C. that the plaintiff had perfect knowledge regarding the misrepresentation
D. that the plaintiff was injured because of reliance on the information

111. Which of the following statements, when placed in a job message, would not be likely to create problems with the EEOC? 
A. “Applicants must be enthusiastic and willing to take risks.”
B. “Applicants should be recent college graduates.”
C. “Applicants should be healthy and athletic.”
D. “Applicants should be gentlemen of outstanding character.”

Chapter 6
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. As a result of rising recruiting, selection, training, and development costs, companies are increasingly looking externally to staff positions. 
True False

2. Hierarchical mobility paths make it very easy, from an administrative vantage point, to identify where to look for applicants in the organization. 
True False

3. Under a parallel track system, the job titles and salaries of technical specialists are treated as hierarchically arranged. 
True False

4. Alternative mobility paths tend to be very difficult to administer. 
True False

5. One hallmark of hierarchical mobility paths is an emphasis on pay for skill development and learning. 
True False

6. To maintain employee motivation, alternative mobility paths may need to be supplemented with pay for skill development and counseling sessions. 
True False

7. It is probably best to avoid listing who is eligible for open positions in a mobility policy, because it will just lock the organization in. 
True False

8. Research suggests that employees really don’t care if mobility policies are well-spelled out, because they only care if they personally get promoted. 
True False

9. If only an external recruitment search is conducted, the morale of existing employees may be reduced when they feel that they have been passed over for a promotion. 
True False

10. A major difference between internal and external recruitment is that external recruitment not only fills vacancies but also creates them. 
True False

11. Some of the features of hierarchical mobility paths include 
A. they are easier to administer
B. the prospect of promotions can motivate employees
C. they may not be useful in flat organizational structures
D. all of the above

12. Which of the following is true regarding mobility paths? 
A. Hierarchical mobility paths are primarily lateral in direction.
B. Hierarchical mobility paths make it easy to identify where to look for applicants in an organization.
C. Alternative mobility paths may move in any direction.
D. Parallel tracks allow a person to pursue one primary career track and a second career track of less importance.

13. Which of the following is a disadvantage of alternative mobility paths? 
A. they can discourage development of core disciplinary knowledge
B. they are seen as hostile to the advancement of women and minorities
C. they promote narrow skill sets
D. they often need to be supplemented with alternative reward systems to maintain motivation

14. A lattice mobility path is _________. 
A. characterized by upward, lateral, and downward movement
B. found mostly within the external recruitment process
C. used in conjunction with union contracts
D. concerned with management level recruitment only

15. Organizations have become interested in alternative mobility paths because ______________. 
A. they are extremely easy to administer
B. they allow employees to specialize in technical work or management work and advance within either
C. they promote healthy competition to obtain rewards
D. unions find them more acceptable

16. A well-defined mobility path should include all of the following except: ______________. 
A. clear communication of the intent of the policy
B. rules regarding compensation and advancement
C. encouragement for all individuals to apply
D. supervisors’ responsibilities for employee development

17. In developing career path policies, a good approach for promotion would not include which of the following? 
A. Communication of management’s intentions.
B. Reasons why external sources are preferred.
C. Rules regarding compensation.
D. Rules concerning fringe benefits.

18. Under a closed internal recruitment system, employees are not made aware of job vacancies. 
True False

19. Closed internal recruitment systems are very efficient to administer. 
True False

20. Under a hybrid system, neither open nor close steps are implemented. 
True False

21. Closed internal recruitment systems are an ideal choice if there are issues about perceived fairness and the organization want to make sure it isn’t missing out on hidden talent. 
True False

22. One problem with job postings is that employees may believe that someone has been selected before the job was posted and so will either not bother to apply or will believe the system is unfair. 
True False

23. A job posting may be announced through a bulletin board, newsletter, e-mail, or intranet. 
True False

24. Providing feedback to employees if they are not selected in a job posting system is a bad idea because it will just discourage them from responding in the future. 
True False

25. The first stage of developing a talent management system is identifying the KSAOs required for all jobs in the organization. 
True False

26. Most managers report that talent management systems have greatly simplified their work lives. 
True False

27. Self-nomination is an especially important consideration in the internal recruitment of minorities and women. 
True False

28. Internal temporary employees require more orientation to the organization than would external hires. 
True False

29. Succession planning techniques are important as the workforce increasingly approaches retirement. 
True False

30. Surveys demonstrate that employees are more satisfied when their employers provide them with ample communication and opportunities for internal advancement. 
True False

31. Career development centers are a low cost way to increase employee interest in internal career paths. 
True False

32. The degree to which an organization utilizes its own internal information on candidate qualifications and job performance will determine how qualified the applicants will be. 
True False

33. There is a great deal of research on the effectiveness of internal recruiting sources, so best practices can guide choice of the methods for internal recruiting. 
True False

34. Under a closed internal recruitment system, which of the following is not likely to occur? 
A. speed of decisions is faster than with open systems
B. contacted employees are immediately given preference under such a system
C. managers have less influence over the ultimate decision
D. overall effectiveness of the system in identifying qualified applicants will drop

35. An open system of internal recruitment can be expected to minimize ________. 
A. competition among employees
B. scrutiny of job qualifications
C. overlooking talent
D. low morale among those not advanced

36. Some of the advantages of a closed internal recruitment system include: 
A. helps minimize favoritism
B. it can uncover hidden talent
C. it helps employees evaluate their qualifications for advancement
D. none of the above

37. Which of the following is true regarding closed internal recruitment systems? 
A. Employees are made aware of all job openings.
B. They are very inefficient.
C. They are not costly to implement.
D. They are very time-consuming to implement.

38. Which of the following is true regarding an open internal recruitment system? 
A. Employees are made aware of all job openings.
B. They use a job posting and job bidding system.
C. They often lead to uncovering “hidden talent.”
D. All of the above are correct.

39. Job postings influence the recruitment process by ________. 
A. clarifying requirements of the job
B. reducing competition for the job
C. eliminating external sources from consideration
D. reducing the need for formal applications

40. Job postings are effective internal recruitment tools because they ________. 
A. resemble and support external messages
B. are efficient in matching employees to organizational needs
C. reduce record keeping
D. are far easier to prepare than external messages

41. An empirical study of the characteristics of a job posting system which lead to high user satisfaction found that _________ was(were) critical. 
A. the adequacy of job descriptions
B. the adequacy of job notification procedures
C. treatment during the interview
D. all of the above

42. KSAOs which are used in making advancement decisions are stored in _________. 
A. job descriptions
B. job specifications
C. talent management systems
D. ability inventories

43. Which of the following statements regarding talent management systems is(are) true? 
A. talent management systems are maintained by the employee
B. talent management systems simplify record keeping
C. talent management systems reduce the need for supervisory judgment in promotion decisions
D. talent management systems require a user-friendly data base for effective use

44. A company’s internal e-mail and internet capabilities ________________. 
A. make it easy and inexpensive to disseminate internal recruiting messages
B. tend to be very time-consuming ways to send messages about recruiting
C. cannot effectively complement internal recruiting methods
D. are used by 100% of organizations looking to recruit internally

45. Which of the following statements regarding talent management systems is true? 
A. they are usually based on paper files
B. they are seen as a historical tool that is not used much any more
C. they are increasingly integrated with all of an organization’s human resources information systems
D. they are almost always cheap and easy to maintain

46. Why might an organization use internal temporary pools? 
A. to decrease accountability for personnel errors
B. to avoid paying agency fees to temporary help agencies
C. to provide a buffer against lawsuits
D. both a and c

47. A ______________ provides employees with opportunities to fill out interest inventories, explore career options, and discuss plans with counselors. 
A. job-talk center
B. succession plan
C. lattice career path
D. career development center

48. Key metrics for evaluating an internal staffing system include: 
A. cost
B. quantity
C. quality
D. all of the above

49. Which of the following are important components of ensuring sufficient quality in an internal recruiting system? 
A. internal job posting systems
B. regular performance appraisals of all employees
C. systematic review of the employee value proposition
D. all of the above

50. Realistic job previews are potentially not necessary for internal recruiting because applicants may already be familiar with the jobs in question. 
True False

51. Targeted recruiting messages are especially appropriate for internal applicants when they move to an unknown job, a newly created job, or a new geographic area, including an international assignment. 
True False

52. A targeted message for internal recruits points out how the job matches the needs of the applicant. 
True False

53. Word of mouth regarding internal job openings usually serves to provide additional opportunities to women and minorities. 
True False

54. There is not much research concerning perceptions of fairness in internal recruiting processes. 
True False

55. Research suggests that procedures followed for internal recruiting and other personnel practices can be almost as important as the outcome of the decisions themselves. 
True False

56. It should not be assumed that just because job seekers come from inside the organization they will automatically know and understand the selection procedures. 
True False

57. Which of the following is true of realistic previews in internal recruiting? 
A. they are even more important than for external recruiting
B. research suggests they can increase turnover
C. they are more necessary for newly created jobs or jobs in new locations
D. they cannot really be used for internal selection

58. Which of the following is true of recruiting messages in internal recruiting? 
A. supervisors can describe mobility paths in detail to internal candidates
B. peers can give internal recruits a realistic idea of what happens in internal promotions and transfers
C. word of mouth among internal employees can lead to inaccurate information
D. all of the above are true

59. Formal policies for promotion and other internal recruiting activities can enhance: 
A. interpretive justice
B. procedural justice
C. psychological contract violations
D. extrinsic discouragement

60. The Affirmative Action Programs Regulations specifically address internal recruitment as part of the federal contractor’s AAP. 
True False

61. According to the Supreme Court, an ADA related-reassignment request must prevail over an organization’s seniority system. 
True False

62. In the absence of a discriminatory intent, virtually any seniority system is likely to be bona fide, even if it causes adverse impact. 
True False

63. The “glass ceiling” refers to strong but invisible barriers for women and minorities to promotion in organizations. 
True False

64. The Federal Glass Ceiling Commission study found that although men and women were nearly equally eager to move into management, women were much less optimistic about their chances of being promoted. 
True False

65. Research has shown that since the 1970’s there has been a radical shift in top management in most organizations, with nearly half of all top executive positions being held by women. 
True False

66. The “glass ceiling” refers to the prevalence of policies and procedures that have resulted in reverse discrimination. 
True False

67. Unequal access to development experiences and internal selection systems have both contributed to the glass ceiling. 
True False

68. Seniority-based systems may need to be eliminated as a means of reducing the prevalence of glass ceiling effects. 
True False

69. Informal promotion policies increase the ability of women and minorities to get ahead in most businesses. 
True False

70. Formal mentoring, training, and flexible work hours all may reduce the problems of the glass ceiling. 
True False

71. From a legal standpoint, it can be said that __________. 
A. the EEOC is more concerned about external recruitment procedures than internal ones
B. revised Order No. 4 does not deal with seniority
C. promotions based on subjective assessments of who is more senior are not likely to be supported in court
D. existence of “bona fide” seniority systems facilitates compliance on EEO/AA matters

72. A bona fide seniority system is _________________. 
A. typically banned by the EEOC
B. permitted in most cases under EEOC law even if it results in adverse impact
C. carefully defined by the law
D. based on a mix of factors that include perceived loyalty, commitment, and KSAO sets in the workforce

73. The combination of factors that tend to place women and minorities in fewer top management positions are collectively termed _________________. 
A. res ipsa loquitor
B. Jacob’s ladder
C. the broken elevator
D. the glass ceiling

74. Which of the following have contributed to the Glass Ceiling? 
A. rising interest rates
B. lack of outreach recruitment practices
C. frequent updating of organizational records
D. legal definition contradictions