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Chapter 7: Mobile Computing and Commerce

Multiple Choice

1. How can handheld mobile computing devices and technology significantly improve performance in the healthcare system?
a) Make it easier and faster to get prescriptions
b) Reduce the preventable errors made by healthcare providers
c) Reduce the need for emergency medical care
d) All of the above

2. Electronic prescription systems (EPSs) offer huge potential benefits, but several obstacles are slowing the adoption of these systems. Which of the following is not one of those obstacles?
a) the high start-up financial investment
b) insufficient knowledge of the EPS concepts
c) widespread EPS technology standardization
d) resistance from healthcare providers

3. Which is not one of the three dominant PC operating systems (OSs)?
a) Apple
b) Java
c) Linux
d) Microsoft Windows

4. Writing apps for handheld devices, such as smartphones, is __________.
a) easy because only a few lines of code are needed
b) easy because the devices have limited features
c) difficult because of many different models and OSs
d) about the same as writing apps for computers.

5. The mobile computing and commerce environment relies on two basic approaches to Internet connectivity: short range wireless technologies such as __________ and longer range telecommunications technologies such as __________.
a) Wi-Fi; WiMAX
b) WiMAX; 4G
c) 3G; 4G
d) 4G; Wi-Fi

6. End users can access a WLAN with their laptops, desktops, or PDAs by adding a(n) __________.
a) 4G network
b) Internet protocol
c) access point
d) wireless network card

7. Which of the following is not a characteristic of Wi-Fi?
a) Most laptops today rely on Wi-Fi technology that require being in range of at least one satellite.
b) Wi-Fi performance decreases roughly significantly as distance increases at constant radiation levels.
c) Wi-Fi has fairly high power-consumption compared to some other standards.
d) Wi-Fi is used to support business and compliance requirements, such as the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act passed by the U.S. Congress.

8. Many financial service handhelds send SMS texts using __________, which work like telephone numbers, except that they are 5 or 6 characters long and easier to remember.
a) mobile PINs
b) packets
c) short codes
d) biometrics

9. The __________ is expected to emerge as the predominant market for mobile banking services done via cell phones or other mobile device.
a) Asia-Pacific region
b) European Union (EU)
c) United States (US)
d) United Kingdom (UK)

10. Which of the following is not one of the threats to mobile banking?
a) cloning
b) phishing
c) lost or stolen phones
d) SMS

11. Duplicating or __________ the Electronic Serial Number (ESM) of a cell phone and using it in second phone allows the perpetrator to have calls and other transactions fraudulently billed to the original phone.
a) cloning
b) phishing
c) smishing
d) vishing

12. One innovative payment systems uses an iPhone app called __________, in which two individuals can transfer money to each other simply by tapping their phones together.
a) bump
b) tap
c) QR
d) knock

13. An advantage of an __________, which is a piece of software, is that it that stores an online shopper’s credit card numbers and other personal information so that the shopper does not have to reenter that information for every online purchase.
a) e-phone
b) e-card
c) e-reader
d) e-wallet

14. Mobile commerce in __________ is growing exponentially and now represents the largest amount of m-commerce sales in the world.
a) Europe
b) Japan
c) developing countries
d) India

15. In Japan, wireless shopping is popular with busy single parents, executives, and teenagers, who are doing __________ percent of their e-commerce shopping from cell phones.
a) almost 25
b) up to 33
c) up to 50
d) over 80

16. According to the Daiwa Institute of Research, __________ account(s) for most of the purchases that are done on mobile phones, if the users are on flat-fee-based service.
a) entertainment
b) impulse shopping
c) travel
d) sports

17. The __________ continues to be a leader in making digital music, movies and podcasts available to consumers for a fee.
a) iTunes Store
b) Amazon.com
c) Fox Mobile
d) Grooveshark.com

18. Belgian Godiva Chocolatier is recognized worldwide as the leader in fine chocolates. The Godiva Mobile app integrates Godiva’s best selling products with the address book on a BlackBerry smartphone. Why is this integration a good strategic move for Godiva?
a) Consumers can purchase products by simply scrolling and clicking.
b) Godiva chocolates and other products are usually bought as a gift rather than for oneself.
c) Address book integration allows users to ship with just a few clicks.
d) All of the above

19. Why did Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Siemens establish the Mobile Games Interoperability Forum (MGIF) that defined a range of technical standards?
a) To create a competitive advantage by running mobile games on proprietary networks
b) To make it possible to deploy mobile games across multi-game servers and wireless networks, and over different mobile devices
c) To compete against Microsoft in the mobile game market
d) To develop games that ran on slower speed networks

20. Primary forces that are driving the growth of the mobile market are __________ and __________.
a) virtual communities; Wi-Fi
b) air travel; hotels
c) Skype; banking
d) mobile social media; gaming handhelds

21. __________ is user-specific advertising that is location-sensitive and used to inform potential buyers about shops, malls, entertainment, and restaurants close to where they are based on the __________ in their cell phones.
a) Mobile marketing; SMS
b) Wireless marketing; cookies
c) Targeted advertising; GPS
d) Targeted advertising; router

22. __________ handhelds are a special technology that involves computer-generated images superimposed on pictures of real things and can be used by advertisers in several ways.
a) Augmented reality
b) Foursquare
c) WAP
d) Skype

23. Yahoo Mobile and iGoogle are__________ which are customer channels optimized for mobility and that aggregate content and services for mobile users.
a) search engines
b) browsers
c) mobile portals
d) wireless apps

24. Characteristics of voice portals include each of the following except:
a) Many organizations use voice portals to replace or supplement help desks and reduce costs.
b) Voice portals are used extensively by airlines enabling travelers to make reservations, find flight status, and more.
c) Voice portals are Web sites because they are accessed through a browser.
d) A benefit for Internet marketers is that voice portals can help businesses find new customers.

25. The underlying technologies needed for location-based commerce and services are __________ and __________.
a) GPS; GIS
b) TPS; laptops
c) portals; servers
d) social networks; sensors

26. A global positioning system (GPS) is a wireless system that uses __________ to determine where the GPS device is located anywhere on the earth.
a) GIS
b) portals
c) satellites
d) servers

27. Engineers can find the location of any receiving station to within 50 feet by __________, using the distance from a GPS to three satellites to make the computation.
a) latitude
b) longitude
c) triangulation
d) altitude

28. GPS software computes the latitude and longitude of the receiver. This process is called __________.
a) decoding
b) geocoding
c) receiving
d) geocomputing

29. Characteristics of NextBus include all of the following except:
a) The system knows exactly where buses are, but not individuals, which protects the person’s privacy.
b) San Francisco bus riders carrying a smartphone or similar device can quickly find out when a bus is likely to arrive at a particular bus stop.
c) The system tracks public transportation buses in real time.
d) The core of the NextBus system is a GPS satellite that can tell the NextBus information center where a bus is at any given time.

30. The location provided by GPS is expressed in terms of __________.
a) geocodes
b) digital maps
c) latitude and longitude
d) data visualization

31. Data acquired by a GPS is inserted into a digital map, which is known as a __________, to identify a specific place or address.
a) geographical information system (GIS)
b) data visualization
c) mapinfo
d) mobile positioning center (MPC)

32. GPS is supported by __________ U.S. government satellites, plus three backup satellites, that are shared worldwide.
a) 12
b) 24
c) 180
d) 360

33. Why are leading organizations developing marketing and sales strategies built on connecting with their customers via mobile devices?
a) Because mobile transactions are now secure and protected against fraud.
b) To remain competitive with the vast majority of organizations that have developed plans for mobile customer service and support.
c) Because customers want to be connected to all aspects of their lives via their mobiles.
d) All of the above

34. Traditional POS technology involves a computerized cash register connected to a server via __________.
a) Wi-Fi
b) WiMAX
c) a WAP
d) a wired LAN

35. What is a disadvantage of traditional POS technology?
a) Stations are fixed and require customers to bring their merchandise to a specific location.
b) They expedite checkout for those customers paying with credit card.
c) The processing is slow creating long lines of customers.
d) The technology is undependable.

36. Benefits of mobile POS stations include each of the following except:
a) Mobile POS stations can be setup as needed by using handheld computers, scanners and printers.
b) The stations are low cost and do not require employee training.
c) During periods of high volume, employees can setup temporary mobile check out stations capable of scanning merchandise bar codes, processing credit card payments, and printing receipts.
d) Employees can walk through a fixed station line offering to expedite checkout for those customers paying with credit card.

37. Ways in which the use of mobile devices in inventory management improves business performance include all of the following except:
a) Eliminates inventory out-of-stock situations.
b) Retailers can record merchandise when it enters the store, where it is stored, and when it is moved to the floor.
c) Delivery drivers can enter invoices and other shipping data into the store’s database at the point of delivery.
d) The cumbersome process of changing prices on in-store merchandise is easier.

38. For the 2010 census, the U.S. the government allocated $3 billion for handhelds to improve the interviewer’s performance in the field. What was the result?
a) The program was a success because it saved taxpayers over $3 billion.
b) The program reduced the cost of the census about $1 billion.
c) The program worked, but did not significantly reduce costs.
d) The program was a failure and had to be delayed to the 2020 census.

39. In the large software suites, such as Siebel’s CRM, the two CRM functions that have attracted the most interest are __________ and __________.
a) sales force automation; field service
b) collaboration; supply chain management
c) inventory management; mobile POS
d) job dispatch; messaging

40. Sales teams at Adidas America use Blackberry’s Enterprise Solution and PDAs to check inventory levels from anywhere in real time, which improves sales and service. This is an example of how __________ can improve operational performance.
a) inventory management
b) mobile supply chain management (MSCM)
c) mobile customer relationship management (MCRM)
d) a sales portal

41. Applying mobile computing to __________ may have strategic implications by shortening cycle time, reducing delays, and improving supplier and customer relationships. Such solutions enable organizations to proactively adjust plans or shift resources.
a) operations
b) job dispatch
c) supply chains
d) sales

42. By enabling sales force employees to type orders or queries directly into __________ systems while at a client’s site, companies can reduce clerical mistakes and improve supply chain operations.
a) ERP
b) RFID
c) CRM
d) JIT

43. __________ extends the reach of CRM—both inside and outside the company—and to both employees and business partners on a 24/7 basis, to any place where recipients are located.
a) Mobile CRM
b) ERP
c) Mobile SCM
d) CAT

44. A __________ device allows improved response with reduced resources, real-time tracking of work orders, increased dispatcher efficiency, and a reduction in administrative work.
a) mobile POS
b) inventory management
c) job dispatching
d) SCM

45. Poor program management, poor contract estimate and hardware and software delays contributed to the mobile app failure of __________.
a) Salesforce.com’s App Exchange
b) the U.S. Census Bureau
c) Blackberry’s Enterprise Solution
d) All of the above

True/False

46. Mobile computing has changed dramatically since 2008 as portable devices that connect wirelessly to the Internet became lighter, smaller, thinner, and much more powerful.

47. New categories of handhelds such as e-readers–Amazon’s Kindle and Apple’s iPad – have not been rapidly adopted.

48. Blackberry OS, made by Research in Motion, is currently the dominant smartphone OS in the U.S. and number two globally.

49. Companies need to develop Web sites and apps specifically for mobile OSs because consumers expect to access Web sites from their smartphones and other devices and are frustrated by companies that do not support their devices.

50. The mobile computing and commerce environment relies on two basic approaches to Internet connectivity: short range wireless technologies such as 3G and longer range telecommunications technologies such as 4G.

51. Wi-Fi has fairly high power-consumption compared to some other standards such as Bluetooth.

52. Several mining companies in Europe installed hundreds of Wi-Fi hotspots in their coal mines. Information from drills and trucks is transmitted wirelessly to the control center, which increases both productivity and safety.

53. Duplicating the Electronic Serial Number (ESM) of one phone and using it in second phone -the clone is referred to as phishing. This allows the perpetrator to have calls and other transactions billed to the original phone.

54. As interest in mobile commerce grows, there is a greater demand for innovative payment systems that make transactions from smartphones and other mobile devices convenient, safe, and secure.

55. Many of the new m-wallet products are safe and secure because confidential information in a user’s wallet is stored on the mobile device.

56. Mobile commerce in Japan is growing exponentially and now represents the largest amount of m-commerce sales in the world.

57. Location-based commerce (l-commerce) refers to the delivery of advertisements, products, or services to customers whose locations can be identified at a given time. L-commerce is beneficial to both consumers and businesses.

58. Greater adoption of mobile apps will change the way that organizations deal with both internal and external customer service and support. Therefore, most organizations have developed plans for mobile customer service and support for competitive advantage.

59. Long lines frustrate customers. Some studies show that at least one in 100 customers will abandon a long line, leaving the store without completing a purchase.

60. The cumbersome process of changing prices on in-store merchandise is made easier using mobile devices. Employees can walk the aisles of a store, scanning merchandise and checking the posted price against the price in the store’s UPC database.

Short Answer

61. Mobility started when computers became __________.

62. The iOS, Android and Palm operating systems are all based on modifications of the __________ OS.

63. In a typical wireless LAN configuration, a transmitter with an antenna, called a __________ connects to a wired LAN from a fixed location or to satellite dishes that provide an Internet connection.

64. __________ is generally defined as carrying out banking transactions and other related activities via mobile devices.

65. Many financial service handhelds make use of __________ that are 5 or 6 characters long for sending SMS texts.

66. __________ is a mobile banking security risk because by duplicating the Electronic Serial Number (ESM) of one phone and using it in second phone, any calls or transactions are billed to the original phone.

67. __________ is the use of deceptive e-mail or other communication to trick the receiver into revealing confidential information, such as account numbers, passwords, or other identifying information

68. __________ equipment identifies the location of the mobile device either through GPS or by locating the nearest base station. The information is sent to the mobile positioning center.

69. A __________ is a wireless system that uses satellites to determine where the device is located anywhere on the earth.

70. During periods of high volume, __________ stations can be setup by using handheld computers, scanners and printers and that are capable of processing credit card payments and printing receipts.

Essay

71. Identify and discuss two ways in which mobile technology can be used to save lives.

72. List 4 of the most popular mobile OSs:

73. Identify three of the most common mobile banking services.

74. Select an industry (e.g., sports, travel, entertainment, retail, and manufacturing) and identify two ways in which mobile computing or commerce could improve financial or operational performance of a company in that industry.

75. Discuss ways in which mobile computing can improve customer service and reduce costs of providing that service.

Chapter 8: Web 2.0 and Social Media

Multiple Choice

1. According to cultural anthologist Michael Wesch, enhancements to the Internet known as __________ will cause us to rethink a lot of our assumptions about ethics, privacy, and governance.
a) Web 1.0
b) Web 2.0
c) microbrowsers
d) intelligent agents

2. What business lesson was learned from the United Breaks Guitars video that went viral shortly after it was posted on YouTube?
a) Negative viral videos posted by customers are not a potential threat to major companies, such as United Airlines.
b) Major companies can insulate themselves from unhappy customers with call centers.
c) Companies and their executives can no longer afford to hide behind slick advertising campaigns and press releases to protect their public image against viral threats.
d) Viral messages cannot damage a company’s brand image to the extent that there are significant financial consequences.

3. How effective was United Airlines (UAL) initial response to the viral threats from David Carroll’s Internet campaign against their poor customer service?
a) UAL was unprepared and clueless.
b) UAL accepted responsibility for the damage, but their response was only slightly effective.
c) Customer service representatives quickly resolved the complaint before the video went viral.
d) UAL was well-prepared to counter negative publicity from negative viral videos.

4. Organizations previously communicated with their audiences using a __________ model, where messages flowed from the sender to the receiver. Now, they must learn to use a __________ model, where communication flows back and forth between sender and receiver.
a) talking; listening
b) outbound; inbound
c) broadcast; conversation
d) indirect; direct

5. How has Web 2.0 affected people’s attitudes toward the way they want businesses to interact with them?
a) Customers expect businesses to use Web 2.0 capabilities to satisfy their needs.
b) Customers have lower expectations for a company’s character, ethical behavior, and privacy protection.
c) Customers’ attitudes have not changed because they’ve seen little change in the past after the use of other technologies.
d) Customers are not aware of Web 2.0 potential and, therefore, have no attitude about it.

6. Web 2.0 is also referred to as the __________.
a) public Internet
b) online community
c) Blog 2.0
d) social Web

7. Which of the following is a characteristic of Web 2.0?
a) static pages
b) user controlled content
c) the goal of marketing is to influence buyers
d) single source of data

8. Businesses can create __________ for a particular product and allow employees and customers to add, update, or contribute information that will form a knowledge base resource for those who need information about the product.
a) blogs
b) podcasts
c) social networking services
d) wikis

9. Facebook and other __________ are different from the broader category of online communities in that they usually allow individuals to control who can access information they post to the site.
a) bookmarking sites
b) mashups
c) social networking sites
d) wikis

10. The advantage of __________ is that they push content to users so they avoid the hassle of having to visit several different sites to get the information they are interested in.
a) tag clouds
b) RSS feeds
c) widgets
d) wikis

11. Which is not one of the characteristics of AJAX?
a) AJAX, or Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, refers to a group of technologies that create Web pages that respond to users’ actions without requiring the entire page to reload.
b) AJAX makes it possible for Web developers to create small apps that run on a page instead of running on a server.
c) AJAX capabilities increase the functionality of Web sites, but make content run much slower.
d) CSS and HTML are AJAX languages for Web 2.0.

12. How are social media influencing business strategies?
a) Businesses that used to develop sophisticated ways of getting their message heard must now develop sophisticated strategies for listening and responding to what their consumers are saying.
b) Now organizations have the technology and capability to fully control both the message and the medium.
c) Businesses are switching to a strategy of broadcasting a single message to a mass audience worldwide to establish brand identity instead of spreading multiple messages.
d) All of the above.

13. The Web 2.0 attitude and new way of thinking are captured in a list of 95 statements called the __________, whose first thesis is “markets are conversations.”
a) Mashup Manifesto
b) Tag Cloud
c) Cluetrain Manifesto
d) Virtual FAQs

14. WedMD is one of the popular __________, which are communities organized by interest, such as hobbies, vocations, political parties, and unions.
a) affinity portals
b) associations
c) ethnic communities
d) B2B online communities

15. In its corporate communications, Facebook is using the term __________ to refer to the global social network and reflect how we are all connected to one another through relationships.
a) mashup
b) LinkedIn
c) semantic Web
d) social graph

16. Businesses can use online communities as a platform for all of the following except:
a) prospecting for customers
b) identifying customer perceptions by conducting surveys
c) providing support services to customers, such as by answering questions
d) encouraging customers to share their positive perceptions with others; e.g., word of mouth

17. __________, such as Facebook, represent a special type of virtual community and are now the dominant form of online community. Individual users maintain an identity through their profile, for e.
a) Social graphs
b) RSS
c) Mashups
d) Social networking sites

18. __________ is a social network service with a 3D virtual world interface in which users, called Residents, are represented by avatars, or cyber bodies that they create.
a) Facebook
b) Second Life
c) Pandora
d) Yelp

19. Characteristics of the social network service Second Life include all of the following except:
a) Residents can earn Linden dollars by providing services such as instruction in a foreign language or serving as a DJ in a virtual club.
b) IBM, American Apparel, and other real world businesses have used the virtual world of Second Life.
c) Second Life is simple to use and requires users to learn only a few controls to become fully functional.
d) Using speakers and microphones, groups of people can conduct meetings in Second Life.

20. The microblogging site __________ is used by businesses as a way of directing traffic to updates on Web sites.
a) Ning
b) RSS
c) Second Life
d) Twitter

21. Why do companies create private social networks?
a) To better understand their customers
b) To communicate short messages with followers
c) To interact with employees using avatars
d) To broadcast messages to very large groups of followers.

22. Which is not an example of privacy violations associated with social media and social networking services?
a) Sharing information about members with advertisers without the users’ knowledge or consent.
b) Posting pictures of people on social networking sites without their permission.
c) Disclosing an employer’s proprietary information or trade secrets on social networking sites.
d) Responding with public backlash and outrage due to lack of protection.

23. According to Cecil Dijoux, Enterprise 2.0 is likely to create changes in the organizations. These changes include all of the following except:
a) Organizations will communicate with their employees using a conversation rather than a broadcast mode.
b) Managers will have to rely more on their job titles to maintain respect.
c) Important ideas are more likely to come from the workforce than from top-level managers.
d) Organizational structures will become more efficient and effective.

24. Over 80 percent of companies used LinkedIn as their primary __________.
a) marketing medium
b) supply chain system
c) recruiting tool
d) Web site

25. YouTube has become a popular way for companies, such as BlendTec, to promote themselves using __________, and often less expensive than traditional advertising efforts.
a) response hierarchies
b) mashups
c) microblogging
d) viral videos

26. Which is not one of the impacts of the use of BlendTec’s Integrated Social Media (ISM) strategy?
a) Company sales have increased by about 10% since the viral campaign was launched.
b) BlendTec established a huge fan base on a limited marketing budget.
c) The company had almost zero name recognition, but became one of the most watched collections of videos on YouTube.
d) While the YouTube videos are the most visible part, BlendTec’s ISM efforts also include a variety of tactics, such as RSS, Facebook, and Twitter.

27. Most large and medium sized companies utilize an Intranet based on __________ technology for internal collaboration and communication, which gives them control of the content.
a) Web 1.0
b) Web 2.0
c) social tagging
d) wikis

28. Sending out a paper memo or a mass e-mail from headquarters and expecting a desired response from company employees will __________ because of social media.
a) be totally eliminated within 2 years
b) increase significantly
c) be increasingly ineffective
d) increase in costs

29. Supply chains are __________ because they involve a number of people and organizations that must work together in order to create and deliver goods and services to consumers.
a) social entities
b) social media
c) Web 1.0 networks
d) response hierarchies

30. The effectiveness of social media activities are evaluated with __________.
a) standard metrics that are used for many traditional business activities
b) mashups such as dashboards and score cards
c) phone surveys
d) all of the above

31. If a company wanted to learn how customers feel about their products, the most appropriate metric would be to track the __________.
a) number of positive vs. negative blogs posts and videos about the company and their products
b) number of visitors who arrive at its Web site from a tweet or the company’s Facebook fan page
c) sales of competing and substitute products
d) number of service calls and complaint calls

32. Which is not a social media activity metric?
a) pageviews
b) posts
c) unique number of visitors
d) quality and speed of issue resolution

33. Which is not a social media survey metric?
a) time spent on site
b) satisfaction
c) content relevance
d) quality and speed of issue resolution

34. ROI measurements used to evaluate the effectiveness of sales and marketing include all of the following except:
a) cost per number of prospects
b) employee attrition
c) cost of lead
d) conversion of leads to customers

35. Traditionally, businesses developed media objectives around various models called __________, which are based on advertising or broadcast approaches to communication.
a) customer lifetime value (CLV)
b) NetPromoter
c) response hierarchies
d) trackbacks

36. __________ are effective and inexpensive ways to collect information from customers as well as to send information to them. It also can be used to gather intelligence on competitors.
a) Marketing research
b) Interactive social media
c) Dashboards
d) Mashups

37. The metrics a company uses are determined by their __________.
a) market share
b) net income
c) objectives
d) sales revenue

38. If a company’s objective is to “increase traffic to our Web site by 10 percent,” they would determine the relative impact of each social media activity on that objective using a __________ metric.
a) tactical
b) tool based
c) social network service
d) ROI

39. __________ refers to a search strategy that focuses on finding information in a particular content area, such as travel, finance, legal, and medical.
a) Vertical search
b) Horizontal search
c) Tag search
d) Web 3.0 search

40. Future Web sites will maximize user experience by increasing performance on each of the following factors except:
a) context
b) semantics
c) personalization
d) vertical search

41. The W3C is developing standards for a(n) __________, or ways of describing data so that it can be used by a wide variety of applications.
a) metadata language
b) Semantic Web
c) database portal
d) RDF language

42. Much of the world’s data is stored in files that are structured so that they can only be read by the __________ that created them.
a) operating systems
b) computers
c) programs
d) hardware

43. The __________ allows programmers and users to make reference to real-world objects, such as people or chemicals, without concern for the underlying documents in which these things are described.
a) Application Programming Interface (API)
b) Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
c) RDF Query Language
d) Semantic Web

44. While we sometimes talk about __________ as a future evolution, in fact, the new web is already here, but standards for tagging information with metadata labels hasn’t gotten very far yet.
a) Net Neutrality
b) Web 2.0
c) Web 3.0
d) social Web

45. Currently, most Internet content flows freely through networks maintained by __________ that __________ Net neutrality.
a) large telecom companies, oppose
b) government agencies; favor
c) large telecom companies, support
d) government agencies; encourage

True/False

46. The magnitude of change occurring online because of social media has created some unease on the part of traditional-minded businesses and individual users.

47. David Carroll’s ability to use social media to damage the reputation of United Airlines, a major corporation, has both fascinated and terrified many in the business world.

48. Motivated consumers, using the tools of social media, have the power to spread viral messages that can severely damage a company’s brand image, but that cannot cause significant financial consequences.

49. Because of Web 2.0, people have lower expectations for a company’s character, ethical behavior, responsiveness, and ability to meet their individual needs.

50. Managers who invest the time to understand and become proficient in new approaches to identifying, communicating and building relationships with customers online will have a tremendous advantage over managers who limit themselves to traditional methods.

51. While the applications that are labeled as Web 2.0 may simply be an extension of earlier advances, it is the change in user behavior that matters most to businesses around the world.

52. Because it is a common practice for bloggers to use a special kind of hyperlink called a trackback to reference other blogs in their writing, blogs are collectively referred to as the trackosphere.

53. Social networking sites are different from the broader category of online communities in that they rarely allow individuals to control who can access information they post to the site.

54. The varying font sizes of tags in a tag cloud represent the frequency of tags at the site.

55. Tag clouds are a spontaneous movement of people using online tools to connect, take charge of their own experience and get what they need from each other.

56. Social network analysis (SNA) is the mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between people, groups, organizations, computers, or other information or knowledge processing entities.

57. In April 2010, Zuckerberg announced Facebook’s new initiative called Open Graph. The goal was to connect all the different relationships that exist on the Internet by linking Web sites to Facebook.

58. Business organizations are finding ways to establish a presence on popular SNS sites like Facebook and MySpace so that they can control their customers.

59. When automated, scorecards and dashboards are examples of mashups, which are Web 2.0 apps that pull data from multiple sources and display them in one location.

60. The future web will use context, personalization and vertical search to make the 3Cs–content, commerce and community–more relevant.

Short Answer

61. __________ are standalone programs that can be embedded into web pages, blogs, profiles on social networking sites and even computer desktops. Common examples are clocks, visitor counters, and chat boxes.

62. The term __________ refers to an application or webpage that pulls information from multiple sources, creating a new functionality.

63. __________ pushes content to users so they avoid the hassle of having to visit several different sites to get the information they are interested in.

64. __________ is the mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between people, groups, organizations, computers, or other information or knowledge processing entities.

65. Facebook uses ____________ , which are global social networks that illustrate how we are all connected to one another through relationships.

66. __________ is a model of problem solving and idea generation that marshals the collective talents of a large group of people.

67. The term __________ refers to Web 2.0 technologies used for some business purpose.

68. If a company knows how much each new customer is worth, then they can estimate the total revenue produced by their presence on the social network. This is an example of a quantitative or __________ metric.

69. __________ refers to a search strategy that focuses on finding information in a particular content area, such as travel, finance, legal, and medical.

70. With metadata, the information in these files can be __________ with information describing the nature of the data, where it came from, or how it’s arranged. That way it can be read and used by a wide variety of applications.

Essay

71. Identify and contrast four characteristics that differentiate Web 2.0 from Web 1.0.

72. Explain why organizations might create private social networks.

73. Identify two ways in which Enterprise 2.0 might change organizations or managers. Identify one potential benefit of Enterprise 2.0.

74. If a company’s objective is to increase traffic to its Web page by 5% per month, what metrics should be tracked to evaluate achievement of that objective? If a company’s objective is to learn how customers feel about their products, what should it track?

75. The key to an information-rich Web is information. However, not everyone is particularly interested in having their data made available to anyone who wants it. Identify and discuss three situations where data should be protected to prevent intrusions on privacy, to maintain public safety, and to protect national security.