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BUS 309 Week 11 Quiz

BUS 309 Week 11 Quiz – Strayer

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Quiz 10 Chapter 11

Job Discrimination

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following is true based on documented evidence of discrimination?
a. African Americans have the third highest standard of living in the world.
b. Today, men are just as likely as women to be in so-called “pink collar” occupations.
c. There is little statistical evidence of job discrimination today.
d. Relatively few women and minorities have made it to the very top of their professions.

2. A historical view indicates which of the following is correct?
a. Statistical evidence is irrelevant to proving discrimination.
b. Women and blacks are sometimes victimized by stereotypes.
c. The idea that women may have difficulties fitting into a “male” work environment is outdated.
d. On average women earn between 1/3 and 1/2 of what men make for doing the very same work.

3. Which of these statements is true concerning court cases about discrimination?
a. Brown v. Board of Education upheld the principle of “separate but equal.”
b. The Bakke case outlawed affirmative action across the board.
c. In the 2004 Holtz case, the Supreme Court ruled that “race-conscious” admissions policies are unconstitutional.
d. In the recent University of Michigan cases (Gratz and Grutter), the Supreme Court upheld a moderate, flexible affirmative action program and rejected a rigid one.

4. Of these four arguments, which of the following is the most plausible argument FOR affirmative action?
a. It evens the score with young white men, who have had it good for too long.
b. It is necessary to break the cycle that keeps minorities and women locked into low-paying, low-prestige jobs.
c. It ignores the principle of equality.
d. It is a color-blind policy.

5. Of these four arguments, which of the following is the most plausible argument AGAINST affirmative action?
a. Compensatory justice forbids affirmative action.
b. Blacks and whites are already equal in socioeconomic terms.
c. Affirmative action violates the rights of white men to equal treatment.
d. Affirmative action is the same thing as fixed numerical quotas.

6. Advocates of “comparable worth”
a. say that all women do their job just as well as men.
b. base their doctrine on the free-market determination of wages.
c. believe it is necessary for getting rid of sexual harassment.
d. want women to be paid as much as men for jobs involving equivalent skill, effort, and responsibility.

7. Which of the following is an example of sexual harassment?
a. Unwelcome sexual offers a female employer gives to a male employee.
b. A female employee hugging a co-worker when he announces his engagement.
c. A manager enforcing a dress code for a work environment.
d. An employee pinning up comic strips in an office cubicle.

8. Sexual comments that one woman appreciates might distress another women. Who decides when such behavior is inappropriate?
a. The person to whom the comments are directed.
b. The person accused of harassment.
c. The hypothetical “reasonable person.”
d. The common law as modified by legislation.

9. The 1984 Supreme Court decision in Memphis Firefighters v. Stotts
a. treated sexual harassment as a form of discrimination.
b. upheld seniority over affirmative action.
c. upheld the legality of hiring quotas.
d. upheld the legality of mandatory drug testing.

10. In 1987, the Supreme Court affirmed, in the case of Johnson v. Transportation Agency, that
a. affirmative action is unconstitutional.
b. quotas based on considerations of race are unconstitutional.
c. considerations of sex are permissible as one factor in deciding whom to promote.
d. racially segregated schooling is unconstitutional.

11. Which of the following statements is accurate?
a. Men cannot be victims of sexual harassment.
b. The Supreme Court has established a hard and fast line between permissible and impermissible affirmative action plans.
c. The law treats sexual harassment as a form of sexual discrimination.
d. Differences in levels and types of education explain why, on the average, men earn more than women.

12. When investigators sent equally qualified young white and black men—all of them articulate and conventionally dressed—to apply for entry-level jobs in Chicago and Washington, D.C., the results clearly showed
a. sexual discrimination against young African-American men.
b. racial discrimination against young African-American men.
c. sexual discrimination against young white men.
d. racial discrimination against young white men.

13. What quality is more important in predicting who gets fired than job-performance ratings or even prior disciplinary history?
a. race b. sexual orientation c. age d. gender

14. Male managers frequently assume that women
a. will not place family demands above work considerations.
b. possess the necessary drive to succeed in business.
c. take negative feedback professionally rather than personally.
d. are too emotional to be good managers.

15. What do affirmative action programs involve?
a. Firms should prepare an oral equal-employment policy and an affirmative action commitment.
b. Firms should appoint an administrative assistant to direct and implement their program and to publicize their policy and affirmative action commitment.
c. Firms are expected to survey current
female and minority employment by department and job classification.
d. Whenever underrepresentation of females or minorities is evident, firms are to try a little harder.

16. Fill in the blank. Today most large corporations not only accept the necessity of affirmative action but also find that _______________ benefits when they make themselves more diverse?
a. the morale of the company c. the law department
b. the bottom line d. the managers

17. Many Americans oppose what issue because they fear it will lead to illegal quotas, preferential treatment of African Americans and women, and even reverse discrimination against white men?
a. affirmative action c. sexual harassment
b. sexual diversity d. age discrimination

18. Over the last two decades, how many sexual-harassment claims have emerged?
a. over 12,000 annually. c. over 25,000 annually.
b. over 15,000 annually. d. over 50,000 annually.

19. There are two legal types of sexual harassment:
a. male to female, female to male.
b. male to male, female to female.
c. boss to worker, worker to boss.
d. “quid pro quo’’ and “hostile work environment.’’

20. To answer the question of who determines what is objectionable or offensive in sexual harassment, the courts use what kind of hypothetical person?
a. reasonable person c. hysterical person
b. sensual person d. management person

21. One message that sexual harassment conveys is that managers view women as
a. assets. b. equals. c. high potentials. d. playthings.

22. What should a female employee do if she encounters sexual harassment?
a. She must decide if she likes the attention.
b. She should try to document it by keeping a record of what has occurred, who was involved, and when it happened.
c. Keep it to herself and never tell a soul.
d. Go on a talk show and tell her story.

23. According to Shaw and Barry, companies clearly have what kind of obligation to provide a work environment in which employees are free from sexual harassment?
a. legal b. moral c. environmental d. personal

24. Opponents of comparable worth insist which one of these ideas support their position?
a. Most women want a rigid schedule.
b. Most women want the most challenging job.
c. Most women have chosen the higher paying occupations.
d. Most women have freely chosen the lower paying occupations.

25. Affirmative action, comparable worth, and sexual harassment are connected to
a. job performance. b. job discrimination. c. job analysis. d. job description.

TRUE/FALSE

1. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.

2. Experts distinguish two types of sexual harassment. “Hostile work environment” is one of them.

3. The Supreme Court has ruled that sexual favoritism is a form of sexual harassment and is therefore illegal.

4. To discriminate in employment is to make an adverse decision against an employee or job applicant based solely on his or her membership in a certain class.

5. The Supreme Court, in its 1978 ruling in the case of Bakke v. Regents of the University of California, upheld the University’s right to reserve entrance places in its medical school for minorities.

6. The terms “affirmative action” and “reverse discrimination” are synonymous.

7. Kantians would repudiate sexual or racial job discrimination as disrespectful to our humanity.

8. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 allowed sexual and racial discrimination at work until overturned by the Supreme Court.

9. “Affirmative action” refers to programs taking the race and sex of employees and job candidates into account as part of an effort to correct imbalances in employment that exist as a result of past discrimination, either in the company itself or in the larger society.

10. The issue of comparable worth pits against each other two cherished American values: the ethic of nondiscrimination verses the free enterprise system.

11. The only true form of job discrimination is intentional and individual.

12. Catherine A. MacKinnon describes sexual harassment as sexual attention imposed on someone who is not in a position to refuse it.

13. An isolated or occasional remark or innuendo inevitably constitutes sexual harassment.

14. According to the Supreme Court, men cannot be the victims of sexual harassment.

15. The courts view sexual harassment as a kind of sexual discrimination.

16. The 1995 case Adarand Constructors v. Pena shows that, after years of disagreement, the Supreme Court is now unanimous on the issue of affirmative action.

17. Job discrimination involves prejudice, inaccurate stereotypes, or the assumption that a certain group is inferior and deserves unequal treatment.

18. Some companies view diversity in the workplace as a competitive advantage.

19. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 applies to all employers, both public and private, with twenty five or more employees.

20. Executive Order 10925 decreed that federal contractors should “make rigid quotas to ensure that applicants are employed without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.’’

21. Women entering male turf, or minority workers of either sex going into a predominantly white work environment, can find themselves uncomfortably being measured by a white male value system.

22. Statistics by themselves do not prove discrimination.

23. A survey shows that three out of four whites believe that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely than whites to prefer living on welfare, and a majority of whites also believe that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to be lazy, unpatriotic, and prone to violence.

24. Anti-discrimination laws do not address the present-day effects of past discrimination.

25. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (later amended by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972) prohibits all forms of discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.

SHORT ANSWER

1. Job discrimination occurs if three conditions are met. What are they?

2. Job discrimination can be individual or intentional. What are two other forms that job discrimination can take?

3. What is some of the statistical evidence of job discrimination?

4. What is some of the attitudinal evidence of job discrimination?

5. What did the Supreme Court decide in 1954 in the case of Brown v. Board of Education?

6. What does Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act say?

7. EEOC lists steps to affirmative action. Name two of them.

8. Explain the importance of the 1978 case, Bakke v. Regents of the University of California.

9. What is the Supreme Court’s current view of affirmative action (as evidenced by the Michigan cases Gratz and Grutter)?

10. Affirmative action should be distinguished from reverse discrimination. What is the difference?

11. What is the doctrine of comparable worth? On what grounds do opponents of comparable worth criticize it?

12. What evidence do we have that sexual harassment is harmful to people?

13. What is an example of strong evidence that racial or sexual discrimination exists?

14. What steps should a male or female employee take when encountering sexual harassment?

ESSAY

1. Explain in your own words the pros and cons of the against affirmative action that “affirmative action injures white men and violates their rights.”

2. Explain why sexual harassment is unethical considering two moral theories.

3. Explain why job discrimination is unethical considering two moral theories.

4. Is it unrealistic to imagine that there will be no sexual interaction between men and women in the workplace? Produce the reasoning on both sides of the argument.

5. Should the sexual orientation of gays and lesbians be protected against discrimination? Justify your answer.

BUS 309 Week 11 Quiz – Strayer University New

BUS/309 Week 11 Quiz – Strayer

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Quiz 10 Chapter 11

Job Discrimination

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following is true based on documented evidence of discrimination?
a. African Americans have the third highest standard of living in the world.
b. Today, men are just as likely as women to be in so-called “pink collar” occupations.
c. There is little statistical evidence of job discrimination today.
d. Relatively few women and minorities have made it to the very top of their professions.

2. A historical view indicates which of the following is correct?
a. Statistical evidence is irrelevant to proving discrimination.
b. Women and blacks are sometimes victimized by stereotypes.
c. The idea that women may have difficulties fitting into a “male” work environment is outdated.
d. On average women earn between 1/3 and 1/2 of what men make for doing the very same work.

3. Which of these statements is true concerning court cases about discrimination?
a. Brown v. Board of Education upheld the principle of “separate but equal.”
b. The Bakke case outlawed affirmative action across the board.
c. In the 2004 Holtz case, the Supreme Court ruled that “race-conscious” admissions policies are unconstitutional.
d. In the recent University of Michigan cases (Gratz and Grutter), the Supreme Court upheld a moderate, flexible affirmative action program and rejected a rigid one.

4. Of these four arguments, which of the following is the most plausible argument FOR affirmative action?
a. It evens the score with young white men, who have had it good for too long.
b. It is necessary to break the cycle that keeps minorities and women locked into low-paying, low-prestige jobs.
c. It ignores the principle of equality.
d. It is a color-blind policy.

5. Of these four arguments, which of the following is the most plausible argument AGAINST affirmative action?
a. Compensatory justice forbids affirmative action.
b. Blacks and whites are already equal in socioeconomic terms.
c. Affirmative action violates the rights of white men to equal treatment.
d. Affirmative action is the same thing as fixed numerical quotas.

6. Advocates of “comparable worth”
a. say that all women do their job just as well as men.
b. base their doctrine on the free-market determination of wages.
c. believe it is necessary for getting rid of sexual harassment.
d. want women to be paid as much as men for jobs involving equivalent skill, effort, and responsibility.

7. Which of the following is an example of sexual harassment?
a. Unwelcome sexual offers a female employer gives to a male employee.
b. A female employee hugging a co-worker when he announces his engagement.
c. A manager enforcing a dress code for a work environment.
d. An employee pinning up comic strips in an office cubicle.

8. Sexual comments that one woman appreciates might distress another women. Who decides when such behavior is inappropriate?
a. The person to whom the comments are directed.
b. The person accused of harassment.
c. The hypothetical “reasonable person.”
d. The common law as modified by legislation.

9. The 1984 Supreme Court decision in Memphis Firefighters v. Stotts
a. treated sexual harassment as a form of discrimination.
b. upheld seniority over affirmative action.
c. upheld the legality of hiring quotas.
d. upheld the legality of mandatory drug testing.

10. In 1987, the Supreme Court affirmed, in the case of Johnson v. Transportation Agency, that
a. affirmative action is unconstitutional.
b. quotas based on considerations of race are unconstitutional.
c. considerations of sex are permissible as one factor in deciding whom to promote.
d. racially segregated schooling is unconstitutional.

11. Which of the following statements is accurate?
a. Men cannot be victims of sexual harassment.
b. The Supreme Court has established a hard and fast line between permissible and impermissible affirmative action plans.
c. The law treats sexual harassment as a form of sexual discrimination.
d. Differences in levels and types of education explain why, on the average, men earn more than women.

12. When investigators sent equally qualified young white and black men—all of them articulate and conventionally dressed—to apply for entry-level jobs in Chicago and Washington, D.C., the results clearly showed
a. sexual discrimination against young African-American men.
b. racial discrimination against young African-American men.
c. sexual discrimination against young white men.
d. racial discrimination against young white men.

13. What quality is more important in predicting who gets fired than job-performance ratings or even prior disciplinary history?
a. race b. sexual orientation c. age d. gender

14. Male managers frequently assume that women
a. will not place family demands above work considerations.
b. possess the necessary drive to succeed in business.
c. take negative feedback professionally rather than personally.
d. are too emotional to be good managers.

15. What do affirmative action programs involve?
a. Firms should prepare an oral equal-employment policy and an affirmative action commitment.
b. Firms should appoint an administrative assistant to direct and implement their program and to publicize their policy and affirmative action commitment.
c. Firms are expected to survey current
female and minority employment by department and job classification.
d. Whenever underrepresentation of females or minorities is evident, firms are to try a little harder.

16. Fill in the blank. Today most large corporations not only accept the necessity of affirmative action but also find that _______________ benefits when they make themselves more diverse?
a. the morale of the company c. the law department
b. the bottom line d. the managers

17. Many Americans oppose what issue because they fear it will lead to illegal quotas, preferential treatment of African Americans and women, and even reverse discrimination against white men?
a. affirmative action c. sexual harassment
b. sexual diversity d. age discrimination

18. Over the last two decades, how many sexual-harassment claims have emerged?
a. over 12,000 annually. c. over 25,000 annually.
b. over 15,000 annually. d. over 50,000 annually.

19. There are two legal types of sexual harassment:
a. male to female, female to male.
b. male to male, female to female.
c. boss to worker, worker to boss.
d. “quid pro quo’’ and “hostile work environment.’’

20. To answer the question of who determines what is objectionable or offensive in sexual harassment, the courts use what kind of hypothetical person?
a. reasonable person c. hysterical person
b. sensual person d. management person

21. One message that sexual harassment conveys is that managers view women as
a. assets. b. equals. c. high potentials. d. playthings.

22. What should a female employee do if she encounters sexual harassment?
a. She must decide if she likes the attention.
b. She should try to document it by keeping a record of what has occurred, who was involved, and when it happened.
c. Keep it to herself and never tell a soul.
d. Go on a talk show and tell her story.

23. According to Shaw and Barry, companies clearly have what kind of obligation to provide a work environment in which employees are free from sexual harassment?
a. legal b. moral c. environmental d. personal

24. Opponents of comparable worth insist which one of these ideas support their position?
a. Most women want a rigid schedule.
b. Most women want the most challenging job.
c. Most women have chosen the higher paying occupations.
d. Most women have freely chosen the lower paying occupations.

25. Affirmative action, comparable worth, and sexual harassment are connected to
a. job performance. b. job discrimination. c. job analysis. d. job description.

TRUE/FALSE

1. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.

2. Experts distinguish two types of sexual harassment. “Hostile work environment” is one of them.

3. The Supreme Court has ruled that sexual favoritism is a form of sexual harassment and is therefore illegal.

4. To discriminate in employment is to make an adverse decision against an employee or job applicant based solely on his or her membership in a certain class.

5. The Supreme Court, in its 1978 ruling in the case of Bakke v. Regents of the University of California, upheld the University’s right to reserve entrance places in its medical school for minorities.

6. The terms “affirmative action” and “reverse discrimination” are synonymous.

7. Kantians would repudiate sexual or racial job discrimination as disrespectful to our humanity.

8. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 allowed sexual and racial discrimination at work until overturned by the Supreme Court.

9. “Affirmative action” refers to programs taking the race and sex of employees and job candidates into account as part of an effort to correct imbalances in employment that exist as a result of past discrimination, either in the company itself or in the larger society.

10. The issue of comparable worth pits against each other two cherished American values: the ethic of nondiscrimination verses the free enterprise system.

11. The only true form of job discrimination is intentional and individual.

12. Catherine A. MacKinnon describes sexual harassment as sexual attention imposed on someone who is not in a position to refuse it.

13. An isolated or occasional remark or innuendo inevitably constitutes sexual harassment.

14. According to the Supreme Court, men cannot be the victims of sexual harassment.

15. The courts view sexual harassment as a kind of sexual discrimination.

16. The 1995 case Adarand Constructors v. Pena shows that, after years of disagreement, the Supreme Court is now unanimous on the issue of affirmative action.

17. Job discrimination involves prejudice, inaccurate stereotypes, or the assumption that a certain group is inferior and deserves unequal treatment.

18. Some companies view diversity in the workplace as a competitive advantage.

19. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 applies to all employers, both public and private, with twenty five or more employees.

20. Executive Order 10925 decreed that federal contractors should “make rigid quotas to ensure that applicants are employed without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.’’

21. Women entering male turf, or minority workers of either sex going into a predominantly white work environment, can find themselves uncomfortably being measured by a white male value system.

22. Statistics by themselves do not prove discrimination.

23. A survey shows that three out of four whites believe that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely than whites to prefer living on welfare, and a majority of whites also believe that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to be lazy, unpatriotic, and prone to violence.

24. Anti-discrimination laws do not address the present-day effects of past discrimination.

25. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (later amended by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972) prohibits all forms of discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.

SHORT ANSWER

1. Job discrimination occurs if three conditions are met. What are they?

2. Job discrimination can be individual or intentional. What are two other forms that job discrimination can take?

3. What is some of the statistical evidence of job discrimination?

4. What is some of the attitudinal evidence of job discrimination?

5. What did the Supreme Court decide in 1954 in the case of Brown v. Board of Education?

6. What does Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act say?

7. EEOC lists steps to affirmative action. Name two of them.

8. Explain the importance of the 1978 case, Bakke v. Regents of the University of California.

9. What is the Supreme Court’s current view of affirmative action (as evidenced by the Michigan cases Gratz and Grutter)?

10. Affirmative action should be distinguished from reverse discrimination. What is the difference?

11. What is the doctrine of comparable worth? On what grounds do opponents of comparable worth criticize it?

12. What evidence do we have that sexual harassment is harmful to people?

13. What is an example of strong evidence that racial or sexual discrimination exists?

14. What steps should a male or female employee take when encountering sexual harassment?

ESSAY

1. Explain in your own words the pros and cons of the against affirmative action that “affirmative action injures white men and violates their rights.”

2. Explain why sexual harassment is unethical considering two moral theories.

3. Explain why job discrimination is unethical considering two moral theories.

4. Is it unrealistic to imagine that there will be no sexual interaction between men and women in the workplace? Produce the reasoning on both sides of the argument.

5. Should the sexual orientation of gays and lesbians be protected against discrimination? Justify your answer.

BUS 309 Week 9 Quiz – Strayer University New

BUS 309 Week 9 Quiz – Strayer

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Quiz 8 Chapter 9

The Workplace (2): Today’s Challenges

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Privacy
a. is an absolute value.
b. must be respected if we are to function as complete, self-governing agents.
c. is something that employees today don’t care about.
d. is guaranteed by Article 3, section 3, of the Constitution.

2. The right to privacy of employees
a. takes priority over other moral considerations.
b. is clearly and unambiguously spelled out by the law.
c. may conflict with an organization’s legitimate interests.
d. has to be given up in an era of global competition.

3. When it comes to obtaining information about employees, a key concept is
a. informed consent. c. economic efficiency.
b. paternalism. d. positive externalities.

4. Which of the following is true?
a. a company is never permitted to test for legal drugs
b. drugs can’t harm employee performance
c. business writers agree that drug testing is more cost effective than voluntary drug assistance programs
d. media sensationalism and political posturing can get in the way of sensible answers to the drug problem

5. One key questionable premise underlying personality tests is
a. they sometimes screen out potentially creative or individualistic employees.
b. they presuppose that all employees can be validly placed in a small number of categories.
c. they can help determine job applicants’ areas of adequacy and inadequacy.
d. that all individuals can usefully and validly be placed into a relatively small number of categories of personality types and character traits.

6. Polygraph tests
a. are extraordinarily accurate contrary to what the critics say.
b. can produce false positives.
c. cannot reveal with certainty whether a person is or is not telling the truth.
d. are totally reliable because lying always triggers an involuntary response that truth telling does not.

7. The Hawthorne effect shows that
a. quality control circles are important.
b. middle managers are affected by the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the workers they supervise.
c. attention and recognition can enhance worker productivity and motivation.
d. trade-offs have to be made between productivity and quality of work life.

8. Businesses cite several reasons for using polygraphs to detect lying. Which of the following is one of those reasons?
a. the polygraph is a fast and economical way to verify the information provided by a job applicant.
b. polygraph tests cannot be beaten.
c. the polygraph can reveal with certainty that a person is or is not telling the truth.
d. the polygraph allows companies to increase the number of audits.

9. Used properly, personality tests serve two purposes in the work place. Which of the following is one of those purposes?
a. Personality tests help screen applicants for jobs by indicating areas of adequacy and inadequacy.
b. Personality tests help to determine whether an applicant is a drug user.
c. Personality tests help determine how little the business has to pay an applicant if hired.
d. Personality tests help determine if an applicant will be willing to work for low pay.

10. Which statement has the proper perspective about drug testing?
a. Due process need not be followed by a business implementing a drug-testing program for its employees.
b. The government has always opposed testing Federal employees for cocaine and other illicit drugs.
c. Drug testing can only be defensible when it is really pertinent to employee performance and when there is a lot at stake.
d. Informed consent need not be observed by a business implementing a drug testing program for its employees.

11. Douglas McGregor rejects Theory X, which holds that
a. when explained properly, everyone will favor drug-testing programs.
b. workers essentially dislike work and will do everything they can to avoid it.
c. workers basically like work and view it as something natural and potentially enjoyable.
d. sexual harassment is a form of discrimination.

12. An early 1970s government study (“Work in America”) identified three chief sources of worker dissatisfaction. Which of the following is one of those sources?
a. industry’s preoccupation with quality, not quantity
b. the rigidity of rules and regulations
c. the relatively small size of most U.S. corporations
d. mandatory drug testing programs used by many U.S. corporations

13. A fact about job satisfaction is
a. longevity does not correlate with job satisfaction.
b. the U.S. leads the world in the provision of childcare.
c. a lack of job satisfaction can create mental health problems.
d. worker participation and improved QWL always boost productivity.

14. Out of these four, which one is the only correct statement concerning OSHA?
a. Critics call OSHA a “toothless tiger”.
b. OSHA regulates the shifts people work.
c. OSHA says few accidents are caused by sleep deprivation and fatigue.
d. OSHA states the key to worker safety is improved engineering.

15. The most accurate statement about workplace safety is:
a. workers are often unaware of the hazards they face on the job
b. employees, not their employers, are responsible for creating a safe workplace
c. in an average year, 150 workers are killed on the job
d. according to experts, industrial accidents “just happen”

16. “Corporate in-fighting,” “management power struggles,” “maneuvering and politics and power grabbing,” and “Machiavellian intrigues” are all phrases H. Ross Perot uses to describe
a. the reality of family life today. c. the reality of the lunch room.
b. the reality of corporate life today. d. the reality of the drive into work.

17. Forty-three thousand workers each year are
a. killed on the job. c. injured on the job.
b. laid off. d. fall asleep on the job.

18. The proper approach to promote safety is to change the “hidden culture” to
a. pay employees more. c. hides injuries.
b. be proactively oriented toward safety. d. refuse to talk openly about safety.

19. The most common reason that people leave their jobs is
a. low wages.
b. too much overtime.
c. a poor relationship with their immediate supervisor.
d. lousy benefits.

20. One of the three chief sources for dissatisfaction in the workplace is
a. lack of opportunities to be promoted faster.
b. lack of opportunities to have a company vehicle.
c. lack of opportunities to have one’s own office.
d. lack of opportunities to be one’s own boss.

21. When employees at all occupational levels are asked to rank what is important to them, the order that put them in is:
a. good pay; enough authority to carry out the work; sufficient help, support, and information; and interesting work.
b. interesting work; sufficient help, support, and information to accomplish the job; enough authority to carry out the work; and good pay
c. sufficient help, support, and information to accomplish the job; interesting work; enough authority to carry out the work,and good pay
d. enough authority to carry out the work; good pay; interesting work; and sufficient help, support, and information
to accomplish the job

22. Which of the following is a true statement about the information gained from polygraph tests?
a. The information the organization seeks does not have to be related to the job.
b. The organization has used the polygraph as the easiest way to gather the information it wants.
c. Test results should be made public.
d. Not only should the organization have job-related grounds for using the polygraph, but these must be compelling enough to justify violating the individual’s privacy and psychic freedom.

23. Many major employers routinely monitor the performance of their employees through the computers and telephones they use. Employers are allowed to
a. check the number of keystrokes that word processors enter during the day.
b. eavesdrop on e-mail.
c. eavesdrop on fax transmissions.
d. eavesdrop on cell phone conversations.

24. A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that postal workers who tested positive for drug use in a pre-employment urine test were at least 50 percent more likely to be
a. promoted.
b. transferred.
c. honored for community service.
d. fired, injured, disciplined, or absent than those who tested negative.

25. The United States has more of what per employee than any other industrial nation?
a. timeclocks c. sprains and strains
b. work injuries d. managers

TRUE/FALSE

1. As a general rule, the burden is on an organization to establish the legitimacy of infringing on what would normally be considered the personal sphere of the individual.

2. There is a general consensus among philosophers and lawyers about how to define the right to privacy.

3. Informed consent implies deliberation and free choice.

4. The Employee Polygraph Protection Act permits most private employers to use lie detectors in “pre-employment testing.”

5. One problem that OSHA will have to address in the future is the increasing number of musculoskeletal disorders.

6. Increased productivity by changing the color of the surrounding working environment is known as the “Hawthorne effect.”

7. Notification of employee monitoring constitutes consent on the part of the employee to be monitored.

8. Privacy is widely acknowledged today to be a fundamental right.

9. The general proposition that a firm has a legitimate interest only in employee behavior that significantly influences work performance applies equally to off-the-job conduct.

10. Businesses often claim polygraphs are a fast and economical way to verify the information provided by a job applicant.

11. If a polygraph test is 95 percent accurate, there are unlikely to be any “false positives.”

12. When used properly, personality tests can help screen applicants for jobs by indicating areas of adequacy and inadequacy.

13. Any drug-testing program, assuming it is warranted, must be careful to respect the dignity and rights of the persons to be tested.

14. According to published statistics, each year in the United States nearly 100,000 workers are killed on the job.

15. Employees have a legal right to refuse to work when it exposes them to imminent danger.

16. Fatigue and sleep deprivation are no longer prime causes of industrial accidents.

17. An early 1970s government survey of worker dissatisfaction identified that worker dissatisfaction has been linked to the industry’s preoccupation with quantity, not quality and the rigidity of rules and regulations.

18. One study suggests a positive correlation between job satisfaction and longevity.

19. Granting workers new responsibilities and respect can benefit the entire organization.

20. In 1928, U.S. Supreme Court Judge Louis D. Brandeis described the right to privacy, or “the right to be left alone,” as “the right most valued by men.”

21. No set of assumptions about human nature is absolutely correct or incorrect, nor is there one perfectly right way to manage.

22. The breaking up of jobs into smaller and smaller units, with each worker performing fewer tasks but repeating them thousands of times a day, has contributed to health problems in manufacturing.

23. OSHA requires safeguards whether or not they are “feasible.”

24. Shaw and Barry argue that the world of work tends to reproduce the traditional male-female division of labor within the family.

25. Granting workers new responsibilities and respect can benefit the entire organization.

SHORT ANSWER

1. Informed consent requires that two criteria be met. Briefly describe each of the criteria.

2. Give an example of legitimate, and an example of illegitimate, organizational influence over the individual.

3. Suppose that a company has 1,000 workers, 20 of whom are thieves. Suppose, too, that a polygraph test is 95 percent accurate. If the company subjects all its employees to a polygraph test, how many thieves will be identified? How many innocent employees will be falsely identified as thieves?

4. Explain one of the criticisms of personality tests in the workplace.

5. Different management theories rest on different theories of human nature. Explain one of the theories and how it could effect management.

6. Should one’s personal sexual conduct be taken into consideration for any professional job? If no, why not? If so, what job and why?

7. The text states that in the 1970s, “the government conducted a study of work in America … [and] identified three chief sources of worker dissatisfaction.” What are these three sources of worker dissatisfaction?

8. What is the Hawthorne Effect?

9. What moral considerations indicate that companies should provide childcare?

10. Do workplace accidents “just happen”?

ESSAY

1. Explain how the findings of the Hawthorne experiment should be applied to the workplace.

2. Should the activities of a teacher outside of the classroom and school be scrutinized? Should a teacher ever be dismissed for actions outside of the workplace? Justify your answers.

3. “Safety in the workplace is good business.” Justify this statement with information from this chapter.

4. “Women should be paid for maternity leave.” List the reasoning on both sides of this issue.

5. Is drug testing ever needed for a workplace? Justify your answer.

BUS 309 Week 8 Quiz – Strayer University New

BUS/309 Week 8 Quiz – Strayer

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Chapter 8—The Workplace (1): Basic Issues

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. According to David Ewing, two factors explain the absence of civil liberties and the prevalence of authoritarianism in the workplace. Which of the following is one of them?
a. discriminatory employment practices due to strict constructionist interpretations of the Constitution
b. the rise of personnel engineering and professional management
c. the common law doctrine of eminent domain
d. employer resistance to unionization

2. According to common law, to legally dismiss an employee, an employer
a. cannot have bad motives. c. must have good cause.
b. is obligated not to discriminate. d. need have no reason at all.

3. Which of the following is an accurate statement about employment law in the workplace?
a. It’s illegal to fire workers because of union membership.
b. Courts at all levels and in all states now agree that employees cannot be dismissed without just cause.
c. The civil liberties of employees have to be restricted for corporations to run efficiently.
d. More and more companies are moving toward “employment at will”.

4. Austin Fagothey and Milton Gonsalves believe a direct strike is justified
a. when it is motivated by revenge. c. when it is a last resort.
b. when workers are coerced into striking. d. under no conditions.

5. Groups of 18th century skilled artisans formed secret societies for two basic reasons. Which of the following is one of those reasons?
a. to equalize their relationship with their employers
b. to distinguish themselves from carpenters and shoemakers
c. to gain control of the German government
d. to avoid having to set minimal standards for their crafts

6. Choose the most accurate statement concerning the workplace:
a. If wages conform with the law, they are fair wages.
b. Employers have no obligation to dismiss workers as painlessly as possible.
c. An employer’s financial capabilities affect what constitutes a fair wage scale for that employer’s employees.
d. All instances of nepotism raise serious moral concerns.

7. According to David Ewing,
a. the corporate invasion of employees’ civil rights is rampant.
b. sympathetic strikes ought to be made illegal.
c. employers have the right to fill the positions of striking workers with other workers.
d. seniority ought not be a factor in making transfers or promotions.

8. To be successful any test used by a corporation must be
a. sound.
b. valid.
c. created outside the corporation using the test.
d. one that can be used by any organization for any position.

9. The Wagner Act of 1935
a. established the Food and Drug Administration.
b. prohibits employers from interfering with employees trying to organize unions.
c. guaranteed employers the right of refusing to bargain with union representatives.
d. guaranteed the right to work and outlawed union shops.

10. Unions employ two kinds of boycotts to enforce their demands. These two kinds of boycotts are
a. positive and negative. c. active and passive.
b. corporate and private. d. primary and secondary.

11. Which statement is true about the hiring and employment process?
a. A job description permits employers to rely on the preferences of their customers as a reason for discriminatory employment practices.
b. A job specification describes the qualifications an employee needs, such as skills, educational experience, appearance, and physical attributes.
c. According to common law, unless there is an explicit contractual provision to the contrary, every employment is employment “at will.”
d. In validating job specifications, a firm lists all pertinent details about a job, including its duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and physical requirements.

12. Griggs v. Duke Power Company, which prohibits
a. tests given to employees or applicants to have inconsistent results.
b. tests given to employees or applicants from being invalid.
c. tests given to employees or applicants from being unreliable.
d. employers from requiring a high school education as a prerequisite for employment or promotion without demonstrable evidence that the associated skills relate directly to job performance.

13. Which of the following is a correct statement about union activities?
a. A sympathetic strike occurs when workers who have no particular grievance of their own and who may or may not have the same employer decide to strike in support of others.
b. A corporate campaign occurs when people refuse to patronize companies that handle products of struck companies.
c. The 1947 Taft-Hartley Act forbids individual states from outlawing union shops.
d. Labor historians generally consider the American Federation of Labor (AFL) the first truly national trade union.

14. Since Congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1994,
a. all disabled persons must be hired.
b. employers must make “reasonable accommodations” for disabled workers.
c. employees must try to “undo” their disabilities.
d. employers must be careful to “screen” out disabled persons.

15. Choose the factual statement concerning wages:
a. An employer’s financial capabilities are irrelevant to the question of fair wages.
b. A fair wage is whatever an employee is willing to accept.
c. Extrinsic, non-job-related considerations are often relevant to setting fair wages.
d. A fair wage presupposes a fair work contract.

16. Employers have the right to fire an employee who performs inadequately, but they should do so
a. as painlessly as possible. c. in a public display so all can learn.
b. with vengeance. d. in humiliation.

17. Fair personnel policies and decisions must be based on criteria that are clear, job related, and
a. partial toward friends. c. ignore personality.
b. equally applied. d. minimize nepotism.

18. The hiring process needs to include screening, testing, and
a. safety awareness. c. interviewing.
b. eliminating candidates. d. job descriptions.

19. Which of these is a valid reason for not hiring a potential employee?
a. The person is overqualified.
b. There’s a gap in the person’s unemployment history.
c. The person dresses poorly.
d. The person has a lack of experience.

20. Tests are designed to measure the applicants’ skills in verbal, quantitative, and
a. ethical skills. b. empathy skills. c. logical skills. d. social skills.

21. In the interview process, the interview should avoid rudeness, coarseness, condescension, and
a. giddiness. b. hostility. c. sternness. d. questions.

22. The English philosopher Francis Bacon (1561–1626) called conscious and unconscious biases and stereotypes
a. “plagues of interviewing.” c. “the best tools.”
b. “idols of the mind.” d. “mind benders.”

23. The key moral ideal in promotions is
a. loyalty. b. likeability. c. intelligence. d. fairness.

24. Of the four types of discharge, firing
a. results from an employee’s poor
performance—that is, from his or her failure to fulfill expectations.
b. is for-cause dismissal—the result of employee theft, gross insubordination, release of proprietary information, and so on.
c. usually refers to the temporary unemployment experienced by hourly employees and implies that they are “subject to recall.”
d. designates the permanent elimination of a job as a result of workforce reduction, plant closing, or departmental consolidation.

25. In union terms, a direct strike occurs
a. when an organized body of workers withholds its labor to force the employer to comply with its demands.
b. when union members and their supporters refuse to buy products from a company being struck.
c. when workers who have no particular grievance of their own and who may or may not have the same employer decide to strike in support of others.
d. when people refuse to patronize companies that handle products of struck companies.

TRUE/FALSE

1. It is morally right for employers to dismiss employees for any reason.

2. Due process requires specific and systematic means for workers to appeal discharge or disciplinary decisions.

3. Inbreeding is the practice of showing favoritism to relatives and close friends.

4. A corporate campaign occurs when an organized body of workers withholds its labor to force an employer to comply with its demands.

5. According to common law, unless there is an explicit contractual provision to the contrary, every employment is employment at will and either side is free to terminate it at any time without advance notice or reason.

6. Just cause requires that reasons for discipline or discharge relate directly to job performance.

7. The Wagner Act of 1935 permitted firing workers because of union membership or union activities.

8. In a handful of American cities local ordinances prohibit discrimination against those who are short or overweight.

9. A job description describes the qualifications an employee needs, such as skills, educational experience, appearance, and physical attributes.

10. The express purpose of a boycott is the same as a strike — to hurt the employer and strengthen the union’s bargaining position.

11. When weighing the decisions to dismiss employees, companies need to remember that employment affects families and communities, not just individuals.

12. The reliability of a test refers to the quality of exhibiting a reasonable consistency in results obtained.

13. Inbreeding refers to longevity on a job or with a firm.

14. Nepotism is the practice of promoting exclusively from within the firm.

15. Labor historians generally consider the Knights of Labor (K of L), established in 1869, as the first truly national trade union.

16. A primary boycott occurs when people refuse to patronize companies that handle products of struck companies.

17. According to Shaw and Barry, a workplace environment in which employees are treated fairly and their inherent dignity respected is compatible with a firm’s business goals.

18. From the beginning, unions have been driven by an attempt to protect workers from abuses of power at the hands of employers.

19. If employees who don’t join the union get the same benefits as union members, this raises a question of fairness.

20. Job performance and the fairness of the work contract are relevant to the issue of fair wages.

21. Sympathetic strikes are ineffective.

22. The express purpose of a strike is the same as that of a boycott — to hurt the employer or company financially and strengthen the union’s bargaining position.

23. An individual is usually an equal with the employer in the negotiation process.

24. When most people fire another employee, they do it with great joy.

25. One of the chief concerns of nepotism is the disregard of managerial responsibilities to the organization and of fairness to other employees.

SHORT ANSWER

1. According to David Ewing, two historical factors lie behind the absence of civil liberties and the prevalence of authoritarianism in the workplace. What are these two factors?

2. What is the importance of the Wagner Act of 1935?

3. What is the difference between a “job description” and a “job specification”?

4. Sometimes the screening process unfairly excludes certain applicants. Give two examples.

5. Explain these concepts: seniority, inbreeding, and nepotism.

6. What does “just cause” require in situations of employee discipline or discharge? What does “due process” require?

7. Name three criteria that is relevant to the fairness of tests used for hiring employees.

8. How did the passage of the National Labor Relations Act in 1935 advance the cause of unionism?

9. What is the importance of the Taft-Hartley Act?

10. What’s the difference between a direct strike and a sympathetic strike?

ESSAY

1. How are unions relevant to business ethics? Justify your answer.

2. Should legislation be passed to require that some or all employees be paid a living wage? Justify your answer.

3. How is “just cause” and “due process” relevant to business ethics? Justify your answer.

4. What are the key principles of ethical interviewing? Justify your answer.

5. Do you agree with Austin Fagothey and Milton A. Gonsalves that strikes should only be given as a last result? Justify your answer.

BUS 309 Week 4 Assignment 1 – Strayer University New

BUS/309 Assignment 1 Occupy Wall Street Movement- A Graded Work
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Strayer BUS 309 Assignment 1: Occupy Wall Street Movement
Due Week 4 and worth 200 points
Use the Internet or the Strayer Library to research the “Occupy Wall Street” movement that began in the fall of 2011.
Write a 6-8 page paper in which you:
1. Discuss the moral and economic implications involved in the movement.
2. Analyze each of the implications identified above against the utilitarian, Kantian, and virtue ethics to determine which theory best applies to the movement. Support your position with examples and evidence.
3. Determine who is responsible for income inequality and wealth distribution in the U.S. In your analysis, make sure to include if this is something that happened suddenly or if it built up over time. Explain your rationale.
4. Suggest an equitable outcome from the movement that would be appropriate for our capitalistic society.
5. Predict whether the movement will continue, fad away, or turn into something else. Provide a rationale with your response.
6. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
 Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
 Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. 
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
 Explain the considerations for and process of ethical business decision making to balance corporate and social responsibilities and address moral, economic, and legal concerns.
 Explain the concepts of justice and the factors that constitute rights using the predominant ethical theories such as utilitarian, Kantian, and virtue ethics.
 Use technology and information resources to research issues in business ethics.
 Write clearly and concisely about business ethics using proper writing mechanics.

BUS 309 Week 8 Assignment 2 – Strayer University New

BUS/309 Assignment 2 Poverty and Pollution Case Study
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Strayer BUS 309 Assignment 2: Poverty and Pollution Case Study
Due Week 8 and worth 300 points
Read Case 7.2 titled “Poverty and Pollution,” prior to starting this assignment.
Write a 6-8 page paper in which you:
1. Determine the ethical implications of businesses polluting in a third world country. Explain your rationale.
2. Suggest the reasons a business may conduct operations in a third world country and disregard any standards of pollution control.
3. It has been said that pollution is the price of progress. Assess the connections between economic progress and development, on the one hand, and pollution controls and environmental protection, on the other.
4. Support the argument that human beings have a moral right to a livable environment regardless of the country they live in.
5. Take a position on whether wealthy nations have an obligation to provide poorer nations with, or help them develop, greener industries and sources of energy. Explain your rationale.
6. Propose a plan for uniform global pollution control standards and how you would enforce them.
7. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
 Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
 Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.

BUS 309 Week 5 Quiz – Strayer University New

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Chapter 4—The Nature of Capitalism

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following historical stages of capitalism came first?
a. financial b. mercantile c. industrial d. state welfare

2. The profit motive
a. is a fundamental feature of all societies.
b. is no longer a key feature of capitalism.
c. must be checked by competition if society is to benefit.
d. is basically immoral.

3. A basic tenet of capitalism is that
a. property refers only to physical objects.
b. ownership is a simple relationship between a person and the thing owned.
c. capitalism requires private ownership of the major means of production.
d. in the 21st century, capitalism no longer requires capital.

4. The concept of the “invisible hand” means
a. pursuit of private gain will bring the best overall results.
b. although it can’t be seen, the hand of government controls the economy.
c. feudalism inevitably gives rise to capitalism.
d. externalities must be internalized.

5. A basic premise of Adam Smith’s invisible hand argument is
a. human beings try to avoid acquisitive behavior.
b. when people are left to pursue their own economic interests, disaster looms.
c. the division of labor, though good for the firm, reduces overall efficiency.
d. We often get what we want from others by offering something they need from us.

6. One of the key features of capitalism is
a. favoritism. b. cooperation. c. inequality. d. competition.

7. Some critics of capitalism believe that it rests on a flawed view of human beings because
a. capitalism produces equality.
b. capitalism eliminates poverty.
c. capitalism assumes that well-being comes from greater material consumption.
d. capitalism offers a higher sense of purpose.

8. One reason for believing that in practice capitalism fails to live up to its own ideal of competition is
a. we have government subsidies and protective tariffs.
b. monopolies control almost all areas of economic life.
c. so many small companies go bankrupt.
d. the outsourcing of jobs.

9. Karl Marx believed that
a. capitalist workers suffer from alienation.
b. capitalism no longer exploits workers.
c. industrialization does away with alienation.
d. workers are alienated from their products, but not from themselves or other people.

10. An assessment of work in America is
a. American manufacturing is growing faster than ever.
b. American corporations ignore short-term performance.
c. manufacturing still employs more people than government.
d. many manufacturing companies have become “hollow” or “weightless”.

11. An exclusive focus on short-term performance
a. is the best guarantee of a company’s long-term performance.
b. has helped to create a high-pressure environment conducive to fraud.
c. encourages long-term research and development.
d. hurts stock prices.

12. Evidence for the idea that American manufacturing is declining is
a. the fact that government now employs more people than manufacturing.
b. a reluctance to outsource.
c. fewer “hollow” corporations.
d. a shrinking trade deficit.

13. According to one survey of cultural values
a. Americans value work more than Japanese do.
b. for Americans, only good health is more important than work.
c. Americans typically value things like their children’s education and a satisfactory love life more than work.
d. Americans place no value on work, only on money.

14. Which statement best describes capitalism?
a. Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production and distribution is in state hands.
b. Capitalism is an economic system that operates under the profit motive.
c. Capitalism is an economic system that dispenses with competition.
d. Capitalism is an economic system where the profits generated belong to the state as a whole.

15. Which of the following is an accurate statement?
a. Adam Smith defends capitalism by appealing to the idea of a natural, moral right to property.
b. Adam Smith denies that human beings are, by nature, acquisitive creatures.
c. A common defense of capitalism is the argument that people have a fundamental moral right to property and that our capitalist system is simply the outcome of this natural right.
d. Utilitarians oppose capitalism in principle.

16. Marxism states
a. capitalism leads to a concentration of property and thus a concentration of resources and power in relatively few hands.
b. socialism will eventually be replaced by financial capitalism.
c. the means of production should be placed under the control of the bourgeoisie.
d. only workers who are poorly paid in a capitalist system are alienated.

17. Which of the following accurately reflects the concept of Marxism?
a. It is only within a capitalist economic system that workers are not alienated from the products of their labor.
b. Only workers who are poorly paid for their labor are alienated.
c. Within a capitalist economic system, the activity of labor is an end in itself and, as a result, has intrinsic value.
d. Labor is alienated in a capitalist economic system (in part) because the labor of a worker stands opposed to the worker as an autonomous power.

18. Which statement accurately describes capitalism?
a. Industrial capitalism is characterized by pools, trusts, holding companies and an interpenetration of banking, insurance and industrial interests.
b. Mercantile capitalism emerged in the United States in the period directly following the civil war.
c. In state welfare capitalism the government plays an active role in regulating economic activities in an effort to smooth out the boom-and-bust pattern of the business cycle.
d. Financial capitalism developed in the period immediately prior to the Renaissance.

19. For employees who are paid handsomely for their efforts, Marx said their work would ultimately prove to be
a. profitable to them. c. meaningless to them.
b. expensive to them. d. tireless.

20. For the first time since the Industrial Revolution, less than _____ percent of the American workforce was employed by manufacturing.
a. 10 b. 25 c. 50 d. 62

21. Though many jobs are outsourced, most economists believe
a. Mexico is the place to work.
b. the United States is in trouble.
c. the economy will create new jobs in the USA.
d. manufacturing will make a comeback.

22. Many economists are concerned that the growing trade deficit makes the U.S. vulnerable to
a. terrorist attacks. c. ease.
b. depression. d. economic extortion.

23. Rather than strong work ethic, a common attitude is:
a. Me-first c. I like it easy
b. Happy days are here to stay d. Let the boss sweat it

24. How many Americans believe that “if you work hard enough, you’ll make it?”
a. One out of two. b. One out of three. c. One out of four. d. One out of five.

25. The Fugger dynasty was an example of
a. industrial capitalism. c. financial capitalism.
b. mercantile capitalism. d. globalized capitalism.

TRUE/FALSE

1. Worker control socialism is a hybrid economic system with no marketplace and no profits.

2. Utilitarians reject the very idea of a natural right to property.

3. If it’s true that individuals have a natural right to own property, then there can be no limits on this right.

4. Some critics believe that “competition is not a good” because trying to do well and trying to beat others are two different things.

5. Adam Smith claims that the people seeking self-interest in a free market through competition can benefit society as a whole.

6. Capitalism is possible without private property.

7. According to Marx, when workers are alienated they are not truly free.

8. None of the specific measures proposed by Marx and Engels in the Communist Manifesto have been implemented in capitalist countries.

9. Companies that in years past were identified with making goods of all sorts now are likely to produce only the package and the label.

10. Capital is that money that is invested for the purpose of making more money.

11. Socialism is an economic system characterized by public ownership of property and a planned economy.

12. According to Alfie Kohn, competition promotes individual and group achievement better than cooperation.

13. Outsourcing is a practice where companies buy parts or whole products from other producers, both at home and abroad.

14. The capitalism that we know today in the United States is a “pure” form of laissez-faire capitalism.

15. According to a socialist, the best economic system would be one where the means of production and distribution are in the hands of the bourgeoisie.

16. Government programs often subsidize American businesses and protect them from competition.

17. Implicit in capitalism is the view that human beings aim to maximize their economic self-interest.

18. According to Adam Smith, the division of labor decreases economic activity.

19. As a classical moral justification of capitalism, the natural right to property is a utilitarian justification.

20. The sense of private property that is central to capitalism is the ownership of the means of production and distribution.

21. What we call capitalism did not fully emerge until the Renaissance in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries.

22. Socialism is an economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production and distribution, and a planned economy.

23. The U. S. trade deficit has shrunk significantly in recent decades.

24. Property ownership involves a generally complex bundle of rights and rules governing how, under what circumstances, and in what ways both the owner and others can use, possess, dispose of, and have access to the thing in question.

25. According to John Stuart Mill, what makes capitalism a desirable economic system is the type of worker-capitalist relationship inherent in capitalism.

SHORT ANSWER

1. What is the difference between capitalism and socialism? What is “worker control socialism”?

2. What are the five different historical forms of capitalism?

3. What are the four features of capitalism?

4. Sometimes capitalism is defended based on the idea that we have a natural right to property. How might this defense be criticized?

5. What is the “invisible hand” of Adam Smith?

6. How do defenders of capitalism respond to critics who point to the profound economic inequalities that characterize capitalist society?

7. Why do some critics of competition believe that it isn’t all that it’s cracked up to be?

8. What reason is there for thinking that American manufacturing is declining?

9. What does it mean to say that American companies are too focused on the short term?

10. What is capitalism’s view of human nature?

ESSAY

1. Can we justly criticize capitalism for leading to exploitation? Compare and contrast how this question can be answered using two different theories of ethics.

2. Is manufacturing vital to the success and well being of America? Justify your answer

3. Is Walmart a positive or negative influence on the American economy? Justify your position with information from the “One Nation Under Walmart” article.

4. What objection to laissez-faire do you find the most persuasive? How might one defend laissez-faire from such an objection?

5. How can you justify the role of “sweatshops” after reading the article, “In Defense of International Sweatshops”? Defend your position with facts.

Chapter 5—Corporations

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The statement that accurately describes corporations is
a. corporate shareholders have limited liability for their debts.
b. corporations must be “publicly held” and thus traded on the stock market.
c. corporations are always for-profit.
d. corporate shareholders are immediately entitled to any profits.

2. Corporations differ from partnerships and other forms of business association in two ways. One of these is that
a. they are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission.
b. they are formed simply by an agreement entered into among their members.
c. they must be publicly registered or in some way officially acknowledged by the law.
d. their shareholders are entitled to their share of the company’s profits as soon as they are ascertained or determined.

3. The first corporations
a. were towns, universities, and ecclesiastic orders.
b. emerged in the 19th century.
c. were government owned.
d. were profit-making associations.

4. Which of the following contributed to the more relaxed incorporation procedures of modern times?
a. The idea that incorporation is a by-product of the people’s right to associate, not a gift from the state.
b. The move from mercantilist thinking to a belief in Benjamin Franklin’s invisible hand.
c. The idea that incorporation is a gift from the state.
d. The thought that laissez-faire is a losing proposition..

5. In Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission, the U.S. Supreme Court
a. defined the free-speech rights of corporations for the first time.
b. defended the first Amendment right of corporations to spend money to support political candidates they favor.
c. said that banking procedures are to be regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
d. said that states should be permitted to distinguish between the rights of individuals and the rights of corporations.

6. A common point of contention about corporations is
a. corporate punishment is no different from individual punishment.
b. modern corporations no longer utilize a CID structure.
c. philosophers and business theorists disagree whether corporations are moral agents.
d. if corporations are moral agents, then this relieves individual human beings of any moral responsibility.

7. Milton Friedman argues that
a. corporations today should adopt a broader view of their social responsibilities than they have in the past.
b. corporate officials have a social responsibility that goes beyond serving the interests of their stockholders.
c. strict governmental controls are necessary if society is to maximize its overall economic well-being.
d. a business’s only social responsibility is to maximize profits within the rules of the game.

8. Which of the following do advocates of the broader view of corporate social responsibility believe?
a. Corporations should not internalize their externalities.
b. Moral responsibility arises from social power.
c. Corporations have moral obligations to consumers, to employees, to suppliers and contractors, to the surrounding community, and to society at large.
d. The moral contract between business and society has changed since the 19th century.

9. Some argue for the narrow view of corporate social responsibility on the ground that managers have a fiduciary responsibility to maximize the profits of their shareholders. As discussed in Chapter 5, one problem with this argument is that
a. companies do not usually have a clear chain of command.
b. promises don’t override all our other obligations.
c. managers don’t always know how to maximize profits.
d. stockholders don’t expect company managers to make money for them.

10. Which of the following is one of the three arguments in favor of narrow corporate social responsibility discussed in Chapter 5?
a. business-can-handle-it c. society-lacks-the-expertise
b. let-government-do-it d. visible-hand

11. One of the three important “limits to what the law can do” discussed by Christopher Stone is
a. laws are passed before there is any real problem to worry about.
b. consumers don’t want further legal regulation.
c. designing effective regulations is difficult.
d. regulators are often “bought off” by corporations.

12. Kenneth Arrow discussed two important situations in which profit maximization can be socially inefficient. One of these occurs when
a. there is an imbalance of knowledge between buyer and seller.
b. business would be an “inept custodian” of public values.
c. firms are unwilling or simply refuse to maximize profits.
d. corporate culture promotes dysfunctional social relations.

13. Externalities are
a. always positive, never negative.
b. a blessing in disguise in inflationary times.
c. an inevitable by-product of social responsibility.
d. unintended side-effects.

14. Milton Snoeyenbos argues that
a. settled economic life requires purely selfish behavior.
b. with ethical codes, there’s no need for taxes, laws, or regulations as a way of controlling corporate behavior.
c. Corporate moral codes can make it more reasonable to expect employees to behave ethically.
d. to be viable, ethical codes need not be widely accepted or part of corporate culture.

15. The best statement concerning corporations is
a. corporations don’t need moral codes.
b. corporate culture refers to the cultural activities sponsored by the company for its employees.
c. pollution caused by corporations isn’t an externality.
d. corporate culture can be both explicit and implicit.

16. Momentum for the corporate organization of business really gained momentum after which war?
a. Revolutionary War c. Civil War
b. French and Indian War d. World War I

17. The debate over corporate moral agency hinges on which issue?
a. Corporate decision c. Individual responsibility
b. Corporate punishment d. Corporate fit

18. The idea that corporations are moral agents
a. is accepted by many people and companies without hesitation.
b. has not been accepted by the courts.
c. has not been accepted by any major corporation.
d. is supported by the fiduciary relationship between management and shareholders.

19. The “rules of the game” for corporate work are intended to
a. let the games begin. c. destroy the competition.
b. promote open and free competition. d. make business fun.

20. Milton Friedman’s perspective is that the only social responsibility of a business is to
a. provide social benefit for the messes.
b. give jobs to the hard workers.
c. pay taxes to keep the government operating.
d. make money for its owners.

21. Those with a broader view concerning business obligations believe that with power comes
a. more power. c. too many limits .
b. more money. d. social responsibility.

22. Melvin Anshen suggests that there is a relationship between business and society which he termed as
a. “share the wealth.”
b. “the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.”
c. “social contract.”
d. “one for all and all for one.”

23. Most Americans believe a corporation’s top obligation is to its
a. nation. b. stockholders. c. community. d. employees.

24. In the corporate world, the board of directors will typically
a. rubber stamp the policies and recommendations of the management.
b. write the policies and procedures.
c. be there just for show.
d. hire and fire people for key management positions.

25. Adam Smith proposed that in our pursuit of economic interests we are led by
a. our gut instincts. c. the trends of the economy.
b. an invisible hand to promote general good. d. the moral compass within each of us.

TRUE/FALSE

1. Most business observers agree with Berle and Means that, because stock ownership in large corporations is so dispersed, actual control of the corporation has passed to management.

2. Internal or external corporate responsibility audits can help improve a corporation’s “corporate culture.”

3. Corporate internal decision (CID) structures amount to established procedures for accomplishing specific goals.

4. “Limited liability” means that members of a corporation are financially liable for corporate debts only up to the extent of their investments.

5. The invisible-hand argument against broadening corporate responsibility says that business’s appetite for profit should be controlled by the hand of the government.

6. Milton Friedman argues that business has a responsibility to provide employment, refrain from polluting, and eliminate discrimination, even when it’s not profitable to do so.

7. Externalities are the unintended negative (or in some cases positive) consequences that an economic transaction between two parties can have on some third party.

8. The business-can’t-handle-it argument is an argument in favor of a broad view of corporate responsibility.

9. Legally a corporation is a thing that can endure beyond the natural lives of its members and that has incorporators who may sue and be sued as a unit and who are able to consign part of their property to the corporation for ventures of limited liability.

10. The case of Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission ruled that corporations could spend money to support political candidates.

11. Manuel Velasquez claims that the corporate internal decision structure of a corporation shows that a corporation can have both intentions and intentionality.

12. According to Milton Friedman, business has no social responsibilities other than to maximize profits so long as it follows the rules of the game.

13. Adherents of the broader view of corporate responsibility claim that modern business is intimately integrated with the rest of society and that, as a result, although society expects business to pursue its economic interests, business has other responsibilities as well.

14. According to Melvin Anshen, the case for a broad view of corporate responsibility can be defended on the basis of there always being a kind of social contract existing between business and society.

15. Externalities give us a reason to support the narrow view of corporate responsibility.

16. According to Keith Davis, in addition to considering potential profitability, a business must weigh the long-range social costs of its activities as well. A business should act only if the overall benefit to society is positive.

17. According to law professor Christopher D. Stone, the relationship between corporate management and its shareholders is identical with the relationship between you and an investment adviser.

18. John Kenneth Galbraith rejects the assumption that Smith’s invisible hand will solve all social and economic problems.

19. The idea that corporations will impose their values on us supports one of the arguments for the narrow view of corporate social responsibility.

20. In his essay “Social Responsibility and Economic Efficiency,” Kenneth Arrow has argued that corporations only have a responsibility to maximize shareholder profits.

21. An effective professional or business moral code—as well as the public’s awareness of this code—is never good for business.

22. It is never profitable for corporations to acknowledge that business should be conducted to make a positive contribution to society rather than just make a profit.

23. According to proponents of broadening corporate responsibility, corporations should welcome the outside opinions of society as a whole, local communities, customers, suppliers, employees, managers, and stockholders.

24. According to Kenneth Arrow, trust and confidence are highly overrated in business.

25. A corporate moral code should set reasonable goals and subgoals, with an eye on blunting unethical pressures on subordinates.

SHORT ANSWER

1. What is a corporation (or limited-liability company) and how does it differ from partnerships and other forms of business association? What are the different kinds of corporations?

2. Briefly sketch the evolution of corporations.

3. What is the problem of “vanishing individual responsibility?”

4. Briefly explain Milton Friedman’s view of social responsibility.

5. Explain the relevance of the concept of a fiduciary relationship to the debate over corporate social responsibility.

ESSAY

1. Describe the ethical challenges that Yahoo faces in the China market.

2. What is a moral issue raised by how drug companies are testing drugs? Apply a normative theory of ethics to this moral issue to explain why some people would think the drug companies are doing something immoral.

3. What has Yahoo done that could help countries violate human rights? Apply a normative theory of ethics to this moral issue to explain why Yahoo did something immoral.

4. Is Levi Strauss really hurting the people of Costa Rica by opening the operation there? List the pros and cons.

5. Does a company like Levi Strauss have an obligation to keep a plant open in the United States if it can be more profitable going to a foreign country? Share your reasoning.

If you were the owner of a company, would your perspective be any different?