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BUS 325 Week 9 Quiz – Strayer University New

BUS/325 Week 9 Quiz – Strayer

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Quiz 8 Chapter 8

International Compensation


1. Increased complexities in global pay include the decreased use of outsourced activities and subsequent labor pricing needs.

2. The competing objectives of the international firm and the expatriate employee are fundamentally different from that which exists in a domestic environment.

3. The term “base salary” acquires a somewhat different meaning when employees go abroad.

4. Base salary must be paid in local country currency.

5. Foreign service inducements are usually made in the form of a percentage of salary and usually amount to 30 to 60 percent of base pay.

6. The provision of a relocation allowance implies that employees should be entitled to maintain their home country living standards.

7. Many employers cover the expense of one or more trips back to the home country each year.

8. The provision of a cost-of-living allowance implies that the cost-of-living in the foreign assignment is higher than at home.

9. PCNs and TCNs do not usually receive the same treatment concerning educational expenses.

10. Pension plans are very easy to deal with from country-to-country, as national practices are similar

11. The Going Rate Approach is based on local market rates.

12. With the Going Rate Approach, if the location is in a low-pay country, the multinational usually supplements base pay with additional benefits and payments.

13. The Balance Sheet Approach links the base salary for PCNs and TCN to the salary structure of the relevant home country.

14. Generally the developed countries tend to rank as more expensive than developing countries because their wage costs are higher.

15. It is a common practice for MNEs to use a home-country balance sheet approach for TCNs except in the USA.

16. “Universal” pay systems may be preferred by corporate pay planners rather than having to deal with myriad “Local” systems.

17. Firms will never provide standardized “core” pay in the global firm.

18. Paying TCNs according to their home-country base salary can be less expensive than paying all expatriates on a PCN scale.

19. MNEs using the Balance Sheet approach to international compensation are constantly updating compensation packages for cost of living changes.

20. Obtaining up to date information on international living costs is a constant issue for multinationals.


1. Successfully managing compensation and benefits in a multinational context:
a. Requires knowledge of employment and taxation law, customs, environment, and employment practices of many foreign countries
b. Requires the use of both the going rate approach and the balance sheet approach to international compensation
c. Does not require familiarity with currency fluctuations
d. Does not require the use of any kind of base salary

2. In a domestic context, base salary:
a. Is the primary component of a package of allowances
b. Includes cost-of-living allowance
c. Denotes the amount of cash compensation serving as a benchmark for other compensation elements
d. Is determined by using the Going Rate Approach

3. Which of the following is the foundation block for international compensation whether the employee is a PCN or TCN?
a. Tax protection
b. Foreign service inducement/hardship premium
c. Allowances
d. Base salary

4. Which of the following involves a payment to compensate for differences in expenditures between the home country and the foreign country?
a. Home leave allowance c. Cost-of-living allowance
b. Housing allowance d. Relocation allowance

5. The provision of a housing allowance:
a. Is not often assessed on a case-by-case basis
b. Does not ever include a fixed housing allowance
c. Implies higher living standards
d. May include company-provided housing

6. The purpose of home leave allowances is to:
a. Compensate for differences in expenditures between the home country and the foreign country
b. Give expatriates the opportunity to renew family and business ties, thereby helping them to avoid adjustment problems when they are repatriated
c. Cover moving, shipping and storage charges, and temporary living expenses
d. Give employees a chance to leave their homes to tour their potential foreign assignment

7. Relocation allowances:
a. Do not usually cover temporary living expenses
b. Usually cover temporary living expenses
c. Cover discretionary items
d. Do not usually cover moving

8. MNEs generally pay allowances in order to:
a. Change the living standards of employees
b. Encourage employees to take international assignments
c. Avoid certain taxes
d. Discourage employees from taking international assignments

9. Most US PCNs typically:
a. Remain under their home country benefit plan
b. Adopt US benefit plans
c. Take advantage of both their home countries’ and the US’s benefit plans
d. Do not receive benefits, only allowances

10. Firms need to address many issues when considering benefits, including:
a. Whether or not to maintain expatriates in home-country programs
b. Whether or not to use the Going Rate Approach
c. Whether or not to use the Balance Sheet Approach
d. Whether or not expatriates should receive any social security benefits

11. Benefits that may be provided to employees include:
a. Base pay c. Vacations and special leave
b. Tax protection d. Cost-of-living allowances

12. The base salary for an international transfer is linked to the salary structure in the host country using:
a. Tax protection c. The Going Rate Approach
b. Tax equalization d. The Balance Sheet Approach

13. The Balance Sheet Approach:
a. Is the most widely used approach to international compensation
b. Relies on survey comparisons
c. Creates potential re-entry problems
d. Creates variation between expatriates of the same nationality in different countries

14. An advantage of the Going Rate Approach is that:
a. There is variation between assignments for the same employee
b. There is equality in pay with local nationals
c. There is equity between assignments
d. It results in fewer taxes

15. A disadvantage of the Balance Sheet Approach is that:
a. There can be variations between assignments for the same employee
b. There can be variations between expatriates of the same nationality in different countries
c. There may be potential re-entry problems
d. It can result in great disparities between expatriates of different nationalities and between expatriates and local nationals

16. The four categories of outlay incurred by expatriates that are incorporated in the Balance Sheet Approach are:
a. Goods and services, housing, income tax and reserve
b. Housing, base pay, goods and services and taxation
c. Taxation, housing, exchange rate and goods and services
d. Reserve, housing, taxation and evaluation cost

17. The most common taxation policy used by multinationals is:
a. Tax protection c. Tax equalization
b. Parent country national taxation d. No taxation

18. “Globals” are:
a. Expatriates c. Commuters
b. Permanent international assignees d. International travelers

19. Many multinationals respond to complexity of tax issues across countries by:
a. Ignoring all tax issues except for the Parent company
b. Retaining the services of international accounting firms
c. Having an in-house tax division to prepare all tax related forms and addresses all country tax issues
d. Leaving all tax issues up to the employee

20. A firm-external theory of job worth is influenced by:
a. Behavioral theory c. Cultural and institutional perspectives
b. Level of internationalization d. Local market conditions

21. Pay strategy may be defined in terms of a series of interlocking strategic choices on:
a. Basis of pay, units of aggregations, patterns of variation in pay and job evaluations
b. Industry/competition, size of organization, organizational structure and job evaluations
c. Employment relationships, corporate culture, basis of pay and job evaluation
d. Local market conditions, laws, basis of pay and job evaluations

22. An external, environmental norm in global pay strategy would be:
a. Traditional employment relationships c. Resource-based view of the firm
b. Labor unions and educational systems d. Institutional economics

23. Performance verses seniority is a strategic choice of pay strategy considered in:
a. Job evaluation system c. Internal equity
b. Units of aggregation d. Basis of pay

24. In a recent cost of living survey, the most expensive city to live in is:
a. London c. Zurich
b. New York d. Tokyo

25. The Top Five highest taxation countries are:
a. Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Australia and Italy
b. USA, Netherlands, France, Germany and China
c. China, Australia, Belgium, France and Malaysia
d. Taiwan, France, Netherland, Belgium and Australia

26. International compensation is characterized by:
a. Complexity, culture and corporation c. Complexity, challenges and choices
b. Complexity, cultural challenges d. Complexity, cooperation and competition

27. Global pay practices consist of firm level decisions about:
a. Pay mix, pay level and standardization versus localization
b. Pay levels, pay mix and hierarchy versus egalitarian basis
c. Pay levels, cultural norms and pay bases
d. Pay mix, pay culture and standardization versus localization

28. International compensation is:
a. On a practical level, simpler than a domestic pay system
b. Not considered critical for most multinational enterprises
c. Still essentially equivalent to the topic of expatriate pay practices in all multinational enterprises
d. More complex than domestic pay due to outsourcing and balancing centralizations and decentralization of pay forms

29. National and regional differences in the meaning practice and tradition of pay:
a. Are rapidly diminishing
b. Have practically disappeared with global cultural integration
c. Remain significant sources of variation in the international firm
d. Are actually increasing due to national and regional protectionist legislative mandates

30. A seamless network of pay providing members, made up of global firms, their specialist consultant and local and regional public and private interests are:
a. A reality
b. An impossibility
c. Not considered critical to MNEs executives
d. A goal not yet a reality

31. The “Local Plus” approach to international compensation
a. Pays expatriates solely based on prevailing local wage conditions
b. Provides nothing but benefits in transportation assistance, housing and dependent’s education
c. Combines some local pay practices with some expatriate benefits
d. Always includes tax equalization policies


1. Present the general objectives of international compensation for a firm.

2. List the objectives of international compensation for an employee.

3. Discuss the key components of an international compensation program.

4. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the Going Rate Approach to international compensation and the Balance Sheet Approach.

5. What are the three vertical levels of global pay strategies?

6. Describe some categories of Basis-for-Pay of strategic pay systems.

BUS 325 Week 8 Quiz – Strayer University New

BUS/325 Week 8 Quiz – Strayer

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CHAPTER 7: International Training, Development and Careers


1. An international assignment, in itself, is an important training and development tool.

2. Presently, MNEs place little priority on providing pre-departure training for spouses and family.

3. More multinationals are now expanding their pre-departure training programs to include programs for the spouse and family.

4. Professor Tung revised her recommendations for cross culture training, so that now she feels that there should be more emphasis in foreign language training.

5. An immersion approach to cross culture training would include role playing and stress reduction training.

6. A preliminary visit to a country is considered a necessary part of the selection process of any type of expatriate assignment and by all countries.

7. Language problems are largely viewed as mechanical and manageable problems that can be readily solved.

8. Chinese nationals are unwilling to accept English as a business language.

9. Culture awareness training is the most common form of pre-departure training.

10. Most expatriates are hired internally.

11. Relocation specialist provides practical assistance to expatriates.

12. Expatriates are often used for training because of a lack of suitably trained staff in the host locations.

13. HCNs may not be regarded as “genuine” expatriates as they are not trained in the same manner.

14. Non-expatriates are given the same cross culture training as expatriates.

15. A byproduct of working in an international team is becoming culturally aware.

16. There is an increasing interest in all aspects of training and development with a focus on practices in the economic super power China.

17. A repatriate may experience re-entry shock to the home country and may require training.

18. It is a wise policy for MNEs to encourage expatriate to travel to exotic locations during holidays.

19. Work-related information exchanges are part of any expatriate assignment.

20. Employees accepting international assignments can have cultural shock entering a host country and a cultural shock returning to home organizations.

21. Firms with career development planning have a higher rate of repatriate turnover.

22. The repatriate’s new position usually devalues the overseas experiences.

23. The returning repatriate will usually get a promotion upon reentry.

24. Repatriates working in a foreign location may have role conception and role behavior conflicts which are influenced by the cultural differences when they return home.

25. Children do not have a difficult re-entry problem when returning home.

26. A boundaryless careered person is committed to the multinational company and not one’s own career.

27. Multinationals are reinforcing the notion of a protean and boundaryless careers when they do not guarantee repatriates positions upon re-entry.

28. Cost reduction or containment is an important driver in international assignment trends.


1. A multinational builds it stock of human resources or human capital by:
a. Training and development activities c. Hiring from competitors
b. Buying stock in another company d. Keeping up with trends of hiring

2. An indication of how important training and development has become in multinationals is reflected in that they have:
a. Established their own universities
b. Stolen employees from competitors
c. Required college degrees for all employees
d. Increased their training budgets even during periods of economic decline

3. A useful way for employees to gain a broader perspective of an MNE is:
a. Matrix structures c. Short-term assignments
b. Job rotations d. Commuter

4. Components of pre-departure training programs include all of the following Except:
a. Cultural awareness training c. Language instruction
b. Practical assistance d. Technical refresher training

5. What is the most common form of pre-departure training?
a. Language c. Practical assistance
b. Culture awareness d. Exchange rate

6. If an expected level of interaction with local host country employees is low and similarity between the parent and the host country is high, the length of cross culture training would be:
a. Less than 1 week c. 4 weeks
b. 2 weeks d. 3 months

7. Preliminary visits to the host country:
a. Encourages more informed pre-department preparations
b. Is a perk in the recruitment process
c. Is discouraged in European countries
d. Is too expensive to be considered

8. Which language is considered the language of World Business?
a. Mandarin Chinese c. English
b. Spanish d. French

9. Disregarding the importance of foreign language skills may reflect ___________assumptions.
a. Multicentric c. Regiocentric
b. Polycentric d. Ethnocentric

10. One technique useful in orienting any international employee is a/an:
a. Interview with a host national
b. Preliminary visit to the host country
c. Review of the country or region in the news
d. Selection of readings about the history of the host country

11. A major objective of intercultural training is:
a. To make the assignee an expert in the host country
b. To help people cope with unexpected events in a new culture
c. To create a concern on the part of the assignee so they take the assignment seriously
d. Get the assignee through the first week or so of the assignment

12. Language skills are important in terms of:
a. Employee personal development
b. Travel and dining abilities
c. Recruitment and selection process
d. Task performance and cultural adjustment

13. The components of a pre-departure training referred to as “practical assistance” :
a. Provides information that assist in relocation
b. Provides money for transportation
c. Consist solely of language training
d. Is seldom provided to expatriates

14. The employee who trains the HCN is usually:
a. A line manager c. An expatriate
b. At headquarters d. An inpatriate

15. This type of employee may comprise the largest contingent of employees in international businesses
a. Expatriate c. Inpatriate
b. Non expatriate d. TCN

16. Expatriates appearing to have greater job satisfaction during and after their international assignment had:
a. Preliminary visits c. Integrated cross-cultural training
b. Language classes d. Higher compensation

17. International expertise is an outcome of
a. Cross-cultural training c. Practical assistance
b. MNE sponsored universities d. International assignments

18. Along with expected financial gains, the primary motive for accepting an international assignment is
a. Knowledge c. Career advancement
b. Travel d. Need

19. A sub-set form of an international team is a/an:
a. Expatriate c. Virtual team
b. TCN d. Commuter

20. There is a continuing pressure from developing countries for:
a. PCN transfers
b. Effective pre-departure training
c. Long term assignments
d. Localization of training and development initiatives

21. The “affective approach” to training partially consists of:
a. Cultural briefings and area briefings
b. Field experiments and simulations
c. Role-playing and case studies
d. Survival level language training and sensitivity training

22. Training and development is a critical component of an international assignee because:
a. Expatriates are trainers, part of the transfer of knowledge across units
b. Expatriates are not expected to ensure that systems and processes are adopted
c. Expatriates do not rely on assignments for developmental purposes
d. Expatriates are expected to return to the host country and train parent company employees

23. The benefits of international teams include:
a. Lower payroll cost and reducing turnover
b. Breaking down functional and national boundaries, enlarging communication flows
c. Standardizing inputs into decisions, problem solving strategies and providing uniform strategic assessments
d. Building formal control by way of policies and procedures

24. Repatriation:
a. Is the activity of bringing the expatriate back to the home country
b. Is one who works and temporally resides in a foreign country
c. Is a business traveler who performs tasks in a foreign country and then returns
d. Is a second expatriate assignment to the same location

25. The final stage in the expatriation process is:
a. Inpatriate c. Transpatriation
b. Repatriation d. Counterpatriation

26. The repatriation process is accomplished by three phases, all which are included below EXCEPT:
a. Pre-departure c. During the assignment
b. Recruitment and selection d. Upon return

27. Home leave and exotic vacations are included in the following phase of repatriation:
a. Pre departure phase c. During the assignment phase
b. Recruitment and selection phase d. Upon return phase

28. Sponsor or Mentors:
a. Facilitate the smooth transition into a foreign assignment
b. Are responsible for keeping the expatriate in touch with the changing conditions at home
c. Provide in-depth information on host country conditions
d. Often travel with the expatriate

29. Guarantee of a position at home upon completion of an overseas assignment were only given in one country as reported in a survey by Tung-Arthur Anderson in 1997. That country is:
a. USA c. Germany
b. Japan d. UK

30. A repatriate can encounter the following career anxiety job related factors EXCEPT:
a. Loss of visibility an isolation c. Culture shock
b. No post-assignment guarantee d. Workplace changes

31. If the multinational is in the process of a major restructuring, the aftermath of a merger or acquisition or sale of a division can result in:
a. Job shedding c. New factory building
b. Bankruptcy d. Matrix

32. Organizations seem to have a lower rate of repatriate turnover when:
a. A firm is downsizing
b. Bonuses are given upon reentry
c. An employee is married
d. Firm provides career development planning

33. What kind of position can the repatriate most likely expect upon re-entry:
a. Promotion c. Same position
b. No position d. Lateral position

34. Boundaryless careerists are:
a. Highly qualified mobile professionals c. Self-employed contract workers
b. Careers that consist of a job for life d. Jobs generated by a multinational

35. What is a main reason for multinationals to hire an “international itinerants?”
a. Higher control of activities c. Higher firm knowledge
b. Elimination of repatriation activities d. Foreign country knowledge of customs

36. Visible and concrete expression of the repatriate value to the firm can be accomplished by all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Promotion c. Completion bonus
b. Public ceremonies d. Private congratulations

TOP: Designing a Repatriation Program

37. It was calculated by Black and Gregersen that a US multinational will spend ________on each expatriate over the duration of the assignment:
a. No more than a regular employee c. Two million dollars
b. $ 500,000 d. One million dollars


1. What are the four components of pre-departure training programs that contribute to a smooth transition to a foreign location? Discuss each in turn.

2. What are the benefits of using international teams?

3. Even though language usually falls in importance behind cross culture training, what are some of the advantages of the expatriate being fluent in the host and parent language?

4. Discuss the components of the Mendenhall, Dunbar and Oddou cross cultural training model. What are the components of the model and how does the training approach relates to each component?

5. What is the purpose of preliminary visit to a host county and what are some of the outcomes of such a visit?

6. When a repatriate returns to the home office what kind of challenges do they face? What kind of position awaits the returning employee?

7. What are the three steps of the repatriate process?

8. What are the three main reasons for the multination to have a well-designed repatriation process?

9. What skills and knowledge are acquired through a typical international assignment?

10. What should be covered in a formal repatriation program?

BUS 325 Week 5 Quiz – Strayer University New

BUS/325 Week 5 Quiz – Strayer

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CHAPTER 4: IHRM in Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions, International Alliances and SMEs


1. A merger of two companies can be depicted by Company A and Company B form Company C.

2. In an acquisition a new company is formed with a new identity and operation.

3. During most merger and acquisition processes top management retention is very high due to benefits of operating a foreign company.

4. Identifying and assessing culture issues in an HR activity is the due diligence phase of merger and acquisition.

5. The strongest HR involvement takes place in the first two phases of the merger and acquisition phases.

6. Company relationships are not considered a resource in an HR function in a merger and acquisition strategy.

7. A tangible asset is money and people.

8. The command of the partners’ language is mainly a requirement for Eastern managers.

9. Performance related pay is more popular in Germany than the USA.

10. An exchange rate advantage is not a factor in considering a merger and acquisition strategy in a given country.

11. Parent companies in an international joint venture do not have a separate legal identity.

12. Gaining knowledge of both local business conditions and the research and development capabilities of the potential joint venture partner is a reason to enter into an international joint venture.

13. SMEs constitute the backbone of the Asia Pacific region.

14. Values shape employee’s priorities and decision making.

15. In the USA more than 80 per cent of total employment is with organizations with less than 20 employees.

16. Less qualified employees are employed by small to medium enterprises because they do not meet recruitment requirements of large organizations.

17. Financial participation programs are offered to small to medium enterprises to increase the manager identification with the firm.

18. In small to medium enterprises cross cultural training for expatriates is usually conducted as in-house training seminars.

19. HR activities can become a significant drain on managerial time and resources in an international small to medium enterprise.

20. Small to medium firms have as much experience operating in a variety of different countries as large organizations.


1. Cross-border alliances are:
a. Cooperative agreements between two or more firms from a different national background
b. Investment in which profits and other responsibilities are assigned
c. Agreement between 2 companies to join their operations
d. Multinational attempting to integrate its operations across more than one dimension

2. A characteristic of a non-equity cross border alliance is:
a. One which establishes subsidiaries thru Greenfield investments or acquisitions
b. The purchase of shares of an enterprise in a country other than its own
c. No other party has to provide financial contribution
d. Each party cooperates as a separate legal entity and bears its own liabilities

3. Equity modes of foreign operations car be best described as:
a. Selling stock to a foreign country
b. Involving a foreign direct investor purchase of shares of an enterprise in a country other than its own
c. Each part contributes non-financial resources to the operation
d. Shares are listed on both countries stock exchange

4. A major reason to engage in a merger or acquisition is to:
a. Facilitate the rapid entry into a new market
b. Acquire capital
c. Build prestige
d. Learn new technology

5. Typical HR problems arising in cross border M&A involve all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Lose up to 20% of its executives
b. Personnel issues are neglected
c. Failure due to not producing intended results
d. Insufficient capital

6. The due diligence phase of a M&A is:
a. Putting all the planning into action
b. An in depth analysis of the benefits on the mergers
c. The plan to carry out the merger
d. Designing key talent retention programs

7. Integration planning phase of M&A are all of the following except:
a. Planning and leading integration efforts
b. Helping the organization cope with change
c. Defining and organizational blueprint and staffing plan
d. Advising management on dealing with people issues

8. Advising management on dealing with people issues normally occur in which M&A phase?
a. Pre M&A c. Integrations planning phase
b. Due diligence phase d. Implementation and assessment phase

9. One of the largest merges in history was between:
a. IBM and Wang c. Ford and Jaguar
b. Chrysler and Daimler Benz d. Lincoln and Ford

10. What is defined as a factor which shapes employees priorities and decisions made?
a. Management c. Location
b. Values d. Financial

11. Which of the following would not be considers a resource?
a. Money c. Brand
b. People d. Regulations

12. Which expatriate role or characteristic is found to be most important for a successful integration in a M&A activity?
a. Prior work experience with a country c. A manager’s industry experience
b. Language skills d. Creative analytical skill

13. Performance-related pay is more popular in which country?
a. Germany c. France
b. USA d. Japan

14. Which country tends to have the longest recruitment period?
a. USA c. Japan
b. Germany d. UK

15. A perceived “ unaffordable luxury” in SMEs is:
a. Training c. Environmental upgrades
b. Research d. Change facilitator

16. An International joint venture is defined as:
a. One international company buys another company and combines the operations into a different company
b. One international company purchases another company and integrates operations into its company
c. Separate international companies in which the headquarters or controlling parent is outside of the country of operations
d. Two companies purchasing a third company in order to operate in another country

17. Shortage of working capital to finance exports is a top barrier to access international markets in:
a. EEA c. SMEs
b. IJV d. HR

18. M&A conceptual tool which converts resources into valuable goods and services is:
a. Values c. resources
b. Processes d. experience

19. The HR managers role as an innovator in a IJV means:
a. Create a win-win situation by sharing rather than competing between entities
b. Taking all stake holders needs into account
c. Conceptualize and implement new strategies
d. Identify talent for executing IJV strategies and adapt to changes

20. IJV positions called “functional gatekeepers” :
a. Provide a governmental regulation function
b. Control the public relations aspects of an IJV
c. Allow functional resources to be inventoried freely
d. Protect their firms assets in specific functional areas

21. Which companies have a difficult challenge to enter foreign markets?
a. Conglomerate c. Partnerships
b. Small to medium companies d. Chinese based firms

22. Internationalization process theory suggest which person has the most impact on internationalization process of a small to medium enterprise (SME):
a. Owner/Founder c. Investors
b. Exporters d. HR manager

23. All of the following are characteristic of a SME human resource development EXCEPT:
a. Training and development are short term oriented
b. Tacit knowledge related to the specific context of the firm
c. Informal learning approach
d. No motivation to report and share information

24. An option for SMEs to improve Human Resource related issues rapidly is to:
a. Outsource the HR department
b. Rely less on the resources
c. Send managers to external training institutions
d. Fire the weaker employees

25. A major difference between merger , acquisition and international joint venture is:
a. Licensing a product c. Ownership identification
b. Government regulations d. The nations involved

26. Learning in small to medium (SME) international firms is characterized by:
a. Reliance on local and national agencies
b. The use of family contacts exclusively
c. The use of formal and informal business networks
d. An overreliance on formal networks

27. In their “partnership role” supporting an International Joint Venture, HR managers must:
a. Conceptualize and implement new strategies involving communication and cooperation with new partners
b. Identify talent sources for executing International Joint Venture strategy
c. Take all stakeholders’ needs into account and show a thorough understanding of the business and the markets
d. Take the properties of the parent company almost exclusively

28. The European Commission’s definition of SME is which of the following?
a. Small company with less than 50 employees
b. Medium company with less than 500 employees
c. Small balance sheet with less than 25 million in assets
d. Medium balance sheet with less than 75 million in assets

29. Many international joint ventures (IJV ) fail in the long-term due to:
a. Changing market conditions
b. Inadequate attention to market synergies
c. Lack of interest in the human resource management and cross-cultural management aspects of IJV
d. The failure to restructure the IJV appropriately

30. The best way to address intercultural conflicts is to:
a. Ignore the conflicts as they will diminish with time
b. Have local country experts to interpret these conflicts
c. Take explicit measures to build and maintain the identity of the IJV organization
d. Let the two sides battle it out and the stronger of the two will prevail


1. What are the two equity based forms of cross-border alliances? Describe each function.

2. What is the difference between merger and acquisition?

3. What are the four phases of M&A and what happens at each phase?

4. There are three conceptual tools between business strategy and HR strategy. What are these tools?

5. Why would a company enter into an international joint venture?