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File: ch01, Chapter 1: Introducing Organizational Behavior

True/False

1. Organizational behavior is the study of human behavior in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

2. Learning about organizational behavior can help you expand your potential for career success in the dynamic, shifting, and complex workplaces of today.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

3. The early focus of the systematic study of management was on physical working conditions, principles of administration, and principles of industrial engineering.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

4. Organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary body of knowledge with strong ties to psychology, sociology, criminal justice, and anthropology.

Ans:
Page: 4-5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

5. Financial capital is the building block of organizational success.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

6. Organizational behavior is an academic discipline devoted only to understanding group behavior.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Response: See page 4
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

7. Organizational behavior seldom uses scientific methods to develop generalizations about behavior in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

8. Research in organizational behavior is based on scientific thinking, which means the proposed explanations are carefully tested and the explanations that can be scientifically verified are the only ones that are accepted.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

9. As job satisfaction increases, absenteeism tends to go down; as job satisfaction decreases, absenteeism often goes up.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

10. Scientific methods models in OB are not able to link causes with outcomes due to the human element.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

11. Commonly used organizational behavior research methods include case studies, survey studies, meta analyses, field studies, and laboratory studies.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

12. When organizational behavior researchers collect data in real-life organizational settings, the research method of case studies is being used.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

13. Laboratory studies are being used when organizational behavior researchers collect data in simulated and controlled settings.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

14. When organizational behavior researchers collect data by using questionnaires and interviews in sample populations, the research method of meta analysis is being used.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

15. Organizational behavior scholars believe that there is one “best” or universal way to manage people and organizations.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

16. An essential responsibility of the science of organizational behavior is to create and test models that offer evidence-based foundations for decision making and action.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

17. Evidence-based management uses hard facts and empirical evidence to make decisions.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

18. Organizational behavior research is now rich with empirically based insights into cross-cultural issues.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

19. Progressive workplaces today look and act very similar to those of the past.

Ans:
Page: 7
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

20. Eagley and colleagues conclude that followers are more accepting of a transformational style of leadership when the leader is male.

Ans:
Page: 7
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

21. Important trends in the contemporary business world include the demise of “command-and-control” of organizational structures and a commitment to ethical behavior.

Ans:
Page: 7-8
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

22. An organization is defined as a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose.

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

23. Organizations that obtain resource inputs from the environment and transform them into outputs that are returned to the environment in the form of finished goods or services are viewed as open systems.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

24. In organizational cultures that are more authoritarian and hierarchical, people are hesitant to make decisions and take action on their own, so they tend to show little initiative and wait for approval.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

25. Customers, owners, employees, suppliers, regulators, and local communities are among the key stakeholders of most business organizations.

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

26. Fortunately, organizational stakeholders typically have the same business interests and objectives.

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

27. Some organizational climates are relaxed and informal, while others are more structured.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

28. The value chain begins when customers and clients are well served.

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

29. Workforce diversity involves differences based on gender, race and ethnicity, age, able-bodiedness, and sexual orientation.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

30. Today’s labor force is composed of fewer women than in prior years.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

31. The proportion of African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asians in the labor force is increasing.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

32. Demographic trends indicate that, in the future, people of color will constitute the majority of the U.S. population.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

33. A key element in any organization that embraces multiculturalism is inclusion.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

34. An effective manager is one whose organizational unit, group, or team consistently achieves its goals despite the fact that its members are uncommitted and unenthusiastic.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

35. Task performance is defined as the quality and quantity of the work produced or the services provided by a work unit as a whole.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.

Reference: Management and Leadership

36. Organizational behavior clearly indicates that managers should be held accountable for task performance results, but not job satisfaction results.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

37. In the new workplace, management is most effectively accomplished through “directing” and “controlling” rather than “supporting.”

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

38. The word “manager” is increasingly being replaced in conversations by such terms as “coordinator,” “coach,” or “team leader.”

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

39. The four basic functions of management are delegating, leading, controlling, and decision making.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

40. Controlling is the process of creating work structures and systems, and arranging resources to accomplish goals and objectives.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

41. When managers are instilling enthusiasm by communicating with others, motivating them to work hard, and maintaining good interpersonal skills, they are engaged in the managerial function of leading.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

42. Henry Mintzberg identified a set of roles that managers perform. These roles are: interpersonal, informational, and decisional.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

43. Henry Mintzberg identified the set of roles that managers perform as technical, human, and conceptual.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

44. According to Henry Mintzberg, managerial roles that involve working directly with other people are called human roles.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

45. A manager’s informational roles include being a figurehead, leader, and liaison.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

46. According to Henry Mintzberg, when a manager acts as a disturbance handler, this is an interpersonal role.

Ans:
Page: 12-13
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

47. According to Henry Mintzberg, managerial roles involving decision-making that affects other people are called technical roles.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

48. Decisional roles include seeking out problems to solve and opportunities to explore, helping to resolve conflict, allocating resources, and negotiating with other parties.

Ans:
Page: 12-13
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

49. According to Robert Katz, the essential skills of management can be grouped into three categories. These categories are: interpersonal, informational, and decisional.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

50. According to Robert Katz, the relative importance of technical, human, and conceptual skills varies across the different levels of management.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

51. According to Katz, proficiency in database management is considered a technical skill in today’s workplace.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

52. Emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and deal with emotions, falls into the category of conceptual skills according to Robert Katz.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

53. Emotional intelligence includes the human skills of self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill.

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

54. Leaders succeed when people follow them not because they have to, but because they want to.

Ans:
Page: 15
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

55. According to Archie Carroll, an immoral manager does not subscribe to ethical principles, but instead makes decisions and acts to take best personal advantage of a situation.

Ans:
Page: 16
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

56. According to Archie Carroll, the manager who unintentionally acts unethically is considered amoral.

Ans:
Page: 17
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

57. Ethics mindfulness is an “enriched awareness” that causes a manager to behave with an ethical consciousness from one decision or behavioral event to another.

Ans:
Page: 17
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

58. Learning is an enduring change of behavior that results from experience.

Ans:
Page: 18
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize how we learn about organizational behavior.
Reference: Learning about Organizational Behavior

59. Life-long learning refers to the need to learn from day-to-day work experiences, conversations with colleagues and friends, counseling and advice from mentors, success models, training seminars and workshops, and other daily opportunities.

Ans:
Page: 18
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize how we learn about organizational behavior.
Reference: Learning about Organizational Behavior

60. The learning sequence begins with initial experience and subsequent reflection.

Ans:
Page: 18
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize how we learn about organizational behavior.
Reference: Learning about Organizational Behavior

Multiple Choice

61. __________ is a multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding individual and group behavior, interpersonal processes, and organizational dynamics.
a) Organizational behavior
b) Motivation
c) Performance management
d) Workgroup analysis
e) Accounting

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

62. The following statements are accurate descriptions of the evolution of the scientific study of organizations EXCEPT:
a) the early focus of the systematic study of management was on physical working conditions, principles of administration, and principles of industrial engineering.
b) as management research progressed, emphasis was placed on the human factor with respect to individual attitudes, group dynamics, and relationships between managers and workers.
c) organization behavior continues to evolve as a discipline devoted to understanding individuals and groups in organizations.
d) organization behavior continues to evolve as a discipline devoted to understanding the performance implications of organizational processes, systems, and structures.
e) the primary focus on the human factor began in the 18th century.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

63. From its scientific heritage, organizational behavior has developed all of the following EXCEPT:
a) an emphasis on finding the “one best way” to complete a task.
b) an interdisciplinary body of knowledge.
c) use of scientific methods.
d) a focus on application.
e) contingency thinking.

Ans:
Page: 4-6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

64. Organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary body of knowledge with strong ties to all of the following disciplines EXCEPT:
a) psychology.
b) physics.
c) sociology.
d) anthropology.
e) economics.

Ans:
Page: 4-5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

65. Which of the following statements about organizational behavior is NOT accurate?
a) Organizational behavior has strong ties to the behavioral sciences and allied social sciences.
b) Organizational behavior seeks to integrate the diverse insights of the behavioral sciences and allied social sciences.
c) Organizational behavior is divorced from the disciplines of political science and economics.
d) Organizational behavior seeks to improve the quality of work life.
e) Organizational behavior seeks to improve the performance of people, groups, and organizations.

Ans:
Page: 4-5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

66. Organizational behavior goals include all of the following EXCEPT improving the:
a) performance of people.
b) performance of groups.
c) performance of organizations.
d) quality of overall work life.
e) level of organizational profits.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

67. Scientific methods models link __________ with __________.
a) independent variables; dependent variables
b) specific variables; contingency variables
c) proven variables; non-proven variables
d) discovered variables; undisclosed variables
e) highly publicized variables; undisclosed variables

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

68. Scientific thinking is important to organizational behavior researchers and scholars for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a) the process of data collection is controlled.
b) the process of data collection is systematic.
c) proposed explanations are carefully tested.
d) only explanations that can be scientifically verified are accepted.
e) the process of data collection is discretionary.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

69. Which of the following is NOT an important research question addressing applications within the field of organizational behavior?
a) What creates job satisfaction for people at work?
b) How can ethical and socially responsible behavior in and by organizations be assured?
c) Should decisions be made by individual, consultative, or group methods?
d) What are the ingredients for marketing promotions within organizations?
e) How can organizational cultures be changed?

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

70. __________ are simplified views of reality that attempt to explain real-world phenomena.
a. Models
b. Incubators
c. Theories
d. Scientific methods
e. Reproductions

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

71. When OB researchers use statistics to pool the results of different studies, which research method are they using?
a) Survey studies
b) Case studies
c) Meta-analysis
d) Field studies
e) Laboratory studies

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

72. Which of the following was NOT cited as a possible leadership strength of women in the research by Eagley?
a) Good at mentoring
b) More transformational
c) Encourage creativity
d) Very inspiring
e) Fairness in punishing

Ans:
Page: 7
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

73. Rather than assuming that there is one “best” or universal way to manage people in organizations, which approach do researchers use to try to identify how different situations can be best understood and handled?
a) Scientific
b) Industrial engineering
c) Contingency
d) Emotional intelligence
e) Laboratory study

Ans:
Page: 5-6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

74. When OB researchers look in depth at single situations, which research method are they using?
a) Survey studies
b) Case studies
c) Meta-analysis
d) Field studies
e) Laboratory studies

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

75. The realities of the contemporary business world include all of the following trends EXCEPT:
a) the demise of “command-and-control” organizational structures.
b) the importance of human capital.
c) a commitment to ethical behavior.
d) an emphasis on individuals working independently of one another.
e) a changing definition of jobs and career.

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

76. Which of the following is NOT a trend in the contemporary business world?
a) Pervasive influence of information technology.
b) Respect for new workforce expectations.
c) Emphasis on teamwork.
d) Increase in “command-and-control” leadership.
e) Changing careers

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

77. All of the following are characteristic of Generation F at work EXCEPT:
a) no one kills an idea.
b) credentials overrule contributions.
c) people choose tasks that interest them.
d) wisdom lies within the crowd.
e) resources flow toward good ideas and projects.

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

78. Which of the following reflects the expectations of the new generation of workers?
a) Less tolerant of hierarchy
b) Less high tech
c) More concerned about status
d) Less focus on work/life balance
e) More focus on structure

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

79. The increase in teamwork today is a function of all of the following EXCEPT:
a) management’s dislike for individual contributors.
b) organizations can no longer rely on just managers for leadership.
c) leadership is valued by all members.
d) people are valuable human assets.
e) work is increasingly focused on peer contributions.

Page: 8
Ans:
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

80. Data show that women earn only __________ cents per dollar earned by men.
a) 50
b) 68
c) 75
d) 90
e) 95

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

81. A collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose refers to a(n):
a) club.
b) labor union.
c) organization.
d) mission.
e) team.

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

82. All of the following are examples of organizations EXCEPT:
a) small and large businesses.
b) religious bodies.
c) voluntary organizations.
d) a government representative.
e) hospitals.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

83. The match of organizational culture and individual characteristics is called a(n):
a) fit.
b) agreement.
c) union.
d) harmony.
e) accord.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

84. Since organizations obtain resource inputs from the environment and transform them into outputs that are returned to the environment in the form of finished goods or services, they may be viewed as:
a) stakeholders.
b) suppliers.
c) open systems.
d) transformational systems.
e) resource allocators.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

85. Which of the following is a sequence of activities that creates valued goods and services for customers?
a) Assembly line
b) Value chain
c) Output process
d) Evidence-based management
e) None of the above

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

86. Among the following, who are considered to be stakeholders?
a) Customers
b) Owners
c) Employees
d) Local communities
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

87. The shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational members refers to organizational:
a) mission.
b) purpose.
c) strategy.
d) culture.
e) stakeholders.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

88. As used in OB, the term multiculturalism refers to:
a) hiring people from different cultures to work in one company.
b) pluralism, and respect for diversity and individual differences.
c) developing employees to better understand people from non-United States cultures.
d) a job rotation system whereby employees move from country to country.
e) a job design system whereby managers are required to oversee people from different countries.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

89. Demographic trends driving workforce diversity in American society today include:
a) fewer number of women in the labor force.
b) fewer African-Americans in the labor force.
c) fewer Hispanics in the labor force.
d) an increasing percentage of people of color in the labor force.
e) more white males in the labor force.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

90. The degree to which the culture respects and values diversity and is open to anyone who can perform a job, regardless of their diversity attributes, is known as:
a) workforce diversity.
b) inclusion.
c) multiculturalism.
d) cultural sensitivity.
e) constructive culture.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

91. An individual who helps others achieve high levels of both performance and satisfaction is a(n):
a) executive.
b) effective manager.
c) director.
d) supervisor.
e) team follower.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

92. Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic functions of management?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Directing
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

93. When managers define goals, set performance objectives, and identify action steps for accomplishing them, they are engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Directing
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

94. Suppose that the company’s president decides to develop a policy to increase the company’s commitment to its employees and then develops a set of procedures to implement this policy. The president is engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Directing
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

95. Suppose that a manager sets up a committee to develop procedures for dealing with company wide training needs and then assigns people to conduct specific training programs. This manager is engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Motivating
d) Leading
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

96. Suppose a manager starts an affirmative action program to increase opportunities for minority advancement and then clearly and convincingly communicates the objectives of the program to all employees. By doing this the manager gains their support and participation. This manager is engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Motivating
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

97. When a manager monitors the progress of an affirmative action program to advance minorities within the corporation, reviews progress on changes in employee attitudes, calls a special meeting to discuss problems, and makes appropriate adjustments in the program, the manager is engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Controlling
e) Delegating

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

98. Henry Mintzberg identified a set of roles that managers perform. These roles are grouped into which of the following three categories?
a) Interpersonal, strategic, and decisional
b) Strategic, informational, and political
c) Interpersonal, informational, and decisional
d) Supervisory, authoritarian, and decisional
e) Supervisory, informational, and strategic

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

99. Which of the following represent informational roles as identified by Henry Mintzberg?
a) Figurehead, leader, and spokesperson
b) Monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson
c) Negotiator, entrepreneur, and resource allocator
d) Leader, disseminator, and entrepreneur
e) Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, and resource allocator

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

100. Which of the following descriptions of Mintzberg’s managerial roles is correct?
a) Interpersonal roles include the monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson.
b) Informational roles include the figurehead, leader, and liaison.
c) Decisional roles include the entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
d) Decisional roles include the leader, disturbance handler and spokesperson.
e) Informational roles include the figurehead, monitor, leader and spokesperson.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

101. According to Robert Katz, the essential skills of management can be grouped into which of the following three categories?
a) Technical, interpersonal, and informational
b) Technical, human, and conceptual
c) Interpersonal, decisional, and informational
d) Organizing, planning, and leading
e) Leading, decisional, and human

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

102. According to Robert Katz, all of the following statements are correct EXCEPT that the:
a) technical skills are considered important for supervisors and team leaders who must deal with job-specific problems.
b) conceptual skills are important for senior executives who deal with organizational purpose, mission and strategy issues.
c) technical skills are equally important for both entry and senior level management positions.
d) conceptual skills are important for senior executives who must deal with broad, ambiguous and long-term decisions.
e) human skills are consistently important across all managerial levels.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

103. A manager who is using spreadsheet software to prepare a departmental budget is using which managerial skill according to Katz?
a) Supervisory
b) Conceptual
c) Creative
d) Technical
e) Human

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

104. In trying to work out an acceptable solution to a problem, managers who rely on their understanding of other people and who empathize with others’ feelings are using which managerial skill according to Katz?
a) Supervisory
b) Conceptual
c) Creative
d) Technical
e) Human

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

105. Important dimensions of emotional intelligence include all of the following human skills EXCEPT:
a) self-awareness.
b) self-regulation.
c) technical skill.
d) empathy.
e) social skill.

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

106. Which managerial skill involves the capacity to analyze and solve complex and interrelated problems?
a) Supervisory
b) Conceptual
c) Creative
d) Technical
e) Human

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

107. A manager who thinks critically and analytically when developing an organizational strategy for dealing with a highly competitive global environment is using which managerial skill?
a) Supervisory
b) Conceptual
c) Creative
d) Technical
e) Human

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

108. Of the following, which refers to a capacity to get things done due to relationships with other people?
a) Social capital
b) Value chain
c) Task performance
d) Workforce diversity
e) Open systems

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

109. According to Archie Carroll, if a manager doesn’t subscribe to any ethical decision-making principles and acts in any situation to simply take personal advantage, he or she would be classified as a(n):
a) moral manager.
b) amoral manager.
c) immoral manager.
d) ombudsman manager.
e) opportunistic manager.

Ans:
Page: 16
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

110. The ethics center of gravity can be moved positively in a virtuous shift with:
a) emotionally intelligent leadership.
b) immoral leadership.
c) amoral leadership.
d) moral leadership.
e) philanthropic leadership.

Ans:
Page: 17
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

111. According to Archie B. Carroll, the majority of managers are:
a) immoral.
b) amoral.
c) moral.
d) mindful.
e) none of the above.

Ans:
Page: 17
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

112. Which of the following is an enduring change of behavior that results from experience?
a) Learning
b) Managerial sense-making
c) Organizational tracking
d) Lifelong careers
e) Managerial scholarship

Ans:
Page: 18
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize how we learn about organizational behavior.
Reference: Learning about Organizational Behavior

113. Initial experience of the experiential learning cycle in an organizational behavior course, focuses on:
a) personal experiences, the classroom as an organization, in-class exercises and simulations, group project assignments, and cases.
b) personal thoughts, class discussions, informal discussions, readings, lectures, and written assignments.
c) personal experiences, personal thoughts, personal theories, and trying new personal behaviors.
d) theories in readings, theories from lectures, personal theories, and theories from other sources.
e) trying new behaviors in work experiences, class experiences, and everyday experiences.

Ans:
Page: 18
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Recognize how we learn about organizational behavior.
Reference: Learning about Organizational Behavior

Short answer

114. What is the study of human behavior in organizations called?

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

115. As job satisfaction increases, absenteeism tends to do what?

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

116. When organizational behavior researchers collect data in real-life organizational settings, what research method is being used?

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

117. When organizational behavior researchers collect data in simulated and controlled settings, what research method is being used?

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

118. Rather than assuming that there is one “best” or universal way to manage people in organizations, what approach do researchers use to try to identify how different situations can be best understood and handled?

Ans:
Page: 5-6
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

119. What is evidence-based management?

Ans:
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Page: 6
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

120. Who are the people, groups, and institutions that are affected by and thus have an interest in an organization’s performance?

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

121. What is organizational culture?

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

122. What is workforce diversity?

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

123. By the year 2060, which demographic group will comprise nearly 30% of the US population?

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

124. What is a key element in any organization that embraces multiculturalism?

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

125. What are the two key outcomes on which an effective manager will focus?

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

126. Who is a manager?

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

127. What are the four basic functions of management?

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

128. Defining goals, setting performance objectives, and identifying action steps for accomplishing them describes which management function?

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

129. What is the process of creating work structures and systems, and arranging resources to accomplish goals and objectives?

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

130. Describe the managerial function of leading.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

131. Which managerial function concerns itself with ensuring that things go well by monitoring performance and taking corrective action as necessary?

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

132. According to Henry Mintzberg, what are the managerial roles that involve working directly with other people?

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

133. According to Henry Mintzberg, what are the managerial roles that involve the exchange of information with other people?

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

134. According to Robert Katz, what are the three categories of managerial skills?

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

135. According to Robert Katz, what is an ability to perform specialized tasks?

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

136. According to Katz, in trying to work out an acceptable solution to a problem, managers who rely on their understanding of other people and who empathize with others’ feelings are using which managerial skill?

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

137. According to Daniel Goleman, what is the ability to understand and deal with emotions?

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

138. A management team that thinks critically and analytically when developing an organizational strategy for dealing with a highly competitive global environment is using which managerial skill?

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

139. What is the ability to understand the emotions of others called as?

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

Essay

140. Identify the trends that are affecting organizational behavior and explain why these trends are occurring.

141. Define the term workforce diversity. Why is workforce diversity an important issue for contemporary organizations?

142. Briefly describe each of the four functions of management. Describe Mintzberg’s managerial roles and explain how they are helpful in performing the four functions of management.

143. Human skills such as emotional intelligence are indispensable in the new age of organizations. Identify and define five important dimensions of emotional intelligence that can and should be developed by any manager today.

144. When it comes to ethics and morality, Archie Carroll draws a distinction between managers. Identify and briefly explain the three managerial categories defined by Carroll.

145. Why is learning about organizational behavior important?

File: ch02, Chapter 2: Individual Differences, Values, and Diversity

True/False

1. In OB, the term individual differences is used to refer to the ways in which people are similar and how they vary in their thinking, feeling, and behavior.

Ans:
Page: 26
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Individual Differences

2. In studying individual differences, we attempt to identify where behavioral tendencies are similar and where they are different.

Ans:
Page: 26
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Individual Differences

3. Self-esteem has no drawbacks; high self-esteem only boosts performance and satisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 27
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Components of Self

4. Self-esteem is an individual’s belief about the likelihood of success in completing a particular task.

Ans:
Page: 27
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Components of Self

5. As a determinant of personality, heredity consists of those factors that are determined at conception, including physical characteristics, gender, and personality factors.

Ans:
Page: 27
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Components of Self

6. Environment sets the limits on just how much an individual’s personality characteristics can be developed; heredity determines development within these limits.

Ans:
Page: 27
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Nature versus Nurture

7. According to research by Rich Arvey and colleagues, family experiences are more important than experiences at work in shaping women’s leadership development.

Ans:
Page: 28
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Nature versus Nurture

8. Personality represents the overall combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as he or she reacts and interacts with others.

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personality

9. The “Big Five” personality traits include extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and creativity.

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Big Five Personality Trait

10. Extraversion, a “Big Five” personality dimension, is associated with being imaginative, curious, and broad-minded.

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Big Five Personality Trait

11. In terms of job performance, research has shown that conscientiousness predicts job performance across five occupational groups of professions—engineers, police, managers, salespersons, and skilled and semiskilled employees.

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Big Five Personality Trait

12. Problem-solving style is a measure representing social traits.

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

13. In assessing a person’s problem-solving style, information gathering involves making judgments about how to deal with and interpret information.

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

14. In solving problems, sensation-type individuals prefer routine and order whereas intuitive-type individuals prefer the “big picture.”

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

15. Thinking-type individuals use reason and intellect to deal with problems and they downplay emotions.

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

16. Problem-solving styles are most frequently measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which asks individuals how they usually act or feel in specific situations.

Ans:
Page: 31
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

17. Personal conception traits represent the way individuals tend to think about their social and physical setting as well as their major beliefs and personal orientation concerning a range of issues.

Ans:
Page: 31
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

18. People with an intuitive-thinking style of problem solving tend to be speculative, objective, impersonal, and idealistic.

Ans:
Page: 31
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

19. People with an external locus of control believe that they control their own fate or destiny.

Ans:
Page: 32
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

20. Positive and innovative changes in organizations have a greater degree of positive effects on proactive individuals.

Ans:
Page: 32
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

21. People with an internal locus of control exhibit greater self-control, are more cautious, engage in less risky behavior, and are less anxious.

Ans:
Page: 32
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

22. A person high in dogmatism tends to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority.

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

23. Highly authoritarian individuals are so susceptible to authority that in their eagerness to comply they may behave unethically.

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

24. A low-Machiavellian personality approaches situations logically and thoughtfully and is even capable of lying to achieve personal goals.

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

25. High self-monitoring individuals cannot disguise their behaviors ⎯ “what you see is what you get.”

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

26. Individuals with a Type A orientation are characterized as being more easy going and less competitive than Type B.

Ans:
Page: 35
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Emotional Adjustment Traits

27. Individuals with a Type B orientation are characterized by impatience, desire for achievement, and perfectionism.

Ans:
Page: 35
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Emotional Adjustment Traits

28. Stress is a state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.

Ans:
Page: 35
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Personality and Stress

29. Eustress has a negative impact on both attitudes and performance.

Ans:
Page: 36
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Sources of Stress

30. Job burnout manifests itself as a loss of interest in and satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions.

Ans:
Page: 36
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Sources of Stress

31. To make a plan of action and follow it is an example of an emotion-focused coping strategy.

Ans:
Page: 37
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Managing Stress

32. Personal wellness requires attention to such factors as smoking, weight, diet, alcohol use, and physical fitness.

Ans:
Page: 38
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Managing Stress

33. Values are broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 38
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Values

34. Values rarely influence an individual’s attitudes and behaviors.

Ans:
Page: 38
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Values

35. Both terminal and instrumental values differ across groups, and these differences can encourage conflict or agreement when the groups have to deal with each other.

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Sources of Values

36. Bruce Meglino’s classification of human values includes the values of achievement, helping and concern for others, honesty, and fairness.

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Sources of Values

37. Meglino’s value schema includes theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious values.

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Sources of Values

38. In Meglino’s value schema, the value of honesty refers to being impartial and doing what is fair for all concerned.

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Sources of Values

39. Value congruence occurs when individuals express positive feelings upon encountering others who exhibit values similar to their own.

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Sources of Values

40. When values differ, or are incongruent, conflicts over such things as goals and the means to achieve them may result.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Sources of Values

41. When examining value congruence between leaders and followers, researchers using Meglino’s value schema reported greater follower satisfaction with a leader when there was value congruence in terms of achievement, helping, honesty and fairness values.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Sources of Values

42. Culture is the learned, shared way of doing things in a particular society.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

43. People are born into a society that teaches their members its culture.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

44. The way individuals think about such matters as achievement, material gain, wealth, risk and change may influence how they approach work and their relationships with organizations.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

45. According to Hofstede’s framework, value differences across national cultures can be evaluated in terms of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity, and long-term/short-term orientation.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

46. According to Hofstede’s framework of national culture, uncertainty avoidance reflects the degree to which people are likely to respect hierarchy and rank in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

47. In Hofstede’s framework of national culture, individualism-collectivism reflects the degree to which organizations emphasize competition and assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity and concerns for relationships.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

48. South Korea is low on Hofstede’s long-term orientation and the U.S. is a more long-term oriented country.

Ans:
Page: 41
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

49. When using the Hofstede framework of national culture, it is important to remember that the five dimensions are independent.

Ans:
Page: 41
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Values

50. High power distance and collectivism are often found together, as are low power distance and individualism.

Ans:
Page: 41
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

51. Workforce diversity has increased in the U.S. and decreased in the rest of the world.

Ans:
Page: 42
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Importance of Diversity

52. Research shows that companies with a higher percentage of female board directors and corporate officers, on average, financially outperform companies with the lowest percentages by significant margins.

Ans:
Page: 43
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Importance of Diversity

53. The leaking pipeline describes how women have not reached the highest levels of organizations.

Ans:
Page: 44
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

54. In the workplace, sexual orientation and ablebodiedness are protected from discrimination by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Ans:
Page: 43
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

55. In recent years, there has been a shift from a focus on diversity to a focus on inclusion.

Ans:
Page: 47
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Challenges in Managing Diversity

56. The primary generational point of conflict is work ethic.

Ans:
Page: 45
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

57. Even though recent studies report that there is no significant difference in performance between workers with disabilities and those without, nearly three quarters of people with severe disabilities are reported to be unemployed.

Ans:
Page: 46
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

58. Sexual orientation is protected by the EEOC.

Ans:
Page: 44
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

59. Valuing diversity assumes that groups will retain their own characteristics.

Ans:
Page: 48
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Challenges in Managing Diversity

Multiple Choice

60. __________ and __________ are two related aspects of the self-concept.
a) Self-esteem; self-monitoring
b) Self-esteem; self-assessment
c) Self-esteem; self-efficacy
d) Self-monitoring; self-assessment
e) Self-monitoring; self-efficacy

Ans:
Pages: 26-27
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Components of Self

61. __________ means being aware of our own behaviors, preferences, styles, biases, personalities, and so on.
a) Self-awareness
b) Awareness of others
c) Self-concept
d) Self-esteem
e) Self-efficacy

Ans:
Page: 26
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Self Awareness and Awareness of Others

62. ________ means being aware of the behaviors, preferences, styles, biases, personalities, and so on of others.
a) Self-awareness
b) Awareness of others
c) Self-concept
d) Self-esteem
e) Self-efficacy

Ans:
Page: 26
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Self Awareness and Awareness of Others

63. Which of the following statements provides an inaccurate description of people with high self-esteem?
a) They see themselves as capable, worthwhile, and acceptable.
b) They tend to have few doubts about themselves.
c) They seldom experience a boost in job performance.
d) When under pressure, they may become boastful and act egotistically.
e) They may be overconfident at times.

Ans:
Pages: 26-27
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Components of Self

64. Firstborns in families tend to be __________.
a) loners
b) quiet
c) shy
d) impatient
e) enterprising

Ans:
Page: 28
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Nature versus Nurture

65. __________ combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person
looks, thinks, acts, and feels.
a) Cognition
b) Personality
c) Perception
d) Aptitude
e) Ability

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personality

66. Which traits are associated with the “Big Five” personality dimension of extraversion?
a) Outgoing, sociable, and assertive
b) Good-natured, trusting, and cooperative
c) Responsible, dependable, and persistent
d) Unworried, secure, and relaxed
e) Imaginative, curious, and broad-minded

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Big Five Personality Traits

67. The “Big Five” personality dimension of agreeableness refers to which of the following sets of personality traits?
a) Outgoing, sociable, and assertive
b) Good-natured, trusting, and cooperative
c) Responsible, dependable, and persistent
d) Unworried, secure, and relaxed
e) Imaginative, curious, and broad-minded

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Big Five Personality Traits

68. Conscientiousness is a “Big Five” personality dimension that involves the traits of being __________.
a) outgoing, sociable, and assertive
b) good-natured, trusting, and cooperative
c) responsible, dependable, and persistent
d) unworried, secure, and relaxed
e) imaginative, curious, and broad-minded

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Big Five Personality Traits

69. Which of the following personality traits is NOT included in the “Big Five”?
a) Extraversion
b) Agreeableness
c) Conscientiousness
d) Self-concept
e) Emotional stability

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Big Five Personality Traits

70. __________ traits are surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings.
a) Standard
b) Statutory
c) Situational
d) Social
e) Demographic

Ans:
Page: 29
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

71. Problem-solving style reflects the way a person goes about __________ and __________ information in solving problems and making decisions.
a) interpreting; evaluating
b) interpreting; communicating
c) gathering; collecting
d) evaluating; analyzing
e) gathering; evaluating

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

72. __________individuals prefer routine and order, and emphasize well-defined details in gathering information; they would rather work with known facts than look for possibilities.
a) Thinking-type
b) Feeling-type
c) Intuitive-type
d) Sensation-type
e) Cognitive-type

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

73. __________ individuals prefer the “big picture”, like solving new problems, dislike routine, and would rather look for possibilities than work with facts.
a) Thinking-type
b) Feeling-type
c) Intuitive-type
d) Cognitive-type
e) Sensation-type

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

74. __________ individuals are oriented toward conformity and try to accommodate themselves to other people.
a) Cognitive-type
b) Sensation-type
c) Intuitive-type
d) Feeling-type
e) Thinking-type

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

75. __________ individuals use reason and intellect to deal with problems and downplay emotions.
a) Thinking-type
b) Feeling-type
c) Intuitive-type
d) Cognitive-type
e) Sensation-type

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

76. Which of the following statements about problem-solving styles is NOT accurate?
a) Information gathering involves getting and organizing data for use.
b) Sensation-type individuals and intuitive-type individuals represent two forms of information gathering.
c) Evaluation involves making judgments about how to deal with information once it has been collected.
d) Two forms of evaluation are feeling and thinking.
e) Problem-solving styles are most frequently measured by the Morrison-Bellarmine Type Index.

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

77. Which of the following statements about locus of control is correct?
a) People with an external locus of control tend to be more introverted.
b) People with an internal locus of control tend to be more extroverted.
c) People with an internal locus of control tend to perform better on tasks requiring complex information processing and learning.
d) People with an external locus of control are more oriented toward their own feelings.
e) Many managerial and professional jobs require behavior that is consistent with an external locus of control.

Ans:
Pages: 31-32
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

78. Individuals with a sensation-feeling style of problem solving tend to be good at which of the following?
a) Empathizing
b) Observing
c) Imagining
d) Inquiring
e) Filing

Ans:
Page: 31
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

79. Research has shown that proactive personality is positively related to all of the following EXCEPT:
a) job performance.
b) creativity.
c) leadership.
d) salary.
e) career success.

Ans:
Page: 32
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

80. A person high in __________ is concerned with toughness and power and opposes the use of subjective feelings.
a) authoritarianism
b) Machiavellianism
c) internal locus of control
d) dogmatism
e) external locus of control

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

81. An individual high in __________ sees the world as a threatening place.
a) self-monitoring
b) Machiavellianism
c) authoritarianism
d) locus of control
e) dogmatism

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

82. A person with a(n) __________ personality regards legitimate authority as absolute and accepts or rejects others according to how much they agree with accepted authority.
a) dogmatic
b) authoritarian
c) external locus of control
d) Machiavellian
e) type A

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

83. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be observed in a high-Mach personality?
a) Capable of lying to achieve personal goals
b) Approaches situations logically
c) Rarely swayed by loyalty
d) Rarely skilled at influencing others
e) Rarely swayed by the opinions of others

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

84. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe high self-monitors?
a) High self-monitors are sensitive to external cues.
b) High self-monitors tend to behave differently in different situations.
c) High self-monitors present a very different appearance from their true self.
d) High self-monitors ignore the behavior of others.
e) High self-monitors are flexible and especially good at responding to situational contingencies.

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal Conception Traits

85. The __________ traits measure how much an individual experiences emotional distress or displays unacceptable acts.
a) cognitive strength
b) statutory adjustment
c) emotional adjustment
d) social desirability
e) personal conception

Ans:
Page: 34
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Emotional Adjustment Traits

86. Which of the following statements does NOT describe the Type A personality?
a) Type A people tend to work fast
b) Type A people tend to be abrupt
c) Type A people tend to be laid back
d) Type A people tend to be irritable
e) Type A people tend to be aggressive

Ans:
Page: 35
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Emotional Adjustment Traits

87. Common work-related stressors include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) ethical dilemmas.
b) interpersonal problems.
c) economic difficulties.
d) career development problems.
e) task demands.

Ans:
Page: 36
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Sources of Stress

88. Which of the following is NOT a common work-related stressor?
a) Being asked to do too much
b) Being asked to do too little
c) Not knowing what you are expected to do
d) The birth of a child
e) Being bothered by noise and lack of privacy

Ans:
Page: 36
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Sources of Stress

89. __________ stress has a positive impact on both attitudes and performance.
a) Efficient
b) Statutory
c) Natural
d) Constructive
e) Affluent

Ans:
Page: 36
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Outcomes of Stress

90. __________, also known as distress, is dysfunctional.
a) Job burnout
b) Eustress
c) Constructive stress
d) Abnormal stress
e) Destructive stress

Ans:
Page: 36
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Outcomes of Stress

91. When people lose interest in and satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions, they are likely to experience __________.
a) constructive stress
b) Type A behavior
c) job burnout
d) Type B behavior
e) eustress

Ans:
Page: 36
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Outcomes of Stress

92. Which of the following is an example of a problem-focused coping strategy?
a) Look for the silver lining
b) Try to look on the bright side
c) Stand your ground and fight for what you want
d) Try to forget the whole thing
e) Accept sympathy from someone

Ans:
Page: 37
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Managing Stress

93. Managers should be alert to key symptoms of excessive stress in themselves and their employees. Which of the following is a key stress symptom?
a) Changes from punctuality to tardiness
b) Changes from diligent work to careless work
c) Changes from a positive attitude to a negative attitude
d) Changes from cooperation to hostility
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 37
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Outcomes of Stress

94. __________ is the best first-line strategy in the battle against stress.
a) Stress prevention
b) Stress avoidance
c) Personal wellness
d) EAPs
e) Stress management

Ans:
Page: 37
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Managing Stress

95. When learning to say no, an individual should do which of the following?
a) Focus on what matters most
b) Weigh the yes-to-stress ratio
c) Take guilt out of the equation
d) Sleep on it
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 37
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Managing Stress

96. __________ involves the pursuit of one’s job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program.
a) Quality of work life programs
b) Stress prevention programs
c) Eustress management programs
d) Employee assistance programs
e) Personal wellness

Ans:
Page: 38
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Managing Stress

97. Peoples’ __________ develop as a product of the learning and experience they encounter in the cultural setting in which they live.
a) wants
b) needs
c) perceptions
d) cognitions
e) values

Ans:
Page: 38
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Values

98. Which of the following is NOT an example of a terminal value?
a) Broad-mindedness
b) An exciting life
c) A world at peace
d) Family security
e) Pleasure

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Personal Values

99. All of the following are terminal values EXCEPT:
a) a sense of accomplishment.
b) a world of beauty.
c) mature love.
d) forgiving.
e) freedom.

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Personal Values

100. Which of the following is NOT an example of instrumental values?
a) Courage
b) Love
c) Wisdom
d) Logic
e) Independence

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Personal Values

101. All of the following are instrumental values EXCEPT:
a) self-control.
b) self-respect.
c) honesty.
d) ambition.
e) imagination.

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Personal Values

102. Which of the following is NOT one of the “work setting” values specifically identified by Meglino and associates?
a) Achievement
b) Economic values
c) Helping and concern for others
d) Honesty
d) Fairness

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Personal Values

103. Which of the following is an incorrect description of the workplace values schema developed by Bruce Meglino and his associates?
a) Getting things done and working hard to accomplish difficult things in life
b) Being concerned for other people and helping others
c) Telling the truth and doing what you feel is right
d) Discovering truth through reasoning and systematic thinking
e) Being impartial and doing what is fair for all concerned

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Personal Values

104. __________ occurs when individuals express positive feelings upon encountering others who exhibit values similar to their own.
a) Personal consistency
b) Theoretical consistency
c) Personal congruence
d) Value performance
e) Value congruence

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Personal Values

105. Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning dimensions of national culture?
a) U.S. is a more long-term oriented country
b) Japan’s culture is considered to be feminine
c) U.S. has a highly individualistic culture
d) Hong Kong is considered to have a high uncertainty avoidance culture
e). Mexico is considered to have an individualistic culture

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

106. __________ refers to policies and practices that seek to include people within a workforce who are considered to be, in a way, different from those in the prevailing constituency.
a) Workforce diversity
b) Cultural variance
c) Employee divergence
d) Inclusiveness
e) Employee multiculturalism

Ans:
Page: 42
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Importance of Diversity

107. What phrase was coined to describe how women have not reached the highest levels of organizations?
a) Multiculturalism
b) Inclusivity
c) Leaking pipeline
d) Reverse discrimination
e) Double bind

Ans:
Page: 44
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

108. Which of the following has been cited as a recommendation for changing structures and perceptions to address the leaking pipeline?
a) Provide mentoring for all high potential female managers
b) Create organizational cultures more satisfying to women
c) Measure performance through results
d) Actively monitor satisfaction levels of women
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 44
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

109. Title VII covers all of the following issues EXCEPT:
a) recruiting.
b) promotion.
c) job training.
d) union membership.
e) wages.

Ans:
Page: 43
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

110. In recent years, the workplace has experienced a shift from a focus on diversity to a focus on __________.
a) multiculturalism
b) inclusion
c) social identity
d) affirmative action
e) EEO

Ans:
Page: 47
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Challenges in Managing Diversity

111. Baby Boomers believe that Millenials __________.
a) are very hard working
b) are too entitled
c) are earning their stripes quickly
d) value structure
e) value professional dress

Ans:
Page: 45
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

112. Estimates indicate that __________ Americans have one or more physical or mental disabilities.
a) 10 million
b) 20 million
c) 30 million
d) 40 million
e) 50 million

Ans:
Page: 46
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

113. Which of the following statements concerning sexual orientation is TRUE?
a) Sexual orientation is protected by the EEOC.
b) The first U.S. corporation to add sexual orientation to its nondiscrimination policy was Apple Computers.
c) A 2010 Harris poll shows that 78 percent of heterosexual adults in the U.S. agree that how an employee performs at his or her job should be the standard for judging an employee, not one’s sexual orientation.
d) Few companies are extending rights to gay workers.
e) Attitudes towards gays in the workplace are not changing significantly.

Ans:
Page: 44
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

114. __________ in organizations emphasizes appreciation of differences in creating a setting where everyone feels valued and accepted.
a) Employee appreciation
b) Valuing diversity
c) Diversity divergence
d) Employee valuation
e) Employee tolerance

Ans:
Page: 48
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Challenges in Managing Diversity

Fill in the blank

115. __________ is the view individuals have of themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral beings.

Ans:
age: 26
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Components of Self

116. __________ means being aware of our own behaviors, preferences, styles, biases, personalities, and so on.

Ans:
Page: 26
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Self Awareness and Awareness of Others

117. What are two related aspects of the self-concept?

Ans:
Page: 26
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Components of Self

118. __________ consists of those factors that are determined at conception, including physical characteristics, gender, and personality factors.

Ans:
Page: 27
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss individual differences and why they are important.
Section Reference: Nature versus Nurture

119. Carl Jung’s work on problem-solving style reflects the way a person __________ and __________ information.

Ans:
Page: 30
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Social Traits

120. __________ represent the way individuals tend to think about their social and physical settings as well as their major beliefs and personal orientation concerning a range of issues.

Ans:
Page: 31
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal conception Traits

121. People who believe that the events in their lives are controlled primarily by themselves are said to have a(n) __________ locus of control.

Ans:
Page: 32
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal conception Traits

122. __________ refers to the tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority.

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal conception Traits

123. Someone who views and manipulates others purely for personal gain has a(n) __________ personality.

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal conception Traits

124. __________ reflects a person’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational (environmental) factors.

Ans:
Page: 33
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Personal conception Traits

125. Individuals with a(n) __________ orientation are characterized by impatience, desire for achievement, and perfectionism.

Ans:
Page: 35
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the Big Five Personality traits, as well as social, personal, and emotional adjustment traits.
Section Reference: Emotional Adustment Traits

126. __________ is a tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.

Ans:
Page: 35
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Personality and Stress

127. __________ refer to the wide variety of things that cause stress for individuals.

Ans:
Page: 35
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Sources of Stress

128. A(n) __________ results when forces in an individual’s personal life affect them at work.

Ans:
Page: 36
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Sources of Stress

129. __________ involves the pursuit of one’s job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program.

Ans:
Page: 38
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify sources of stress, outcomes of stress, and ways to manage stress.
Section Reference: Managing Stress

130.__________ are broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 38
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Values

131. __________ reflect a person’s preferences concerning the “ends” to be achieved.

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Personal Values

132. A person’s preferences about the “means” for achieving desired ends are known as __________.

Ans:
Page: 39
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Personal Values

133. __________ is the learned, shared way of doing things in a particular society.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

134. The five dimensions of national culture identified by Geert Hofstede are __________, __________, __________, __________, and __________.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

135. In Hofstede’s national culture framework, __________ reflects the degree to which people
are likely to prefer structured versus unstructured organizational situations.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

136. According to Hofstede’s national culture framework, __________ reflects the degree to which organizations emphasize competition and assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity and concerns for relationships.

Ans:
Page: 40
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Outline the sources of values, personal values, and cultural values.
Section Reference: Cultural Values

137. __________ is a phrase coined to describe how women have not reached the highest levels of organizations.

Ans:
Page: 44
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

138. __________ prohibits employers from discriminating against any individual with respect to compensation, terms, or conditions of employment because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

Ans:
Page: 43
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

139. __________ diversity is a result of Millenials, Gen Xers, and Baby Boomers in the workplace.

Ans:
Page: 45
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

140. A(n) __________ is a phenomenon whereby an individual is rejected as a result of an attribute that is deeply discredited by his or her society.

Ans:
Page: 46
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Explain why diversity is important in the workplace, the types of diversity, and the challenges in managing diversity.
Section Reference: Types of Diversity

Essay

141. Define and provide examples for each of the following: social traits, personal conception traits, and emotional adjustment traits.

142. Differentiate between constructive stress and destructive stress. Discuss coping mechanisms.

143. Identify and define the five dimensions that Geert Hofstede uses to describe differences in national cultures. Describe the implications of each dimension for organizations and their members. Also provide examples of countries that fall at opposite ends of Hofstede’s dimensions.

144. Explain Rokeach’s categories of values and provide examples of each.

145. Discuss the types of diversity reflected in the workplace today and how organizations can value and support diversity.

File: ch03, Chapter 3: Emotions, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction

True/False

1. Affect is the range of feelings in the form of emotions and moods that people experience.

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Understanding Emotions and Moods

2. The term affect encompasses a range of feelings in the forms of emotions and moods.

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference:: Understanding

3. Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Emotions

4. Emotional intelligence is one’s ability to understand emotions and manage relationships effectively.

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Emotional Intelligence

5. A person who is good at knowing and managing his or her own emotions and good at reading others’ emotions may perform better in his or her own job.

Ans:
Page: 55
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Emotional Intelligence

6. Self-management in emotional intelligence is the ability to think before acting and to be in control of otherwise disruptive impulses.

Ans:
Page: 55
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Emotional Intelligence

7. Researchers have identified twenty major categories of emotions, each of which generally includes some subcategories.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

8. Researchers have identified six major categories of emotions: anger, fear, joy, love, sadness, and surprise.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

9. Self-conscious emotions come from internal sources and social emotions come from external sources.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

10. Shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride are internal emotions.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

11. Self-conscious emotions help individuals stay aware of and regulate their relationships with others.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

12. Social emotions refer to individuals’ feelings based on their external information.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

13. Social emotions include pity, envy, and jealousy.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

14. Compared to emotions, moods are more intense.

Ans:
Page: 57
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

15. Moods frequently, though not always, lack a contextual stimulus.

Ans:
Page: 57
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

16. Moods are not likely to be directed at a specific person or event.

Ans:
Page: 57
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

17. Moods typically last longer than emotions.

Ans:
Page: 57
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

18. Research shows that managers do not need to pay attention to their employees’ affective factors such as moods and emotions.

Ans:
Page: 56-57
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

19. Emotions and moods mutually influence each other.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotion and Mood Contagion

20. Emotions are never contagious.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotion and Mood Contagion

21. Bad moods generally travel person-to-person slower than good moods.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotion and Mood Contagion

22. Work environments and events cannot influence a person’s feelings at work.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotion and Mood Contagion

23. The concept of emotional labor relates to the need to show certain emotions in order to do a job well.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

24. Emotional labor is a situation where a person displays organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

25. Inconsistencies between the emotions a person feels and the emotions a person projects is called emotional dissonance.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

26. Deep acting and surface acting are two terms reflecting ways of dealing with emotional dissonance.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

27. Deep acting is hiding one’s inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions as a response to display rules.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

28. Surface acting is trying to modify your true inner feelings based on display rules.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

29. Mexican culture tends to encourage downplaying emotions, while British culture is much more demonstrative in public.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

30. The Affective Events Theory ties together and extends people’s emotional reactions on-the-job and how these reactions influence those people.

Ans:
Page: 60
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotions and Moods as Affective Events

31. Personality may influence positive and negative reactions, as can moods.

Ans:
Page: 60
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotions and Moods as Affective Events

32. The frequency and intensity of emotions have been shown to be consistent across cultures.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

33. The emotions of happiness, joy, and love are generally valued positively across cultures.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

34. Norms for expressing emotions are consistent across cultures.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

35. Display rules, or informal standards, govern the degree to which it is appropriate for people from different cultures to display their emotions similarly.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

36. Attitudes are influenced by values and are acquired from the same sources as values: friends, teachers, parents, role models, and culture.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior

37. Values focus on specific people or objects, whereas attitudes have a more general focus and are more stable than values.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior

38. Attitudes are predispositions to respond in positive or negative ways to people or things in one’s environment.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior

39. Attitudes are hypothetical constructs which means that attitudes are inferred from the things people say, informally, in formal opinion polls, or through their behavior.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior

40. The cognitive component of an attitude reflects the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or
information a person possesses.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Components of Attitudes

41. The affective component of an attitude is an intention to behave in a certain way based on an individual’s specific feelings or attitudes.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Components of Attitudes

42. The behavioral component of an attitude is a specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedents.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Components of Attitudes

43. An attitude results in intended behavior which may or may not be carried out in a given circumstance.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Linking Attitudes and Behavior

44. A stronger relationship between attitudes and behaviors exist when both attitudes and behaviors are specific rather than general.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Linking Attitudes and Behavior

45. Even though attitudes do not always predict behavior, the link between attitudes and potential or intended behavior is important for managers to understand.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Linking Attitudes and Behavior

46. Cognitive dissonance describes a state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitude and behavior.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency

47. Changing the underlying attitude, changing future behavior, or developing new ways of explaining or rationalizing an inconsistency can reduce cognitive dissonance.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency

48. Choices regarding cognitive dissonance reduction methods are influenced by the
degree of a person’s perceived control over the situation and the magnitude of the
rewards involved.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency

49. Job satisfaction is the degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

50. Two primary dimensions of job involvement are rational commitment and emotional commitment.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

50. Rational commitment reflects feelings that the job serves one’s financial, developmental, and professional interests.

Ans:
Page: 63
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

51. A survey of workers by the Gallup Organization suggests that profits for employers rise when workers’ attitudes reflect high job involvement and organizational commitment.

Ans:
Page: 63
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

52. Managers must be able to infer the job satisfaction of others by careful observation and interpretation of what people say and do while going about their jobs.

Ans:
Page: 64
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Components of Job Satisfaction

53. A survey conducted by The Conference Board notes that in 2009 only 45 percent of employees were reporting job satisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 65
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Job Satisfaction Trends

54. Both the Job Descriptive Index and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire are popular job satisfaction questionnaires.

Ans:
Page: 64
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Components of Job Satisfaction

55. Job satisfaction does not influence employee absenteeism and turnover.

Ans:
Page: 66
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

56. According to a 2011 survey by Accenture, Gen Y workers ranked pay higher as a source of motivation that either Gen Xers or Baby Boomers.

Ans:
Page: 66
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Job Satisfaction Trends

57. According to a recent survey by Salary.com, workers in their 40s and early 50s were most likely to engage in “just-in-case” job-seeking activities such as Web surfing and posting resumes.

Ans:
Page: 66
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

58. Physical aggression is an example of a counterproductive workplace behavior.

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

59. Wasting resources, avoiding work, and making deliberate work errors are examples of political deviance.

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

60. The spillover effect examines happiness at home spilling over into satisfaction on the job.

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

61. The causal relationship between job satisfaction and performance has been clearly established.

Ans:
Page: 68
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Linking Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

62. The argument that satisfaction causes performance suggests that managers should help workers attain high performance, and as a consequence workers will be satisfied.

Ans:
Page: 68
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Linking Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

63. Job satisfaction alone is a consistent predictor of individual work performance.

Ans:
Page: 68
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Linking Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

64. The argument that rewards cause both satisfaction and performance suggests that managers can positively influence both satisfaction and performance by properly allocating rewards.

Ans:
Pages: 68-69
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Linking Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

65. Well managed rewards can positively influence both individual satisfaction and performance.

Ans:
Page: 70
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Linking Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

Multiple Choice

66. All of the following are tips that Lisa Druxman, founder of Stroller Strides, believes lead to business success EXCEPT:
a) creating a vision and road map on how to attain a goal.
b) hiring out everything you can so that there is progress when you are with your family.
c) having a like-minded partner.
d) working on the most important things.
e) keeping your spouse from buying-in with parenting.

Ans:
Page: 52
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Balance through Fitness

67. __________ always have an object or something to trigger them.
a) Moods
b) Attitudes
c) Emotions
d) Behaviors
e) Beliefs

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Understanding Emotions and Moods

68. The term EI __________.
a) refers to cognitive ability and intelligence
b) is used interchangeably with IQ
c) is more of a recent concept.
d) has been measured for over 100 years
e) is measured in the Myers Briggs

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Understanding Emotions and Moods

69. Emotional intelligence includes all the following factors EXCEPT:
a) appraisal and expression of emotions in oneself.
b) appraisal and recognition of emotions in others.
c) assessment of management attitudes.
d) regulation of emotions in oneself.
e) use of emotions to facilitate performance.

Ans:
Pages: 54-55
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Understanding Emotions and Moods

70. According to EI, the ability to think before acting and to control disruptive impulses is __________.
a) social awareness
b) self-awareness
c) emotional contagion
d) self-management
e) relationship management

Ans:
Page: 55
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Understanding Emotions and Moods

71. Emotional intelligence includes all of the following factors EXCEPT:
a) one’s ability to understand the IQ of managers.
b) one’s ability to understand one’s own emotions and to express them naturally.
c) one’s ability to perceive and understand the emotions of others.
d) the ability to regulate one’s own emotions.
e) one’s ability to use emotions by directing them toward constructive activities and improved performance.

Ans:
Page: 54-55
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Emotional Intelligence

72. Which of the following is NOT one of the six major types of emotions identified by researchers?
a) Anger
b) Joy
c) Love
d) Fear
e) Interest

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

73. The six major categories of emotions identified by researchers are __________.
a) fear, joy, love, sadness, disappointment, and surprise
b) happiness, love, disappointment, calm, pleasure, and bliss
c) anger, fear, joy, love, sadness, and surprise
d) joy, love, calm, pleasure, fear, and disappointment
e) bliss, sadness, surprise, joy, anger, and happiness

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

74. Which of the following is one of the six major categories of emotions identified by researchers?
a) Interest
b) Greed
c) Surprise
d) Values
e) Moods

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

75. When considering the major categories of emotions identified by researchers, which of the following statements is incorrect?
a) The “sadness” category may contain disappointment, neglect, and shame.
b) The “anger” category may contain disgust and envy.
c) The “fear” category may contain alarm and anxiety.
d) The “love” category may contain affection, longing, and lust.
e) The “happiness” category may contain pride and self-worth.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

76. Joseph said to himself, “Oh, I just don’t have the energy to do much today; I’ve felt down all week.” This is an example of a(n) __________.
a) emotion
b) mood
c) cognition
d) display rule
e) citizenship behavior

Ans:
Page: 57
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

77. “I was really angry when my professor criticized my presentation.” This is an example of a(n) __________.
a) emotion
b) mood
c) cognition
d) display rule
e) citizenship behavior

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

78. Which of the following statements regarding the six major categories identified by researchers is correct?
a) The fear category may contain alarm and anxiety.
b) The calm category may contain contentment and relaxation.
c) The respect category may contain reverence and integrity.
d) The ethics category may contain morals and values.
e) The surprise category may contain concern and wonder.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Foundations of Emotions and Moods

79. __________ emotions help individuals stay aware of and regulate their relationships with others, while __________ emotions refer to individuals’ feelings based on information external to themselves.
a) Awareness; open
b) Recognized; acknowledged
c) Internal; external
d) Self-conscious; social
e) Known; found

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

80. Which of the following statements is correct?
a) Social emotions come from internal sources.
b) Self-conscious emotions come from external sources.
c) Self-conscious emotions come from internal sources.
d) Social emotions and self-conscious emotions come from internal sources.
e) Self-conscious emotions and social emotions come from external sources.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

81. All of the following are examples of internal emotions EXCEPT:
a) shame.
b) guilt.
c) embarrassment.
d) pride.
e) fear.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

82. Pity, envy, and jealousy are examples of __________.
a) moods
b) social emotions
c) values
d) self-conscience emotions
e) attitudes

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

83. Social emotions refer to __________.
a) an individual’s feelings based on information internal to himself or herself
b) an individual’s feelings based on information external to himself or herself
c) group feelings based on information internal to themselves
d) group feelings based on information external to themselves
e) an individual’s feelings based on information internal and external to himself or herself

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

84. Which of the following statements about emotions is false?
a) Emotions can change into a mood.
b) Emotions tend to be contagious.
c) Emotions are arguably more fleeting than moods.
d) Emotions are likely to last for hours or even days.
e) Emotions are more intense than moods.

Ans:
Page: 57
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

85. Which statement about moods is accurate?
a) A positive or negative mood can influence emotions.
b) Moods are more intense, compared with emotions.
c) Moods always lack a contextual stimulus.
d) Moods are more fleeting than emotions.
e) A mood is likely to be directed at a specific person or event.

Ans:
Page: 56-57
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

86. Which of the following statements is correct?
a) Emotions and moods tend to be more stable than attitudes and values.
b) Emotions and attitudes tend to be more stable than moods and values.
c) Emotions and values tend to be more stable than moods and attitudes.
d) Attitudes and values tend to be more stable than moods and emotions.
e) Attitudes and moods tend to be more stable than emotions and values.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotion and Mood Contagion

87. Emotional labor requirements are especially important in the work of __________.
a) construction workers
b) day laborers
c) flight attendants
d) brick layers
e) landscapers

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

88. The advice to managers today is to __________.
a) pay lots of attention to affective factors such as moods and emotions
b) pay little attention to affective factors such as moods and emotions
c) pay lots of attention to affective factors such as ethics and values
d) pay little attention to affective factors such as ethics and values
e) totally ignore employee attitudes, moods, and emotions

Ans:
Page: 57-59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Emotions and Moods Influence Behavior

89. An inconsistency between the emotions we actually feel and the emotions we try to project is knows as __________.
a) emotional dissonance
b) surface acting
c) deep acting
d) cognitive dissonance
e) emotional intelligence

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

90. Which of the following statements is correct?
a) Deep acting is hiding your inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions as a response to display rules.
b) Surface acting is trying to modify your true inner feelings based on display rules.
c) Deep acting and surface acting are two terms reflecting ways of dealing with emotional dissonance.
d) Deep acting and surface acting are two terms reflecting ways of behavior when a person’s ethics is somewhat questionable.
e) Deep acting is trying to modify your true inner feelings based on your personal standards for behavior.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

91. Which of the following statements about emotions is true?
a) Negative emotions are required for success on-the-job in most cultures.
b) Management in Europe is not concerned about differences in emotions.
c) The type and duration of emotions are consistent across cultures.
d) The frequency and intensity of emotions has been shown to vary across cultures.
e) The frequency and intensity of emotions are consistent across cultures.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

92. Managers today should be __________.
a) ignorant of emotions in foreign cultures
b) resistant to emotions in foreign cultures
c) insensitive to emotions in foreign cultures
d) very sensitive to the display of emotions in foreign cultures
e) reporting negative emotions to the corporate office

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

93. The informal standards which govern the degree to which it is appropriate for people from different cultures to show their emotions similarly are known as __________.
a) emotional intelligence agencies
b) affective rules
c) cognitive rules
d) display rules
e) behavioral rules

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

94. According to the Affective Events Theory, which of the following is true?
a) Work events include job demands and daily hassles.
b) Emotional reactions include personality and positivity.
c) Work environment includes characteristics of the job and personality.
d) Personal predispositions include personality and mood.
e) Affective Events Theory extends understanding of people’s moods on the job and why job satisfaction is decreasing.

Ans:
Page: 60
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotions and Moods as Affective Events

95. The Affective Events Theory __________.
a) is a change management theory that deals with organizational events
b) ties together and extends people’s emotional reactions on-the-job and how these reactions influence those people
c) relates the needs of the organization with those of its members
d) identifies management’s emotional growth as they progress upward on the career paths
e) considers how employees will be impacted after an acquisition or merger

Ans:
Page: 60
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotions and Moods as Affective Events

96. Affective Events Theory includes all of the following components EXCEPT:
a) work environment.
b) work events.
c) physical reactions.
d) personal predispositions.
e) job satisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 60
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotions and Moods in the Workplace

97. In the Affective Events Theory, the term “work environment” can involve the following subcategories:
a) characteristics of the job, job demands, and emotional labor requirements.
b) characteristics of the job, job demands, and the supervisor’s directives.
c) supervisor’s directives, emotional labor requirements, and co-worker involvement.
d) supervisor’s directives, co-worker involvement, and subordinate support.
e) co-worker involvement, subordinate support, and emotional labor requirements.

Ans:
Page: 60
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotions and Moods as Affective Events

98. In the Affective Events Theory, the term “personal predispositions” can involve the following subcategories:
a) values and attitudes.
b) ethics and objectives.
c) personality and mood.
d) ego and values.
e) personality and objectives.

Ans:
Page: 60
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotions and Moods as Affective Events

99. The Affective Events Theory suggests that employees__________.
a) emphasize emotions, along with more cognitive aspects in performing their jobs
b) recognize when their organizations are transforming organizational culture
c) do not always understand developmental goals set by management
d) process emotions in a strict hierarchal structure
e) feel sad when passed over for a promotion

Ans:
Page: 60
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotions and Moods as Affective Events

100. Which of the following statements about attitudes is false?
a) Attitudes are influenced by values.
b) Attitudes are acquired from the same sources as values.
c) Attitudes focus on specific people or objects.
d) Attitudes are more stable than values.
e) Attitudes are hypothetical constructs.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior

101. The __________ component of an attitude reflects the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person possesses.
a) sociological
b) values
c) perceptual
d) physical
e) cognitive

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Components of Attitudes

102. The __________ component of an attitude is a specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedents, while the __________ component is an intention to behave in a certain way based on your specific feelings or attitudes.
a) emotional; intended
b) acknowledged; affective
c) cognitive; behavioral
d) affective; behavioral
e) cognitive; affective

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Components of Attitudes

103. Attitudes are acquired from all of these sources EXCEPT:
a) friends.
b) teachers.
c) business models.
d) role models.
e) culture.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior

104. Which of the following statements provides an accurate description of the attitude-behavior linkage?
a) An attitude results in intended behavior; this intention will always be carried out in a given circumstance.
b) The relationship between general attitudes and behavior is stronger than the relationship between specific attitudes and behaviors.
c) The attitude-behavior linkage tends to be stronger when a person has had experience with the stated attitude.
d) The attitude-behavior linkage is weak when individuals have little emotional intelligence.
e) The relationship between general attitudes and behavior is weaker than the relationship between specific values and norms.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Linking Attitudes and Behavior

105. A state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and behavior is known as __________.
a) emotional labor
b) emotional contagion
c) cognitive dissonance
d) emotional intelligence
e) the spillover effect.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency

106. Which of the following is an example of cognitive dissonance?
a) A manager gives a high performer a good raise in his salary.
b) A manager fires a person who steals from a firm.
c) A manager hires a person with terrific relevant work and educational experience.
d) A manager appraises all the employees using uniform standards, regardless of the individual’s performance on-the-job.
e) A manager promotes an employee with a stellar work record.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency

107. According to Leon Festinger, individuals reduce cognitive dissonance in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
a) developing new ways of explaining the inconsistency.
b) changing future behavior.
c) re-evaluating values and beliefs.
d) changing the underlying attitude.
e) developing new ways of rationalizing the inconsistency.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency

108. __________ and __________ influence the choices a person makes regarding which cognitive dissonance reduction method to use.
a) The degree of a person’s emotional adjustment; the magnitude of the rewards involved
b) The degree of a person’s perceived control over the situation; the magnitude of the rewards involved
c) The degree of a person’s perceived control over the situation; the magnitude of the person’s sociability
d) The degree of a person’s authoritarianism; the magnitude of the person’s self-esteem
e) The magnitude of the person’s agreeableness; the magnitude of the person’s self-efficacy

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency

109. The degree of loyalty an individual feels toward the organization is known as __________.
a) job satisfaction
b) organizational commitment
c) job involvement
d) employee engagement
e) organizational citizenship

Ans:
Page: 63
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

110. The extent to which an individual is dedicated to a job is known as __________.
a) job satisfaction
b) organizational commitment
c) job involvement
d) employee engagement
e) organizational citizenship

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

111. The two primary dimensions to organizational commitment are __________.
a) employee engagement and rational commitment
b) rational commitment and emotional commitment
c) employee engagement and job satisfaction
d) job satisfaction and job involvement
e) emotional commitment and employee engagement

Ans:
Page: 63
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

112. If John has high job involvement, which of the following can be expected?
a) John will work beyond expectations to complete a special project.
b) John is not dedicated to his job.
c) John is highly committed to his organization.
d) John psychologically identifies with his organization.
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 63
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

113. Which work attitude reflects feelings that the job serves one’s financial, developmental, and professional interests?
a) Rational commitment
b) Emotional commitment
c) Job involvement
d) Spillover effect
e) Employee engagement

Ans:
Page: 63
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

114. According to the Gallop Organization, which of the following does not count most toward high engagement?
a) Believing one has the opportunity to do one’s best every day.
b) Believing one’s opinions count.
c) Believing fellow workers are committed to quality.
d) Believing there is a direct connection between one’s work and the company’s mission.
e) Believing there is a direct connection between one’s work and one’s pay.

Ans:
Page: 63
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

115. The combination of high job involvement and organizational commitment creates, what the Gallop Organization has called, __________.
a) at home effect
b) counterproductive workplace behaviors
c) job satisfaction
d) organizational citizenship
e) employee engagement

Ans:
Page: 63
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

116. Job satisfaction is important for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a) it influences the decision a person makes to join an organization.
b) it influences the decision a person makes to be creative.
c) it influences the decision a person makes regarding how hard to work in the pursuit of high performance.
d) it influences the decision a person makes to remain as a member of an organization.
e) it influences the decision to perform.

Ans:
Page: 63-68
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Job Satisfaction and its Importance

117. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding job satisfaction findings?
a) About 45 percent of workers reported job satisfaction in 2009.
b) Job satisfaction is down.
c) Job satisfaction is lower among the youngest workers.
d) There are gender differences in job satisfaction and how it is dealt with.
e) Job satisfaction is lower in smaller companies.

Ans:
Pages: 65-66
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Job Satisfaction Trends

118. The five facets of job satisfaction measured by the Job Descriptive Index are __________.
a) the work itself, quality of supervision, relationships with co-workers, promotion opportunities, and pay
b) skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback
c) the work itself, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and opportunities for learning
d) quality of supervision, relationships with co-workers, opportunities for learning, pay, and autonomy
e) autonomy, relationships with peers, relationships with superiors, feedback, and the work itself

Ans:
Page: 64
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Components of Job Satisfaction

119. The flip side of organizational citizenship are__________.
a) home effects
b) counterproductive workplace behaviors
c) job satisfaction behaviors
d) job commitment behaviors
e) employee engagement behaviors

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

120. Which of the following is NOT an example of counterproductive workplace behaviors?
a) Intimidation
b) Avoiding work
c) Positively commenting publicly on the employer
d) Stealing money
e) Lacking civility in relationships

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

121. Sarah spreads harmful rumors, gossips, uses bad language, and lacks civility in relationships while at work. In which of the following is Sarah engaging in?
a) Personal aggression
b) Production deviance
c) Political deviance
d) Property deviance
e) Psychological deviance

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

122. If John is stealing money from his employer, he is engaging in __________ type of behaviors.
a) organizational citizenship
b) counterproductive
c) cognitively dissonant
d) at-home effect
e) spillover

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

123. The extras people do to go the extra mile in their work are referred to as __________.
a) organizational citizenship behaviors
b) counterproductive behaviors
c) deviant workplace behaviors
d) at-home effect behaviors
e) spillover behaviors

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

124. Lawler and Porter maintain that __________.
a) perceived equity of rewards does not impact the performance/satisfaction relationship
b) performance accomplishment lead to rewards that lead to satisfaction
c) rewards do not have to be perceived as equitable to lead to satisfaction
d) individuals who are unfairly rewarded will still be satisfied
e) satisfaction causes performance

Ans:
Pages: 68-69
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

125. Which of the following statements is true with respect to job satisfaction and performance?
a) Job satisfaction does not cause performance.
b) Performance does not cause job satisfaction.
c) Rewards cause both job satisfaction and performance.
d) Rewards do not cause job satisfaction.
e) Rewards do not cause performance.

Ans:
Page: 68
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

126. Which of the following statements with respect to the relationship between satisfaction and performance is NOT correct?
a) The argument that satisfaction causes performance suggests that managers should make employees happy in order to increase work performance.
b) The argument that performance causes satisfaction suggests that managers should help workers attain high performance, and as a consequence the workers will be satisfied.
c) The argument that rewards cause both satisfaction and performance suggests that managers can positively influence both satisfaction and performance by properly allocating rewards.
d) The argument that rewards cause both satisfaction and performance is the most compelling argument regarding the performance/satisfaction relationship.
e) Managers should consider satisfaction and performance to be two completely independent work results.

Ans:
Page: 68
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

127. The relationship between job satisfaction and performance is a complex one for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a) job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of individual work performance.
b) individual performance can lead to rewards that, in turn, lead to individual satisfaction (if the rewards are equitable).
c) well managed rewards can positively influence individual satisfaction.
d) well managed rewards can positively influence individual performance.
e) individual job satisfaction standards change frequently.

Ans:
Page: 68
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

Fill in the blank

128. __________ is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that individuals express.

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Understanding Emotions and Moods

129. A(n) __________ is an intense feeling that is directed toward someone or something.

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Emotions

130. __________ is one’s ability to understand emotions and manage relationships effectively.

Ans:
Page: 54
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Emotional Intelligence

131. __________ is the ability to understand our emotions and their impact on us and others.

Ans:
Page: 55
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Emotional Intelligence

132. __________ is the ability to establish rapport with others in order to build good relationships.

Ans:
Page: 55
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Emotional Intelligence

133. When considering the major categories of emotions identified by researchers, __________ may contain cheerfulness and contentment.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

134. __________ help individuals stay aware of and regulate their relationships with others.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

135. __________ refer to individuals’ feelings based on information external to themselves such as pity, envy, and jealousy.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

136. Shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride are examples of __________.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Types of Emotions

137. __________ are generalized positive and negative feelings or states of mind.

Ans:
Page: 56
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: The Nature of Moods

138. ___________ refers to a customer catching the emotions of a salesperson.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotion and Mood Contagion

139. __________ is a situation where a person displays organizationally desired emotions in a job.

Ans:
Page: 58
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

140. __________ is defined as inconsistencies between emotions people feel and the emotions they project.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

141. __________ refers to modifying your true inner feelings based on display rules and _________ refers to hiding your inner feeling and forgoing emotional response to display rules.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

142. __________ are informal standards that govern the degree to which it is appropriate for people from different cultures to display their emotions similarly.

Ans:
Page: 59
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

143. When you say you like chocolate ice cream, you are expressing a(n)__________.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior

144. __________ are inferred from the things people say or from their behavior.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior

145. A(n) __________ is a predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior

146. The __________ component of an attitude reflects the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person possesses, while the __________ component is a specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedents.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Components of Attitudes

147. The __________ component of an attitude is a specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedent conditions.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Components of Attitudes

148. The __________ component of an attitude is an intention to behave in a certain way based on your specific feelings or attitudes.

Ans:
Page: 61
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Components of Attitudes

149. __________ describes a state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and behavior.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency

150. __________ is known for using the term cognitive dissonance to describe a state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and his or her behavior.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency

151. __________ is the degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

152. __________ is the loyalty of an individual to the organization.

Ans:
Page: 62
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: Types of Job Attitudes

153. Personal aggression and property deviance like stealing money are examples of __________.

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

154. Two popular job satisfaction questionnaires are the __________ and the __________.

Ans:
Page: 64
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Components of Job Satisfaction

155. The spillover of job satisfaction onto family lives is also known as __________.

Ans:
Page: 67
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: How Job Satisfaction Influences Work Behavior

156. In the Lawler and Porter model addressing the relationship between performance and satisfaction, the intervening variables linking performance with later satisfaction are __________.

Ans:
Page: 68
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Linking Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

157. The key issue in respect to the allocation of rewards is __________, or varying the size of the reward in proportion to the level of performance.

Ans:
Page: 70
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Linking Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

Essay

158. Define emotional intelligence and identify the four competencies of emotional intelligence.
Pages: 54-55
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define the nature of emotions and moods, emotional intelligence, and the types of emotions.
Section Reference: Emotional Intelligence

159. Define emotional labor. Give two examples of jobs where positive reactions on-the-job are required for job success, regardless of job circumstances.
Page: 58
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Emotional Labor

160. Define display rules. Give several examples of how display rules impact work cultures in different countries.

Page: 59
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain how emotions and moods influence behavior.
Section Reference: Cultural Aspects of Emotions and Moods

161. What is an attitude? Discuss the three basic components of an attitude.

Page: 61
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the components of attitudes and how they influence behavior.
Section Reference: How Attitudes Influence Behavior and Components of Attitudes

162. Explain the alternative views of the relationship between job satisfaction and performance, and discuss the managerial implications of each view.

Pages: 67-70
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the components of job satisfaction and why it is important.
Section Reference: Linking Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

File: ch04, Chapter 4: Perception, Attribution, and Learning

True/False

1. Perception is the process through which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information from their environment.

Ans:
Page: 76
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: The Perception Process

2. Different people may perceive the same situation quite differently.

Ans:
Page: 76
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: The Perception Process

3. The quality or accuracy of a person’s perceptions has a relatively minor impact on the person’s behavior.

Ans:
Page: 76
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

4. The factors that contribute to perceptual differences and the perceptual process among people at work include characteristics of the perceiver, the setting, and the perceived.

Ans:
Page: 77
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

5. A person’s past experiences, needs or motives, personality, values, and attitudes may all influence the perceptual process.

Ans:
Page: 77
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

6. The physical, social, and organizational context of the perceptual setting can influence the perceptual process.

Ans:
Page: 77
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

7. Characteristics of the perceived person, object, or event –– such as contrast, intensity, figure-ground separation, size, motion, and repetition or novelty –– are important in the perceptual process.

Ans:
Page: 77
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

8. Intensity of the perceived person, object, or event can vary in terms of brightness, color, depth, sound, etc.

Ans:
Page: 77
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

9. When a bright red sports car stands out from a group of gray sedans, this demonstrates figure/ground separation.

Ans:
Page: 77
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

10. The novelty of a situation affects a person’s perception of it.

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

11. The information-processing stages of the perceptual process are divided into information attention and selection, organization of information, information interpretation, and information retrieval.

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

12. Selective screening lets in only a tiny portion of all of the information available.

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

13. Controlled processing occurs when a person consciously decides what information to pay attention to and what information to ignore.

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

14. Selective screening occurs only through conscious awareness.

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

15. Schemas are cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge about a given concept or stimulus developed through experience.

Ans:
Pages: 78-79
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

16. Impersonal schemas refer to the way individuals divide others into categories, such as types or groups, in terms of similar perceived features.

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

17. A stereotype is an abstract set of features commonly associated with members of a particular category.

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

18. A person-in-situation schema is defined as a knowledge framework that describes the appropriate sequence of events in a given situation.

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

19. Script schemas combine schemas built around persons and events.

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

20. People may pay attention to the same information, organize it in the same way, and yet interpret in differently.

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

21. Schemas play an important role in the retrieval stage of the perceptual process.

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

22. Impression management is a person’s systematic attempt to influence how others perceive us and flattering others to favorably impress them.

Ans:
Page: 80
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Perception, Impression Management, and Social Media

23. We practice a lot of impression management as a matter of routine in everyday life.

Ans:
Page: 80
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Perception, Impression Management, and Social Media

24. Impression management is more important in face-to-face meetings than in online interactions.

Ans:
Page: 80
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Perception, Impression Management, and Social Media

25. The right social networks can create the right impression.

Ans:
Page: 80-81
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: The Perception Process

26. The common perceptual distortions include stereotypes or prototypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects, and the self-fulfilling prophecy.

Ans:
Page: 81
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Common Perceptual Distortions

27. Stereotypes obscure individual differences; that is, they can prevent managers from getting to know people as individuals and from accurately assessing their needs, preferences, and abilities.

Ans:
Page: 81
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Stereotypes

28. Ability and age stereotypes have almost been eliminated from the workplace today.

Ans:
Page: 81
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Stereotypes

29. Like stereotypes, halo effects are most likely to occur in the interpretation stage of the perceptual process.

Ans:
Page: 83
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Halo Effects

30. Halo effects are particularly important in the performance appraisal process because they can influence a manger’s evaluations of subordinates’ work performance.

Ans:
Page: 83
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Halo Effects

31. Projection is the tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s own needs, values, or attitudes.

Ans:
Page: 83
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Selective Perception

32. Projection can be controlled through a high degree of self-awareness and empathy.

Ans:
Page: 84
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Projection

33. A contrast effect occurs when an individual’s characteristics are compared with those of others who have been recently encountered and who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.

Ans:
Page: 84
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Contrast Effects

34. When a manager comparatively ranks all his/her subordinates on their oral communication skills, the contrast effect may creep in as a perceptual bias.

Ans:
Page: 84-85
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Common Perceptual Distortions

35. Impression management is sometimes referred to as the “Pygmalion effect.”

Ans:
Page: 85
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

36. The effects of the self-fulfilling prophecy argue strongly for managers to adopt negative and pessimistic approaches to people at work.

Ans:
Page: 85-86
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

37. According to a study on ethical workplace conduct conducted for Deloitte & Touche USA, 91% of workers reported that they were more likely to behave ethically when they have work-life balance.

Ans:
Page: 85
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Ethics in OB

38. Assimilation theory is the attempt to understand the causes of a certain event, assess responsibility for outcomes of the event, and evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

39. Attribution theory aids in the process of perception interpretation by focusing on how people attempt to understand the causes of a certain event, assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event, and evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

40. According to attribution theory, the three factors that influence whether an event is attributed to an internal cause or an external cause are distinctiveness, consensus, and aptitude.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

41. In the context of attribution theory, distinctiveness considers how consistent a person’s behavior is across different situations.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

42. In the context of attribution theory, consistency takes into account how likely all those facing a similar situation are to respond in the same way.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

43. If everyone using the same equipment performs poorly, the tendency is to attribute any one person’s poor performance to internal causes; but if other people using the equipment perform well while one person performs poorly, the tendency is to attribute that individual’s poor performance to external causes.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

44. If a person performs poorly in many different situations, the tendency is to attribute the person’s poor performance to external causes; but if the person performs poorly only occasionally, the tendency is to attribute the person’s poor performance to internal causes.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

45. The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of personal factors in evaluating someone else’s behavior.

Ans:
Page: 87
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution Errors

46. In the context of attribution theory, we tend to attribute our own successes to our own internal factors and to attribute our own failures to external factors.

Ans:
Page: 87
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution Errors

47. According to the work of Albert Bandura, an individual uses modeling but not the vicarious learning to acquire behavior by observing and imitating others.

Ans:
Page: 87
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution and Social Learning

48. Classical conditioning is a form of learning through association that involves the manipulation of stimuli to influence behavior.

Ans:
Page: 89
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

49. In Pavlov’s classical conditioning research, the food for the dogs was the stimulus.

Ans:
Page: 89
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

50. A conditioned stimulus refers to a once-neutral stimulus that is paired with an original stimulus and becomes capable of affecting behavior in the same way as the initial stimulus.

Ans:
Page: 89
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

51. Operant conditioning is the process of controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences.

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

52. Classical and operant conditioning differ in two important ways. First, control in classical conditioning is via manipulation of consequences. Second, classical conditioning calls for examining antecedents, behavior, and consequences.

Ans:
Page: 89-90
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

53. According to the law of effect, a supervisor who wants to increase the incidence of a specific employee behavior should make sure that the behavior results in positive outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

54. Sometimes rewards provided to employees may not necessarily be positive reinforcers.

Ans:
Page: 91
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

55. The law of contingent reinforcement states that the reward must be given as soon as possible after the occurrence of the desirable behavior.

Ans:
Page: 92
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

56. Continuous reinforcement and intermittent reinforcement administer a reward each time a desired behavior occurs.

Ans:
Page: 93
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

57. Negative reinforcement (also known as avoidance) is the withdrawal of negative consequences, which tends to increase the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings.

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Negative Reinforcement

58. Both punishment and extinction are used to discourage negative behavior.

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Punishment

59. OB Mod has been criticized for creating values dilemmas regarding the use of reinforcement to influence human behavior at work.

Ans:
Page: 95
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Reinforcement Pros and Cons

Multiple Choice

60. Which of the following statements about perception is NOT accurate?
a) Although important, perceptions have only a minor impact on the way people respond to various situations.
b) Through perception, people process information inputs into responses involving feelings.
c) Perception is a way of forming impressions about oneself, other people, and daily life experiences.
d) Perceptions serve as a screen or filter through which information passes before it has an effect on people.
e) Through perception, people process information inputs into responses involving action.

Ans:
Pages: 76-78
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: The Perception Process

61. The factors that influence the perceptual process include characteristics regarding the __________.
a) inputs, throughputs, and outputs
b) information, facts, and data
c) perceiver, setting, and perceived
d) perceiver, intention, and consequence
e) intention, meaning, and result

Ans:
Page: 77
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

62. Which of the following sets of items relate to the perceiver as a factor influencing of the perceptual process?
a) Physical, social, and organizational contexts
b) Past experiences, needs or motives, personality, values, and attitudes
c) Contrast, intensity, figure-ground separation, size, motion, and repetition/novelty
d) Attitudes, physical characteristics, contrast, and size
e) Values, organizational norms, motion, and repetition/novelty

Ans:
Page: 77
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Factors Influencing Perception

63. The stages involved in processing the information that determines a person’s perceptions and reactions include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) information attention and selection.
b) information organization.
c) information interpretation.
d) information sending.
e) information retrieval.

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

64. Which of the following statements reflect the correct order of the stages of the perceptual process?
a) Organization, attention/selection, retrieval, and interpretation.
b) Attention/selection, interpretation, organization, and retrieval.
c) Attention/selection, organization, interpretation, and retrieval.
d) Interpretation, retrieval, organization, and attention/selection.
e) Interpretation, attention/selection, retrieval, and organization.

Ans:
Page: 78-79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

65. Selective screening __________.
a) lets in only a tiny proportion of all of the information available
b) should only be used sparingly because it is rarely effective
c) is typically used in the “information retrieval” step of information processing
d) is typically used in the “information interpretation” step of information processing
e) is typically used in the “information organization” step of information processing

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

66. William Walker works in a very busy and noisy environment. As a result, he frequently has to consciously decide what information to pay attention to and what information to ignore. Walker is using __________ as a mechanism for information attention and selection.
a) judicious screening
b) selective sorting
c) controlled processing
d) discriminate screening
e) discerning processing

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

67. A(n) __________ contains information about a person’s own appearance, behavior, and personality.
a) script schema
b) self schema
c) domestic schema
d) person-in-situation schema
e) indigenous schema

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

68. __________ schemas refer to the way individuals sort others into categories (or stereotypes) in terms of similar perceived features.
a) Ordered
b) Person
c) Self
d) Person-in situation
e) Indigenous

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

69. A __________ schema is used when an experienced manager thinks about the appropriate steps involved in facilitating a meeting.
a) person-in-situation
b) script
c) person
d) self
e) prototype

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

70. Impression management is influenced by all of the following activities EXCEPT:
a) associating with the “right people.”
b) doing favors to gain approval.
c) flattering others to favorably impress them.
d) taking credit for a favorable event.
e) making new job assignments.

Ans:
Page: 80
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Perception, Impression Management, and Social Media

71. Which of the following is true regarding impression management in social networks?
a) You should ask yourself, “How do I want to be viewed?”
b) You should choose a respectable username.
c) You should profile yourself only as you really would like to be known to others.
d) You should post and participate in an online forum only in ways that meet your goals for your personal brand.
e) All of the above are true

Ans:
Page: 80
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Perception, Impression Management, and Social Media

72. All of the following can cause distortion throughout the entire perceptual process EXCEPT:
a) stereotypes.
b) halo effects.
c) selective perception.
d) projection.
e) equity effects.

Ans:
Page: 81
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Common Perceptual Distortions

73. Which of the following statements is NOT true with regard to stereotypes?
a) Stereotyping is a useful way of combining information in order to deal with information overload.
b) Stereotypes can cause inaccuracies in retrieving information.
c) Stereotypes sharpen individual differences between people.
d) Stereotypes can prevent managers from getting to know people as individuals.
e) Stereotypes can prevent managers from accurately assessing the needs, preferences, and abilities of employees.

Ans:
Page: 82-86
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Common Perceptual Distortions

74. The director of engineering at a local company was very impressed that Jerry, a production engineer, had not missed a single day of work in the past 12-month period. Based on this one item, the director of engineering rated Jerry very high on all dimensions of his performance appraisal. This error in the performance appraisal process is known as a__________.
a) halo effect
b) projection error
c) contrast error
d) leniency error
e) statutory effect

Ans:
Page: 83
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Halo Effects

75. Which of the following statements best defines selective perception?
a) Selective perception is the assignment of personal attributes to other individuals.
b) Selective perception occurs when an individual’s characteristics are contrasted with those of others who have been recently encountered and who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
c) Selective perception is the tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expects to find.
d) Selective perception occurs when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the person or situation.
e) Selective perception is the tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s own needs, values, or attitudes.

Ans:
Page: 83
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Selective Perception

76. The strongest impact of selective perception occurs in the __________ stage of the perceptual process.
a) retrieval
b) attention
c) organization
d) sorting
e) interpretation

Ans:
Page: 83
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Selective Perception

77. Adam is considered to be an excellent production manager. However, he tends to give attention only to those aspects of the organization that affect his production operation and to not notice the concerns of other departments. From a perceptual perspective, Adam is guilty of which perceptual distortion?
a) Halo effect
b) Statutory effect.
c) Selective perception
d) Discernment error
e) Contrast error

Ans:
Page: 83
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Selective Perception

78. When a mentally challenged candidate is overlooked by a recruiter even though he possesses skills that are perfect for the job, which perceptual distortion is likely to be experienced by the recruiter?
a) Halo effect
b) Selective perception
c) Ability stereotypes
d) Projection
e) Self-fulfilling prophecy

Ans:
Page: 82
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Stereotypes

79. Halo effects are particularly important in which managerial process?
a) Recruitment
b) Performance appraisals
c) Selection
d) Orientation
e) Training

Ans:
Page: 83
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Halo Effects

80. Which perceptual distortion occurs when an individual’s characteristics are compared with those of others recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristic?
a) Halo effect
b) Selective perception
c) Stereotypes
d) Contrast effects
e) Self-fulfilling prophecy

Ans:
Page: 84
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Contrast Effects

81. The label __________ Class is often used to describe hi-tech young professionals. They face lots of stress in struggles to balance work, family, and leisure.
a) Balance
b) Elsewhere
c) Generation Y
d) Multi-tasking
e) 24/7

Ans:
Page: 84
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Welcome to the Elsewhere Class…and to Stress

82. Which perceptual distortion is also known as the Pygmalion effect?
a) Halo effect
b) Selective perception
c) Stereotypes
d) Contrast effects
e) Self-fulfilling prophecy

Ans:
Page: 85
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

83. The perceptual distortion of projection can be controlled through a high degree of __________.
a) emotional discernment
b) self-awareness and empathy
c) ethical behavior
d) cognitive consistency
e) communication

Ans:
Page: 84
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Projection

84. If you are a manager and have one extremely exceptional employee, you need to guard against __________ when evaluating the work of your other employees, because you may have the tendency to compare the characteristics of your other employees with those of the exceptional employee.
a) contrast effects
b) halo effects
c) selective perception
d) self-fulfilling prophecy
e) project errors

Ans:
Page: 84
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Contrast Effects

85. Projection is especially likely to occur in the __________ stage of perception.
a) attention
b) organization
c) interpretation
d) selection
e) retrieval

Ans:
Page: 84
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Projection

86. Which of the following statements best describes the self-fulfilling prophecy?
a) It occurs when an individual’s characteristics are compared with those of others who have been recently encountered and who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
b) It is the assignment of personal attributes to other individuals.
c) It occurs when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall impression of the person or situation.
d) It is the tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expects to find.
e) It is the tendency to single out for attention those aspects of a situation or person that are consistent with one’s own needs, values, or attitudes.

Ans:
Page: 85
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

87. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the self-fulfilling prophecy?
a) The self-fulfilling prophecy can cause a person to perceive what he/she expected to find in the first place.
b) The self-fulfilling prophecy can have negative results.
c) The self-fulfilling prophecy can have positive results.
d) The effects of the self-fulfilling prophecy argue strongly for managers to adopt positive and optimistic approaches to people at work.
e) The effects of the self-fulfilling prophecy argue strongly for managers to adopt negative and pessimistic approaches to people at work.

Ans:
Pages: 85-86
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

88. What percentage of workers surveyed for Deloitte & Touche USA said that the behavior of their managers was a major influence on an ethical workplace?
a) 12%
b) 22%
c) 42%
d) 62%
e) 72%

Ans:
Page: 85
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Ethics in OB

89. The application of attribution theory is particularly concerned with whether one’s behavior has been __________.
a) voluntary or coerced
b) internally or externally caused
c) proactive or reactive in nature
d) positive or negative
e) restrained or forward

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

90. According to attribution theory, three factors influence whether internal or external attributions are made. These three factors are __________.
a) distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency
b) individuality, consent, and harmony
c) disposition, concurrence, and cohesion
d) distinctiveness, accord, and congruity
e) individuality, accord, and cohesion

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

91. According to attribution theory, which types of causes are operating to the detriment of obese workers?
a) Fundamental attribution errors
b) Internal causes
c) External causes
d) Self-serving biases
e) Projection

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Perception and Attribution

92. If everyone using the same equipment performs poorly, the tendency is to attribute any one person’s poor performance to __________ causes; but if other people using the equipment perform well while one person performs poorly, the tendency is to attribute that individual’s poor performance to __________ causes.
a) external; internal
b) internal; external
c) external; external
d) outside; inside
e) inside; outside

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

93. If a person performs poorly in many different situations, the tendency is to attribute the person’s poor performance to __________ causes; but if the person performs poorly only occasionally, the tendency is to attribute the person’s poor performance to __________ causes.
a) external; internal
b) internal; external
c) external; external
d) outside; inside
e) inside; outside

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

94. The __________ is the tendency to deny personal responsibility for performance problems but to accept personal responsibility for performance success.
a) fundamental attribution error
b) central attribution error
c) indigenous bias
d) inward attribution error
e) self-serving bias

Ans:
Page: 87
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution Errors

95. In assessing the causes of other people’s behavior, we tend to __________ their internal personal factors and to __________ the external factors. However, in assessing the causes of our own behavior, we tend to attribute our own success to __________ and our failure to __________.
a) overemphasize; underemphasize; external factors; our own internal factors
b) underemphasize; overemphasize; external factors; our own internal factors
c) overemphasize; overemphasize; external factors; our own internal factors
d) underemphasize; overemphasize; our own internal factors; external factors
e) overemphasize; underemphasize; our own internal factors; external factors

Ans:
Page: 87
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution Errors

96. Social learning theory emphasizes __________.
a) operant conditioning
b) objective consequences
c) the existence of observational learning
d) the lack of reciprocal interactions among people
e) the unimportance of environment

Ans:
Page: 87
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution and Social Learning

97. A person’s belief that he or she can perform adequately in a situation is known as __________.
a) self-efficacy
b) social learning
c) OB modification.
d) the self-serving bias
e) the self-fulfilling prophesy

Ans:
Page: 88
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution and Social Learning

98. All of the following are proposed as ways of building or enhancing self-efficacy EXCEPT:
a) gaining confidence through positive experience.
b) gaining confidence by observing others.
c) gaining confidence from hearing others praise our efforts.
d) gaining confidence when we are highly energized to perform well in a situation.
e) gaining confidence by giving criticism to those not performing well.

Ans:
Page: 88
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Perception and Attribution

99. Of the following ways of building self-efficacy, which refers to gaining confidence when we are highly stimulated or energized to perform well?
a) Enactive mastery
b) Vicarious modeling
c) Verbal persuasion
d) Emotional arousal
e) None of the above

Ans:
Page: 88
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Perception and Attribution

100. Sir Richard Branson, founder of Virgin Group, is known for his use of which reinforcement strategy?
a) Negative
b) Positive
c) Avoidance
d) Punishment
e) Extinction

Ans:
Page: 91
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Finding the Leader in You

101. __________ is the administration of a consequence as a result of behavior.
a) Motivation
b) Fortification
c) Reinforcement
d) Augmentation
e) Mentoring

Ans:
Page: 89
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Learning by Reinforcement

102. Managing __________ properly can change the direction, level, and persistence of an individual’s behavior.
a) values
b) reinforcement
c) norms
d) augmentation
e) mentoring

Ans:
Page: 89
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Learning by Reinforcement

103. __________ conditioning is a form of learning through association that involves the manipulation of stimuli to influence behavior.
a) Extrinsic
b) Operant
c) Cognitive
d) Intrinsic
e) Classical

Ans:
Page: 89
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

104. Which of the following statements is correct concerning conditioning?
a) Classical conditioning is an extension of operant conditioning.
b) In operant conditioning, dogs “learned” to salivate at the ringing of a bell.
c) Control in operant conditioning is through the manipulation of consequences.
d) Operant conditioning was popularized by Ivan Pavlov.
e) In classical conditioning, the antecedent cues behavior.

Ans:
Pages: 89-90
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

105. The law of __________ states that behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated while behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated.
a) motivational content
b) effect
c) reaction
d) outcome management
e) motivational process

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

106. Contrived extrinsic rewards include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) cash bonuses.
b) sports tickets.
c) office parties.
d) feedback.
e) promotions.

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

107. Natural extrinsic rewards include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) compliments.
b) special jobs.
c) merit pay increases.
d) recognition.
e) asking advice.

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

108. Contrived extrinsic rewards include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) gifts.
b) stock options.
c) a company car.
d) profit sharing.
e) smiles.

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

109. The systematic reinforcement of desirable work behavior and the non-reinforcement or punishment of unwanted work behavior is known as organizational behavior __________.
a) modification
b) simplification
c) alignment
d transformation
e) alteration

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

110. A manager nodding to express approval to a subordinate who is making a useful comment during a staff meeting is an example of __________.
a) equity exchange
b) expectancy development
c) positive reinforcement
d) progression
e) executive conditioning

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

111. According to the law of contingent reinforcement, to have maximum reinforcement value, a reward must be delivered only __________.
a) by an employee’s superior
b) if it is coupled with public recognition
c) if the employee receiving the reward is in the presence of other coworkers
d) if it has a monetary value
e) if the desired behavior is exhibited

Ans:
Page: 92
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

112. If your manager understands that your reward must be given as soon as possible after the occurrence of a desired behavior, he/she is aware of the law of ___________.
a) immediate reinforcement
b) temporal reinforcement
c) permanent reinforcement
d) “value added” reinforcement
e) credible reinforcement

Ans:
Page: 92
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

113. The creation of a new behavior by the positive reinforcement of successive approximations to the desired behavior is called __________.
a) imitation
b) portrayal
c) modeling
d) shaping
e) representation

Ans:
Page: 92
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

114. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about reinforcement schedules?
a) Fixed reinforcement schedules typically result in more consistent patterns of desired behavior than do variable schedules.
b) Fixed interval schedules provide rewards at the first appearance of a behavior after a given time has elapsed.
c) Fixed ratio schedules result in a reward each time a certain number of the behaviors have occurred.
d) A variable interval schedule rewards behavior at random times.
e) A variable ratio schedule rewards behavior after a random number of occurrences.

Ans:
Page: 93
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

115. A teacher who gives an unspecified number of pop quizzes to students is using a __________.
a) fixed interval schedule
b) fixed ratio schedule
c) variable interval schedule
d) variable ration schedule
e) continuous reinforcement schedule.

Ans:
Page: 93
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

116. __________ is the withdrawal of negative consequences, which tends to increase the likelihood of repeating the desirable behavior in similar settings.
a) Positive reinforcement
b) Extinction
c) Negative reinforcement
d) Punishment
e) Parallel reinforcement

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Negative Reinforcement

117. Suppose you assign the least desirable tasks to a worker until he performs well and only then assign him the desired assignments he wants. This OB Mod strategy is known as __________.
a) positive reinforcement
b) extinction
c) punishment
d) negative reinforcement
e) parallel reinforcement

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Negative Reinforcement

118. __________ is the administration of negative consequences or the withdrawal of positive consequences that tend to reduce the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings.
a) Punishment
b) Negative reinforcement
c) Extinction
d) Positive reinforcement
e) Parallel reinforcement

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Punishment

119. If a manager docks an employee’s pay every time he or she is late, the OB Mod reinforcement strategy of __________ is being used.
a) extinction
b) statutory reinforcement
c) positive reinforcement
d) punishment
e) negative reinforcement

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Punishment

120. Of the following, which is (are) a way(s) for managers to improve the chances that punishment will discourage negative behavior in employees?
a) Tell the employee what is being done wrong.
b) Tell the employee what is being done right.
c) Make sure the punishment matches the behavior.
d) Administer the punishment in private.
e) All of the above.

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: How to Make Positive Reinforcement and Punishment Work for You

121. Which one of the following is NOT one of the ethical issues raised by either the opponents or proponents of OB Mod?
a) The systematic use of reinforcement strategies leads to a demeaning and dehumanizing view of people that stunts human growth and development.
b) Managers abuse the power of their position and knowledge by exerting external control over individual behavior.
c) Behavior control is an irrevocable part of every manager’s job.
d) The use of OB Mod fails to recognize the impact of cultural differences.
e) The real ethical issue is how to ensure that any manipulation of consequences is done in a positive and constructive fashion.

Ans:
Page: 95
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Reinforcement Pros and Cons

Fill in the blank

122. __________ is the process through which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information from their environment.

Ans:
Page: 76
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: The Perception Process

123. __________ allows only a portion of available information to enter our perceptions.

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

124. __________ are cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge about a given concept or stimulus that is developed through experience.

Ans:
Page: 78
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

125. An impressive job title is particularly important to someone who actively engages in __________ management.

Ans:
Page: 80
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Perception, Impression Management, and Social Media

126. At the __________ stage of information processing, managers should be sensitive to the fallibility of memory in order to control distortions.

Ans:
Page: 79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

127. A(n) __________ assigns attributes commonly associated with a group to an individual.

Ans:
Page: 82
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Stereotypes

128. A(n) __________ occurs when an employee with good attendance is viewed as responsible and then positively evaluated in a performance appraisal.

Ans:
Page: 83
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Halo Effects

129. __________ is the tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s own needs, values, or attitudes.

Ans:
Page: 83
Level:
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Selective Perception

130. A(n) __________ occurs when a new manager designed a subordinate’s job with his own likes and dislikes in mind (instead of the employee’s).

Ans:
Page: 84
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Projection

131. A(n) __________ occurs when an individual’s characteristics are compared with those of others who have been recently encountered and who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.

Ans:
Page: 84
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Contrast Effects

132. When teachers score students introduced as intellectually gifted higher than average students, they are demonstrating the perceptual error of the __________.

Ans:
Page: 85
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

133. __________ focuses on how people attempt to understand the causes of an event, assess responsibility for outcomes of the event, and evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

134. If a person’s performance is poor regardless of the equipment he/she is using, the tendency is to attribute the person’s poor performance to __________ causes; but if the person performs poorly only when using a specific piece of equipment, the tendency is to attribute the person’s poor performance to__________ causes.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

135. In the attribution theory framework, __________ takes into account how likely it is for all those facing a similar situation to respond in the same way.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions

136. __________ is the process of creating explanations for events.

Ans:
Page: 86
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Perception, Attribution, and Social Learning

137. The __________ is the tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of personal factors in evaluating someone else’s behavior.

Ans:
Page: 87
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution Errors

138. Alice blamed unfriendly co-workers and a difficult job assignment for her performance problems during the first quarter of the year. Then during the second quarter, Alice’s performance improved dramatically. Alice claimed that the improved performance was due to her extraordinary effort and hard work. From an attribution theory perspective, it may be argued that Alice is prone to a(n) __________.

Ans:
Page: 87
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution Errors

139. __________ describes how learning occurs through interactions among people, behavior, and environment.

Ans:
Page: 87
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Attribution and Social Learning

140. In classical conditioning, a(n) __________ is something that incites action and draws forth a response.

Ans:
Page: 89
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

141. A neutral stimulus becomes a(n) __________ when it affects behavior in the same way as the initial stimulus.

Ans:
Page: 89
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

142. __________ is the process of controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences.

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

143. Suppose that a supervisor wants more of a particular behavior from his/her employees and that he/she establishes positive behavioral consequences for each individual in order get the desired behavior. The supervisor is applying __________.

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect

144. The administration of positive consequences that tend to increase the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings is known as __________.

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

145. __________ are positively valued work outcomes that are given to the individual by some other person.

Ans:
Page: 90
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

146. __________ is a reinforcement schedule that administers a reward each time a desired behavior occurs.

Ans:
Page: 93
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

147. In general, __________ reinforcement elicits a desired behavior more quickly than does __________ reinforcement.

Ans:
Page: 93
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

148. A weekly or monthly paycheck is an example of a(n) __________ reinforcement schedule.

Ans:
Page: 93
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

149. Piece rate pay is an example of a(n) __________ reinforcement schedule.

Ans:ixed ratio
Page: 93
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Positive Reinforcement

150. Avoidance is another name for __________.

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Negative Reinforcement

151. A manager who advises someone’s co-workers to ignore that person’s disruptive behaviors during meetings is using __________.

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Punishment

152. __________ discourages a behavior by making an unpleasant consequent contingent on its occurrence.

Ans:
Page: 94
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Punishment

Essay

153. What is the perception process? Why is it important?

Pages: 76-77
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: The Perception Process and Factors Influencing Perception

154. Identify and briefly describe each of the stages in the perceptual process.

Pages: 78-79
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe perception and why it is important.
Section Reference: Information Processing and the Perception Process

155. Briefly describe the common types of distortions that occur within the perceptual process.

Pages: 81-86
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the common perceptual distortions including stereotypes, halo effects, selective perception, projection, contrast effects and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Section Reference: Common Perceptual Distortions

156. Using an attribution theory perspective, explain the nature of internal and external attributions. What is the fundamental attribution error? What is the self-serving bias? Why is knowledge of these attribution errors important to managers?

Pages: 86-87
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Analyze the link between perception, attribution and social learning.
Section Reference: Importance of Attributions and Attribution Errors

157. What is the law of effect, and how is it related to the four basic OB Mod strategies of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction?

Pages: 90-95
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize what is involved in learning by reinforcement.
Section Reference: Operant Conditioning and the Law of Effect, Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction

File: ch05, Chapter 5: Motivation Theories

True/False

1. Motivation refers to the individual forces that account for the direction, level, and persistence of a person’s efforts expended at work.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Motivation Defined

2. When discussing motivation, direction refers to an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Motivation Defined

3. Content theories of motivation mainly focus on the physiological and psychological deficiencies that people feel a compulsion to reduce or eliminate.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

4. Content theories of motivation focus on the thought or cognitive processes within people’s minds that influence their behavior.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

5. Probably the best example of a process theory is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

6. Both equity theory and expectancy theory are classified as process theories.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

7. Content theories suggest that motivation results from the individual’s attempts to satisfy needs.

Ans:
Pages: 102-103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

8. Abraham Maslow, Clayton Alderfer, David McClelland, and Frederick Herzberg have developed four of the better-known content theories of motivation.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

9. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory identifies five levels of individual needs, ranging from physiological needs at the lowest level, through safety, social, and esteem needs, and finally to self-actualization needs at the highest level.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

10. Maslow’s model is easy to understand, quite popular, and the best research evidence supports the existence of a precise five-step hierarchy of needs.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

11. In Maslow’s needs hierarchy, the self-actualization need refers to the need to fulfill oneself as well as to grow and use abilities to the fullest and most creative extent.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

12. A person who likes praise and recognition from his or her supervisor is seeking the satisfaction of the social needs in Maslow’s hierarchy.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

13. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory holds that a need at one level does not become activated until the next higher-level need is fully satisfied.

Ans:
Pages: 103-104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

14. According to Maslow’s needs hierarchy, the higher-order needs are esteem and self-actualization.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

15. According to Maslow’s needs hierarchy, the lower-order needs are esteem and self-actualization.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

16. Research evidence suggests that the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are more likely to operate in a flexible rather than rigid order.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

17. Some research indicates that psychological, safety and social needs become more important than esteem and self-actualization needs as individuals move up the corporate ladder.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

18. The five need levels in Maslow’s hierarchy may vary according to a person’s career stage, the size of the organization, or geographical location.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

19. Maslow’s social needs tend to be more important in more collectivist societies like Mexico, thereby challenging the structured approach to the pyramid across cultures.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

20. ERG theory collapses Alderfer’s five need levels into three need categories.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

21. Alderfer’s ERG theory focuses on the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

22. According to Alderfer’s theory, growth needs refer to the desire for continued business growth and development.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

23. In ERG theory, frustration-regression refers to the idea that an already satisfied lower-level need can be activated when a higher-level need cannot be satisfied.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

24. ERG theory contends that more than one need may not be activated at a particular point in
time, whereas Maslow’s theory does not.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

25. In McClelland’s motivation theory, the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power are developed over time, as a result of life experiences.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

26. The Thematic Apperception Test is a projective technique that asks people to view pictures and write stories about what they see.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

27. According to acquired needs theory, people with a high need for achievement prefer group responsibilities, weak goals, and infrequent performance feedback.

Ans:
Page: 105
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

28. McClelland’s research suggested that a moderate to high need for power that is stronger than a need for affiliation is linked with success as a senior executive.

Ans:
Pages: 105-106
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

29. McClelland’s acquired needs theory is also referred to as motivator-hygiene theory.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

30. Acquired needs theory suggests that people with a high need for power are drawn to interpersonal relationships and opportunities for communication.

Ans:
Page: 105
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

31. According to McClelland, it is not possible to teach people to develop need profiles required for success in various types of jobs.

Ans:
Page: 105
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

32. According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are sources of job satisfaction and motivator factors are sources of job dissatisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

33. Herzberg’s two-factor theory identifies job context as the source of job dissatisfaction and job content as the source of job satisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

34. Examples of Herzberg’s hygiene factors include organizational policies, quality of supervision, working conditions, base wage or salary, relationship with peers and subordinates, status, and security.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

35. In the two-factor theory of motivation, a motivator factor is found in job context, such as working conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational policies, and salary.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

36. Herzberg suggests that job enrichment is a way of building more motivator factors into job content.

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

37. Critics charge that Herzberg’s two-factor theory may be method bound and that it cannot be scientifically verified with alternative methods.

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

38. According to equity theory, when perceived inequity exists, people will be motivated to act in ways that remove the discomfort and restore a sense of felt equity.

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory of Motivation

39. Felt positive equity exists when an individual feels that she or he has received relatively less than others in proportion to work inputs.

Ans:
Page: 109
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory Predictions and Findings

40. Per Stacy Adams, equity theory predicts that people who perceive inequity, as compared to others, may change work inputs by putting less effort into their jobs, change the rewards received by asking for better treatment, change the comparison points by finding ways to make things appear better, change the situation by leaving the job, or take actions to change the inputs or outputs of the comparison person.

Ans:
Page: 109
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory Predictions and Findings

41. In collectivist cultures, people seem to be more concerned about equity than equality.

Ans:
Page: 109
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory Predictions and Findings

42. An example of procedural justice occurs when a sexual harassment complaint filed against a man by a woman receives the same consideration as one filed against a woman by a man.

Ans:
Pages: 109-110
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity and Organizational Justice

43. An example of commutative justice occurs when all parties in a sexual harassment complaint perceive themselves as having full access to all the available facts and information.

Ans:
Page: 110
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity and Organizational Justice

44. Interactional justice is the degree to which people affected by a decision are treated with dignity and respect.

Ans:
Page: 110
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity and Organizational Justice

45. Vroom’s expectancy theory argues that work motivation is determined by an individual’s beliefs regarding the linkage between effort and performance, the linkage between performance and work outcomes, and the value placed on those work outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 111
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Terms and Concepts

46. In expectancy theory, instrumentality is the probability that work effort will be followed by a given level of performance accomplishment.

Ans:
Page: 111
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Terms and Concepts

47. According to expectancy theory, expectancy is the probability that work effort will be followed by a given level of performance accomplishment.

Ans:
Page: 111
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Terms and Concepts

48. In expectancy theory, instrumentality is the probability assigned by the individual that a given level of performance will lead to various work outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 111
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Terms and Concepts

49. In expectancy theory, valence refers to the value attached by the individual to various work outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 111
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Terms and Concepts

50. According to the expectancy theory, work motivation will be high when expectancy and instrumentality are high, and valence is highly positive.

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Theory Predictions

51. According to the expectancy theory, motivation is low when any one of the three components –– expectancy, instrumentality, or valence –– approaches zero.

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Theory Predictions

52. According to expectancy theory, managers can influence workers’ instrumentalities by selecting capable workers, training them, supporting them, and setting clear goals.

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Implications and Research

53. According to expectancy theory, managers can influence workers’ expectancies by identifying the needs that are important to each individual and then trying to adjust available rewards to match those needs.

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Implications and Research

54. Even with a great deal of support for the research on expectancy theory, there are still questions remaining on the multiplier effect.

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Implications and Research

55. Unfortunately, expectancy theory has not received any research follow-up and hence, it is not practical.

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Implications and Research

56. Goal-setting is the process of developing, negotiating, and formalizing the targets or objectives that an individual is responsible for achieving.

Ans:
Page: 113
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Motivational Properties of Goals

57. Locke and Latham’s research confirmed that “easy” and “do your best” goals result in the highest performance levels.

Ans:
Page: 113
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Motivational Properties of Goals

58. Research indicates that specific goals are much more motivational than general goals.

Ans:
Page: 113
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-setting Guidelines

59. Task feedback, or knowledge of results, overwhelms employees with information and reduces employee motivation toward higher performance.

Ans:
Page: 113
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-setting Guidelines

60. Goals are better motivators when employees accept them and show commitment to their goals.

Ans:
Page: 115
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-setting Guidelines

61. Participation in goal-setting helps create goal acceptance and commitment by employees.

Ans:
Page: 115
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-setting Guidelines

62. In a management by objectives approach, the supervisor and subordinate jointly establish performance goals, individually act, and jointly evaluate results and recycle the MBO process.

Ans:
Page: 115
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-setting and the Management Process

63. Management by objectives is criticized for placing too much emphasis on goal-oriented rewards and punishments, top-down goals, goals that are easily stated in objective terms, and individual instead of group goals.

Ans:
Page: 115
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-setting and the Management Process

Multiple Choice

64. In the context of motivation, direction refers to __________.
a) the length of time a person sticks with a given action
b) the amount of effort a person puts forth
c) an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives
d) the different needs that an individual is trying to satisfy
e) the consequences of an individual’s behavior

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Motivation Defined

65. In the context of motivation, level refers to __________.
a) the length of time a person sticks with a given action
b) the amount of effort a person puts forth
c) an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives
d) the different needs that an individual is trying to satisfy
e) the consequences of an individual’s behavior

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Motivation Defined

66. In the context of motivation, persistence refers to __________.
a) the length of time a person sticks with a given action
b) the amount of effort a person puts forth
c) an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives
d) the different needs that an individual is trying to satisfy
e) the consequences of an individual’s behavior

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Motivation Defined

67. Content theories attempt to explain work behaviors based on __________.
a) the relationship between values and attitudes
b) the impact of individual ethics on business decisions
c) personality-linked relationships
d) perceptions on-the-job
e) pathways to need satisfaction and the influence of blocked needs

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

68. Content theories include all of the following theories EXCEPT:
a) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.
b) Alderfer’s ERG theory.
c) McClelland’s acquired needs theory.
d) Herzberg’s two-factor theory.
e) Locke and Latham’s goal setting theory.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

69. Which of the following is classified as a content theory?
a) ERG theory
b) Expectancy theory
c) Goal-setting theory
d) Equity theory
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

70. Process theories of motivation focus on __________.
a) how a person will respond to types of leadership direction
b) how cognitive processes as thoughts and decisions within the minds of people influence their behavior
c) when a person will react to specific management styles
d) who will be a more appropriate manager for an employee
e) what work environment will suit an employee’s personality better

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

71. Which of the following is classified as a process theory?
a) Acquired needs theory
b) Equity theory
c) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
d) Hierarchy of needs theory
e) ERG theory

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

72. Since content theories suggest that motivation results from individual needs, managers should __________.
a) apply motivation techniques that apply to most employees
b) use the same motivation techniques for every situation
c) change their motivational techniques annually to stay abreast of employee needs
d) understand individual employee needs and create work environments that respond to them
e) test motivation techniques in a few work situations for general use

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Need Theories of Motivation
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

73. In Maslow’s needs hierarchy, __________ needs must be satisfied before __________ needs are activated, and __________ needs must be satisfied before __________ needs are activated, and so on.
a) Physiological; esteem; social; safety
b) Physiological; social; esteem; safety
c) Physiological; safety; social, esteem
d) Esteem; safety; esteem; social
e) Self-actualization; esteem; safety; social

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

74. Which of the following is the correct order of Maslow’s needs from the lowest (lower-order need) to the highest (higher-order need)?
a) Safety, social, physiological, esteem, and self-actualization
b) Esteem, safety, social, physiological, and self-actualization
c) Social, esteem, self-actualization, physiological, and safety
d) Physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
e) Physiological, social, safety, self-actualization, and esteem

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

75. Which of the following needs did Maslow describe as higher-order needs?
a) Esteem, social, and safety
b) Self-actualization and esteem
c) Safety, self-actualization, and social
d) Social and esteem
e) Self-actualization and physiological

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

76. Which of the following needs did Maslow describe as lower-order needs?
a) Social, esteem, and self-actualization
b) Esteem, social, and safety
c) Physiological, safety, and social
d) Esteem and physiological
e) Safety and self-actualization

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

77. All of the following descriptions of Maslow’s needs hierarchy are correct EXCEPT:
a) research evidence suggests that the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy exist in a flexible rather than rigid order.
b) the five need levels may vary according to a person’s career stage, the size of the organization, or geographical location.
c) the satisfaction of a need at one level will always decrease its importance and increase the importance of the next lower need.
d) the order of needs in the hierarchy may differ across cultures.
e) social needs tend to be dominant in more collectivist societies.

Ans:
Pages: 103-104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

78. Research on Maslow’s needs hierarchy suggests which of the following statements to be true?
a) Lower-order needs become more important as individuals move up the corporate ladder.
b) Higher-order needs become less important as individuals move up the corporate ladder.
c) Higher-order needs become more important as individuals move up the corporate ladder.
d) Higher and lower-order needs become equally important as individuals move up the corporate ladder.
e) Higher and lower-order needs become less important as individuals move up the corporate ladder.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

79. As a manager at Icon International, Nicole is driven by a personal sense of competence, respect from others, and recognition through various awards. According to Maslow, Nicole is driven by which of these needs?
a) Safety
b) Physiological
c) Self-actualization
d) Social
e) Esteem

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Needs Theory of Motivation
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

80. Leslie strives to maintain strong interpersonal relationships. She is a member of a book club, a sewing club, and a tennis club because she enjoys feeling a sense of belonging. According to Maslow, Leslie is driven by which these needs?
a) Self-actualization
b) Social
c) Esteem
d) Safety
e) Physiological

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Needs Theory of Motivation
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

81. Use of Maslow’s needs hierarchy __________.
a) is not pertinent for cultures outside of the United States
b) should be consistent across different cultures
c) can vary across cultures
d) is more effective in non-United States cultures
e) is not commonly used outside of the United States

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

82. Social needs tend to take on higher importance in __________.
a) individualistic societies
b) collectivist societies
c) protective societies
d) large-size societies
e) wealthy societies

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

83. Which of the following needs are addressed in ERG theory?
a) Expectations, relationships, and goals
b) Equity, reinforcers, and goals
c) Existence, relatedness, and growth
d) Existence, relatedness, and goals
e) Esteem, relationships, and growth

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

84. Which of the following comparisons of Alderfer’s ERG theory and Maslow’s needs hierarchy is correct?
a) ERG theory collapses Maslow’s five need levels into two need categories.
b) ERG theory includes a frustration-digression component, but Maslow’s theory does not.
c) ERG theory contends that more than one need may be activated at a particular point in time, whereas Maslow’s theory does not.
d) ERG theory provides a timeline for action, but Maslow’s theory does not.
e) ERG theory focuses on the consequences of an individual’s behavior, whereas Maslow’s theory does not.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

85. According to Alderfer’s ERG theory, which needs reflect a desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships?
a) Existence
b) Esteem
c) Relatedness
d) Self-actualization
e) Growth

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

86. According to Alderfer, which needs reflect a desire for continued personal development?
a) Existence
b) Esteem
c) Relatedness
d) Self-actualization
e) Growth

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

87. The ERG theory contends that __________.
a) only one need may be activated at the same time
b) only two needs may be activated at the same time
c) more than one need may be activated at the same time
d) all three needs may not be activated at the same time
e) less than two needs must be activated at the same time

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

88. Which of the following content theories of motivation is associated with the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power?
a) Acquired needs theory
b) Hierarchy of needs theory
c) Two-factor theory
d) Motivation-hygiene theory
e) ERG theory

Ans:
Pages: 104-105
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

89. Mike has always been driven by the need to work more efficiently, solve problems, and master complex tasks. According to McClelland, Mike is classified as driven by a need for:
a) power.
b) safety.
c) achievement.
d) affiliation.
d) none of the above.

Ans:
Pages: 104-105
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

90. Which statement about acquired needs theory is correct?
a) People with a high need for achievement prefer individual responsibilities, challenging goals, and performance feedback.
b) People with a high need for power are drawn to interpersonal relationships and opportunities for communication.
c) People with a high need for affiliation like attention and recognition.
d) People with a high need for achievement will also have a high need for affiliation.
e) People with a low need for achievement will also have a low need for affiliation.

Ans:
Page: 105
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

91. According to McClelland, someone who seeks influence over others and likes attention has a high need for __________.
a) achievement
b) self esteem
c) affiliation
d) power
e) relatedness

Ans:
Page: 105
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

92. According to McClelland, someone who is drawn to interpersonal relationships and opportunities for communication has a high need for __________.
a) achievement
b) self esteem
c) affiliation
d) power
e) relatedness

Ans:
Page: 105
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

93. According to McClelland, it is __________.
a) not possible to teach people to develop need profiles required for success in different jobs
b) possible to teach people to develop need profiles required for success in different jobs
c) an employee’s responsibility to teach their managers of personal need profiles required for success in different jobs
d) an employee’s responsibility to request that their managers develop need profiles required for success in different jobs
e) an employee’s responsibility to develop need profiles required for success in their respective manager’s jobs

Ans:
Page: 105
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

94. All of the following statements describe hygiene factors in the two-factor theory EXCEPT:
a) hygiene factors are associated with the job context or work setting.
b) hygiene factors are sources of job dissatisfaction.
c) hygiene factors involve the work setting or the environment in which people work.
d) improving hygiene factors will prevent people from being dissatisfied.
e) improving hygiene factors will make people satisfied with their work.

Ans:
Pages: 106-107
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two-Factor Theory

95. In the two-factor theory of motivation, __________ are associated with the job context, such as working conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational policies, and salary.
a) existence factors
b) satisfier factors
c) hygiene factors
d) affiliation factors
e) relatedness factors

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two-Factor Theory

96. According to the two-factor theory of motivation, all of the following are sources of job dissatisfaction EXCEPT:
a) work itself.
b) organizational policies and administration.
c) supervision.
d) working conditions.
e) base wage or salary.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two-Factor Theory

97. According to the two-factor theory of motivation, all of the following are sources of job satisfaction EXCEPT:
a) opportunity for advancement.
b) sense of achievement.
c) sense of responsibility.
d) working conditions.
e) feeling of personal growth.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two-Factor Theory

98. Which of the following statements accurately describes Herzberg’s hygiene factors?
a) Hygiene factors include achievement and recognition.
b) Hygiene factors refer to job content.
c) Hygiene factors do not prevent job dissatisfaction from occurring.
d) Hygiene factors contribute to job satisfaction.
e) Hygiene factors include working conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational policies, and salary.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two-Factor Theory

99. According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory, __________ factors are the sources of job satisfaction.
a) subsistence
b) hygiene
c) teachable
d) motivator
e) inducement

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two-Factor Theory

100. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe motivator factors in the two-factor theory?
a) Motivator factors are related to job content.
b) Motivator factors include a sense of achievement, recognition, and responsibility.
c) Motivator factors involve what people actually do in their jobs.
d) The presence of motivator factors in a job contributes to a person’s job performance.
e) The absence of motivator factors causes job dissatisfaction.

Ans:
Pages: 106-107
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two-Factor Theory

101. Herzberg recommends building motivators into job content by using __________.
a) pay
b) improved working conditions
c) job enrichment
d) hygiene factors
e) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two-Factor Theory

102. Which of the following is a limitation of Herzberg’s two-factor theory?
a) The theory may be method bound.
b) The theory has been scientifically verified with methods other than the original.
c) The theory does not account for regression.
d) The theory links motivation and needs to both satisfaction and performance.
e) The theory fails and does not clearly categorize salary.

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two-Factor Theory

103. Which theory is based on the phenomenon of social comparison which states that people will act to eliminate any perceived inequity in the rewards they receive for their work in comparison with the rewards that others receive?
a) Acquired needs
b) ERG
c) Expectancy
d) Equity
e) Reinforcement

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory of Motivation

104. All of the following statements about the equity theory of motivation are correct EXCEPT:
a) It is a content theory of motivation.
b) It is best known through the work of J. Stacy Adams.
c) Its essence is that perceived inequity is a motivating state.
d) It holds that people try to resolve the inequities they perceive they are experiencing.
e) It holds that people who feel underpaid will reduce their work efforts to compensate for missing rewards.

Ans:
Pages: 103; 107-109
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory of Motivation

105. The basic foundation of equity theory is __________.
a) reinforcement
b) social comparison
c) valence
d) goal setting
e) jointly setting goals

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity and Social Comparison

106. According to equity theory, __________ exists when an individual feels that he or she has received relatively less than others have received in proportion to work inputs.
a) felt negative inequity
b) perceived positive inequity
c) internalized negative inequity
d) tacit negative inequity
e) assumed negative inequity

Ans:
Page: 109
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory Predictions and Findings

107. According to equity theory, __________ exists when an individual feels that he or she has received relatively more than others have received.
a) positive inequity
b) equity
c) assumed positive inequity
d) felt positive inequity
e) interactional justice

Ans:
Page: 109
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory Predictions and Findings

108. A person can resolve perceived negative inequity by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
a) reducing work inputs.
b) changing the outcomes received.
c) leaving the situation.
d) psychologically distorting the comparisons.
e) working longer hours.

Ans:
Page: 109
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory Predictions and Findings

109. Which one of the following statements about the application and/or implications of equity theory is NOT accurate?
a) What may seem fair and equitable to a team leader might be perceived as unfair and inequitable by a team member after comparisons are made with other team members.
b) Feelings of inequity are determined solely by the individual’s interpretation of the situation.
c) People who feel they are overpaid tend to decrease the quantity or quality of their work, whereas people who feel they are underpaid tend to increase the quantity or quality of their work.
d) People are less comfortable when they are under-rewarded than when they are over-rewarded.
e) In collectivist cultures, people seem to be more concerned about equality than equity.

Ans:
Page: 109
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory Predictions and Findings

110. The degree to which the rules and procedures specified by policies are properly followed in all cases to which they are applied is known as __________.
a) distributive justice
b) instrumentality
c) procedural justice
d) interactional justice
e) organizational justice

Ans:
Page: 109
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity and Organizational Justice

111. The degree to which all people are treated the same under a policy is known as __________.
a) distributive justice
b) instrumentality
c) procedural justice
d) interactional justice
e) organizational justice

Ans:
Page: 110
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity and Organizational Justice

112. According to expectancy theory, the value the individual attaches to various work outcomes is known as __________.
a) expectancy
b) valence
c) instrumentality
d) interactional justice
e) equity

Ans:
Page: 111
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Terms and Concepts

113. Which equation correctly reflects Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation?
a) Motivation = expectancy X instrumentality X valence
b) Motivation = expectancy X equity X rewards
c) Motivation = expectancy + equity + rewards
d) Motivation = expectancy X rewards X valence
e) Motivation = expectancy + rewards + valence

Ans:
Page: 111
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Theory Predictions

114. The expectancy theory of motivation predicts that a person will be motivated to work hard when __________.
a) expectancy is high and instrumentality and valence are low
b) instrumentality is high and expectancy and valence are low
c) valence is high and expectancy and instrumentality are low
d) expectancy, instrumentality, and valence are all high
e) expectancy or instrumentality or valence equals zero

Ans:
Pages: 111-112
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Theory Predictions

115. According to expectancy theory, motivation to work hard will be low when __________.
a) expectancy is low
b) valence is low
c) instrumentality is low
d) instrumentality or expectancy is low
e) either expectancy, instrumentality, or valence is low

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Theory Predictions

116. According to expectancy theory, managers can influence workers’ __________ by clarifying performance-reward relationships and confirming these relationships when rewards are actually given for performance accomplishments.
a) expectancies
b) instrumentalities
c) reinforcers
d) valences
e) inducements

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Implications and Research

117. According to expectancy theory, managers can influence workers’ __________ by selecting people with proper abilities, training them well, providing them the needed resources, and identifying clear performance goals.
a) expectancies
b) instrumentalities
c) reinforcers
d) valences
e) inducements

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Implications and Research

118. Which of the following reflects concerns with expectancy theory?
a) The multiplier effect is still in question.
b) It fails to help explain any cross-cultural management situations.
c) Little research has been conducted.
d) The research can only be replicated with the original method.
e) It is too culture bound.

Ans:
Page: 112
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Implications and Research

119. The process of developing, negotiating, and formalizing the targets or objectives that a person is responsible for accomplishing is known as __________.
a) MBO
b) equity
c) expectancy
d) goal setting
e) motivation

Ans:
Page: 113
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Motivational Properties of Goals

120. If the average worker can produce 15 widgets an hour, which goal is likely to lead to the best performance?
a) 10
b) 15
c) Do your best
d) 18
e) 30

Ans:
Page: 113
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-Setting Guidelines

121. A key finding of the Locke and Latham goal-setting research is that __________.
a) difficult goals lead to higher performance than “do your best” or easy goals
b) difficult goals frustrate workers
c) performance is higher with easy goals
d) specific goals lead to lower performance
e) subconscious goals and conscious goals are not linked

Ans:
Page: 113
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-Setting Guidelines

122. Research on subconscious goal motivation was conducted by __________.
a) Abraham Maslow
b) Stajkovic, Locke, and Blair
c) David McClelland
d) Clayton Alderfer
e) Frederick Herzberg

Ans:
Page: 114
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-Setting Guidelines

123. Which of the following statements about goal setting is INCORRECT?
a) Specific goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are no goals or vague or very general ones.
b) Task feedback, or knowledge of results, is likely to motivate people toward higher performance by encouraging the setting of higher performance goals.
c) Goals are most likely to lead to higher performance when people have the abilities and the feelings of self-efficacy required to accomplish them.
d) Goals are most likely to motivate people toward higher performance when they are accepted and there is commitment to them.
e) Less difficult goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are more difficult goals.

Ans:
Pages: 113-115
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-Setting Guidelines

124. MBO is __________.
a) management by objectives
b) a process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate
c) a process that helps clarify the hierarchy of objectives
d) a process that extends participation of establishing goals to jointly evaluating them
e) all of the above

Ans:
Page: 115
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-Setting and the Management Process

125. Management by objectives is criticized for placing too much emphasis on all of the following EXECPT:
a) goal-oriented rewards.
b) goal-oriented punishments.
c) top-down goals.
d) goals that are easily stated in objective terms.
e) group instead of individual goals.

Ans:
Page: 115
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-Setting and the Management Process

Fill in the blank

126. __________ refers to forces within an individual that account for the direction, level, and
persistence of a person’s effort expended at work.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Motivation Defined

127. __________ refers to the length of time a person sticks with a given action.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Motivation Defined

128. __________ theories of motivation focus on the physiological or psychological deficiencies that people seek to reduce or eliminate.

Ans:
Page: 102
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

129. Maslow’s __________ theory identifies five levels of individual needs.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

130. In Maslow’s needs hierarchy, __________ needs refer to the needs to fulfill oneself as well
as to grow and use abilities to the fullest and most creative extent.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

131. In Maslow’s needs hierarchy, __________ needs refer to the needs for respect, prestige, recognition, mastery, and a personal sense of competence.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

132. In Maslow’s needs hierarchy, __________ needs refer to the needs for security, protection, and stability in the physical and interpersonal events of day-to-day life.

Ans:
Page: 103
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory

133. In the context of Alderfer’s ERG theory, existence needs are __________.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

134. The __________ of ERG theory holds that an already satisfied, lower-level need becomes reactivated and can influence behavior when a higher-level need cannot be satisfied.

Ans:
Page: 104
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: ERG Theory

135. According to McClelland, __________ is the desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.

Ans:
Pages: 104-105
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

136. According to McClelland, the needs for achievement, affiliation and power can be linked with __________.

Ans:
Page: 105
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Acquired Needs Theory

137. Herzberg’s __________ identifies job context as the source of job dissatisfaction and job content as the source of job satisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

138. According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory, __________ factors are the sources of job dissatisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

139. In the two-factor theory of motivation, job content, such as a sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, or personal growth are examples of __________.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

140. In Herzberg’s two-factor theory, hygiene factors involve __________ and affect __________.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

141. In the two-factor theory of motivation, motivator factors involve __________ and affect __________.

Ans:
Page: 106
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

142. __________ tries to build more motivator factors into job content.

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Two Factor Theory

143. The basic foundation of __________ theory is social comparison.

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory of Motivation

144. Kathy notices that most of her coworkers take extended lunch breaks. Kathy doesn’t do this, but feels she is therefore justified in working a little less hard during the day. Kathy’s decision to work “less hard” is best explained by the __________ theory of motivation.

Ans:
Page: 107
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory of Motivation

145. __________ is defined as how fair and equitable people view the practices of their workplace.

Ans:
Page: 109
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity and Organizational Justice

146. When an age discrimination complaint is made, both the accused and the accusing parties are allowed to present their individual views of the situation. This is an example of __________.

Ans:
Page: 110
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity and Organizational Justice

147. According to Vroom’s __________, a person is motivated to the degree that he or she believes that effort will yield acceptable performance, performance will be rewarded, and the value of the rewards is highly positive.

Ans:
Page: 111
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Terms and Concepts

148. Research by __________ on goal setting linked goals to performance.

Ans:
Page: 113
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal Setting Theory of Motivation
Section Reference: Motivational Properties of Goals

149. __________ is the process of developing, negotiating, and formalizing the targets or objectives that a person is responsible for accomplishing.

Ans:
Page: 113
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Motivational Properties of Goals

150. __________ is a structured process that involves managers working with their subordinates to establish performance goals and plans that are consistent with higher-level work unit and organizational objectives.

Ans:
Page: 115
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-setting and the Management Process

151. The essence of management by objectives is a process of joint goal setting between __________.

Ans:
Page: 115
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-setting and the Management Process

Essay

152. How do content theories of motivation and process theories of motivation differ?

Pages: 102-103
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe motivation and the types of motivation theories.
Section Reference: Types of Motivation Theories

153. Briefly describe the focus of each of the content theories of motivation.
Pages: 102-107
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss what we can learn from the hierarchy of needs theory, ERG Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, and Two-Factor Theory.
Section Reference: Hierarchy of Needs Theory; ERG Theory; Two-Factor Theory; and Acquired Needs Theory

154. What is equity theory? What is the difference between felt negative inequity and felt positive inequity? What are some of the actions that employees can take to restore equity?

Pages: 107-109
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain what the equity theory of motivation is and why it is important.
Section Reference: Equity Theory of Motivation

155. What are the basic components of expectancy theory? How do these components collectively affect motivation levels? What can managers do to influence the expectancy theory components?

Pages: 111-112
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Define expectancy terms and concepts, predictions, implications and research.
Section Reference: Expectancy Theory of Motivation

156. Describe the performance implications of goal-setting.
Pages: 113-115
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 5: Analyze how goal setting influences motivation.
Section Reference: Goal-setting Guidelines

File: ch06, Chapter 6: Motivation and Performance

True/False

1. According to the integrated model of individual work motivation, a person’s job performance is influenced most directly by individual attributes such as ability and experience, organizational support such as resources and technology, and effort or the willingness of someone to work hard at what they are doing.

Ans:
Page: 122
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Integrated Model of Motivation

2. Content theories are useful in the integrated model of motivation as guides to understanding individual beliefs and career aspirations.

Ans:
Page: 122
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Integrated Model of Motivation

3. Motivation is a property of the organization; it is the organization’s responsibility to guarantee that employees are motivated.

Ans:
Page: 122
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Integrated Model of Motivation

4. The typical reward systems of organizations emphasize only intrinsic rewards.

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

5. Intrinsic rewards are positively valued work outcomes that are given to an individual or group by some other person or source in the work setting.

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

6. Extrinsic rewards are positively valued work outcomes that an individual receives directly as a result of task performance.

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

7. To work well, a merit pay plan should create a belief among employees that the way to achieve high pay is to perform at high levels.

Ans:
Page: 125
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

8. Merit pay should clearly differentiate between high and low performers in the amount of pay received.

Ans:
Page: 125
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

9. A “merit” pay increase is the same as a “cost-of-living” adjustment.

Ans:
Page: 125
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

10. Going to work sick is known as presenteeism.

Ans:
Page: 125
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

11. Some people argue that merit pay plans are not consistent with the demands of today’s organizations because they fail to recognize the high degree of task interdependence among employees.

Ans:
Page: 125
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

12. An emerging trend is the attempt to extend the awarding of cash bonuses to employees at lower levels in organization and in both managerial and non managerial jobs.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

13. Gain sharing increases work motivation because of pay-for-performance incentives and a greater sense of personal responsibility for making performance contributions to the organization.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

14. Profit sharing links pay and performance by giving workers the opportunity to share in productivity gains through enhanced earnings.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

15. Profit-sharing plans reward employees based on the entire organization’s performance.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

16. The incentive value of ESOP stock awards or purchases is based on the idea that the “employee owners” will be motivated to work hard so that the organization will perform well and its stock price will rise.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

17. Skill-based pay compensates people for the mix and depth of skills they possess.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

18. Skill-based pay plans pay people for the particular job assignment they hold rather than the mix and depth of skills they possess.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

19. Potential advantages of skill-based pay include flexibility and employee cross-training while a potential disadvantage is higher training costs.

Ans:
Pages: 126-127
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

20. From an evaluative perspective, performance measurement lets people know where their actual performance stands relative to objectives and standards.

Ans:
Page: 127
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Management Process

21. Procter & Gamble uses the effort → performance → reward relationship in their management approach.

Ans:
Page: 127
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Management Process

22. Activity measures of performance assess actual work results.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Management Process

23. All companies consistently use one type of performance appraisal system.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

24. Comparative methods of performance appraisal identify one employee’s standing relative to others.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

25. Four comparative performance appraisal methods are (1) ranking, (2) paired comparison, (3) forced distribution and (4) graphic rating scales.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

26. Graphic rating scales, critical incident diaries, and behaviorally anchored rating scales are different types of comparative performance appraisal methods.

Ans:
Pages: 128-129
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

27. Ranking is the most complex of all the comparative methods of performance appraisal.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

28. A forced distribution is a performance appraisal method whereby each person is directly compared with every other person being rated.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

29. Ranking is a method of performance appraisal that uses a small number of performance categories, such as “very good,” “good,” “adequate,” and “very poor,” and slots a certain proportion of people into each category.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

30. A forced distribution method of performance appraisal can be problematic if most of the employees are truly superior performers or if most of them perform at about the same level.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

31. A graphic rating scale lists a variety of dimensions thought to be related to high performance outcomes in a given job and that the individual is expected to exhibit.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

32. A critical incident diary is not particularly well suited for employee development and feedback.

Ans:
Page: 130
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

33. A behaviorally anchored rating scale is a method of performance appraisal that records incidents of each subordinate’s behavior that led to either unusual success or failure in a given performance aspect.

Ans:
Page: 129
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

34. An advantage of the behaviorally anchored rating scale approach is that it is straightforward and relatively simple.

Ans:
Page: 129
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

35. In a study conducted by Stauffer and Buckley, white supervisors gave significantly higher ratings to white workers than they did to black workers, while black supervisors also tended to favor white workers in their ratings.

Ans:
Page: 130
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

36. In today’s work environment, it is becoming more common to include peer evaluations in a performance appraisal process, where the persons in a work team or doing similar jobs rate an employee as a co-worker.

Ans:
Pages: 130-131
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

37. A 360° degree evaluation is a comprehensive approach to performance appraisal that uses the evaluations of bosses, peers, and subordinates as well as self-ratings, customer ratings, and ratings of others outside the immediate work unit.

Ans:
Pages: 130-131
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

38. To be meaningful, a performance appraisal system must be reliable and valid.

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

39. A halo error results when one person rates another person on several different dimensions and gives a similar rating for each dimension.

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

40. The strictness error is the tendency to give relatively high ratings to virtually everyone.

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

41. Central tendency occurs when managers lump everyone together around the average, or middle, category.

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

42. Job design is the process of planning and specifying job tasks and the work arrangements through which they are accomplished.

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Motivation and Job Design

43. The “best” job design is always the one that meets organizational requirements for high performance, offers a good fit with individual skills and needs, and provides opportunities for job satisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 132
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Motivation and Job Design

44. Frederick Taylor and his contemporaries were primarily interested in job enlargement and job enrichment.

Ans:
Page: 132
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

45. The machine-paced automobile assembly line is a classic example of job rotation.

Ans:
Page: 132
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

46. Implementing a job-design strategy of job simplification usually increases operating efficiency by reducing the number of skills required to do a job, and thereby keeps the needs for job training to a minimum and emphasizing the accomplishment of repetitive tasks.

Ans:
Pages: 132-133
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

47. Implementing a job-design strategy of job simplification typically leads to lower rates of absenteeism and turnover.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

48. Job enlargement occurs when task variety is increased by combining into one job, two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enlargement and Job Rotation

49. Job enlargement is designed to increase job breadth by having the worker perform more and different tasks, but all at the same level of responsibility and challenge.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enlargement and Job Rotation

50. Job rotation increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving tasks of similar difficulty and responsibility.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enlargement and Job Rotation

51. Frederick Herzberg is a proponent of job enrichment, which is the practice of enhancing job content by building into the job more motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enrichment

52. Job enrichment increases job breadth by having the worker perform more and different tasks, but all at the same level of responsibility and challenge.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enrichment

53. Changes in a job that are designed to increase job depth are sometimes called vertical loading.

Ans:
Page: 134
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enrichment

54. The job characteristics model identifies eight core job characteristics that are particularly important to job design.

Ans:
Page: 134
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

55. According to the job characteristics model, task significance is the degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work, one that involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome.

Ans:
Page: 134
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

56. In the core job characteristics model, the motivating potential score describes the extent to which the core characteristics of a job are capable of motivating people.

Ans:
Page: 134
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

57. The moderators in the job characteristics model include growth-need strength, knowledge and skill, and context satisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 135
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

58. Research results on the job characteristics model indicate that positive job characteristics impact performance more strongly for low-growth need individuals than for high-growth need individuals.

Ans:
Page: 136
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

59. A compressed workweek allows a full-time job to be completed in fewer than five standard workdays.

Ans:
Page: 137
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Compressed Workweeks

60. Flexible working hours (also called flextime) give employees a daily choice in the timing of their work commitments.

Ans:
Page: 137
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Flexible Working Hours

61. Organizations benefit from job sharing when they can attract talented people who would otherwise be unable to work.

Ans:
Page: 138
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Job Sharing

62. In today’s economy, more and more employers are requiring their employees to be at work to ensure productivity; therefore, telecommuting is on the decline.

Ans:
Page: 138
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Telecommuting

63. In permanent part-time work, a person works less than the standard 40-hour workweek but is considered to be a permanent member of the organization’s workforce.

Ans:
Page: 139
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Part-Time Work

Multiple Choice

64. According to the integrated model of individual work motivation, a person’s job performance is influenced most directly by all of the following EXCEPT:
a) ability.
b) experience.
c) work effort.
d) organization support such as resources and technology.
e) supervision

Ans:
Page: 122
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Integrated Model of Motivation

65. According to the integrated model of individual work motivation, whether or not a work setting proves motivational for an individual depends on the __________.
a) support given by the individual’s team members
b) level of pay the person receives
c) availability of rewards and their perceived value
d) amount of camaraderie the individual believes exist in the workplace
e) quality of supervision and direction the individual receives

Ans:
Page: 122
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Integrated Model of Motivation

66. The typical reward systems of organizations emphasize __________.
a) a mix of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
b) only intrinsic rewards
c) only extrinsic rewards
d) only intrinsic rewards for high-level positions
e) only extrinsic rewards for high-level positions

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

67. Intrinsic rewards __________.
a) such as pay and benefits are important to employees
b) are exemplified by symbolic tokens of accomplishment such as posted award certificates
c) are positively valued work outcomes that are given to an individual or group
d) do not require the participation of another person or source in the work setting
e) are given to an individual or group by some other person or source in the work setting

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

68. __________ are positively valued work outcomes that are given to an individual or group by some other person or source in the work setting.
a) Expected rewards
b) Implied rewards
c) Valence rewards
d) Extrinsic rewards
e) Intrinsic rewards

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

69. Jason works as a social worker at a local hospital. He loves his job and derives great satisfaction from feeling as though he has helped others and made a difference in the community. Jason is motivated by __________ rewards.
a) unexpected
b) implied
c) outside
d) extrinsic
e) intrinsic

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

70. Bill is an employee at Burgers-Are-Us. He works hard each and every day so that his picture may be displayed in the restaurant lobby and that he might earn the title “Employee-of-the-Month.” Bill is motivated by __________ rewards.
a) expected
b) implied
c) valence
d) extrinsic
e) intrinsic

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

71. The research of Lawler generally concludes that __________.
a) Americans believe that they are paid more fairly than workers in other countries
b) pay must be combined with fringe benefits to create a significant total compensation package for employees
c) for pay to serve as a motivator, high levels of job performance must be viewed as the path through which high pay can be achieved
d) managers do not believe that they pay their workers enough money
e) workers do not feel that they are paid fairly

Ans:
Page: 124
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

72. Although research supports the logic and theoretical benefits of merit pay, it also indicates that __________.
a) human resources specialists are necessary to administer merit pay plans
b) employees are overpaid for the jobs they perform
c) employees like merit pay plans
d) the implementation of merit pay plans is not easy
e) managers believe that merit pay plans properly reflect employee productivity

Ans:
Page: 125
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

73. Merit pay is an attempt to make pay contingent upon __________.
a) tenure in the organization
b) specific competencies
c) a willingness to acquire and develop job related skills
d) performance
e) years of experience in the industry

Ans:
Page: 125
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

74. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe what is needed to make a merit pay plan work well?
a) Merit pay should be based on realistic and accurate measures of individual work performance.
b) Merit pay should create a belief among employees that they must perform at high levels to achieve high pay.
c) Merit pay should be higher for those employees whom the manager personally favors.
d) Merit pay should clearly differentiate between high and low performers in the amount of pay received.
e) Managers should avoid confusing “merit” aspects of a pay increase with “cost-of-living” adjustments.

Ans:
Page: 125
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

75. Some people argue that __________ are not consistent with the demands of today’s organizations because they fail to recognize the high degree of task interdependence among employees.
a) gain-sharing plans
b) merit pay plans
c) skill-based pay plans
d) profit sharing plans
e) fringe benefit plans

Ans:
Page: 125
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

76. __________ is a pay system that links pay and performance by giving the workers the opportunity to share in productivity gains through increased earnings.
a) Skill-based pay
b) Sanctioned pay
c) Performance pay
d) Gain sharing
e) Statutory pay

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

77. All of the following statements about gain sharing are true EXCEPT:
a) gain sharing plans decrease personal responsibility.
b) gain-sharing plans involve a specific measurement of productivity combined with a calculation of a bonus designed to offer workers a share of any increase in total organizational productivity.
c) gain sharing increases work motivation because of pay-for-performance incentives.
d) with gain sharing, employees have a greater sense of personal responsibility for making performance contributions to the organization.
e) gain sharing encourages workplace cooperation and teamwork.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

78.__________ rewards employees based on the entire organization’s performance.
a) A merit pay plan
b) A skill-based pay
c) A gain-sharing plan
d) A profit-sharing plan
e) A flexible benefits plan

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

79. The awarding of cash bonuses is especially common in the __________ of organizations.
a) lower ranks
b) non-exempt levels
c) union members
d) senior executive ranks
e) contingency workforce

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

80. A current trend in business today is __________.
a) an attempt to give bonus opportunities to both managerial and non-managerial jobs.
b) to eliminate global opportunities for advancement.
c) only give fixed pay to employees.
d) phase out the use of cash bonuses for management levels.
e) to only give cash bonuses to employees based in the United States.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

81. All of the following statements about profit-sharing are true EXCEPT:
a) profit sharing is somewhat similar to gain sharing.
b) profit sharing rewards individuals according to some measure of organizational performance.
c) profit sharing plans do not reward employees for specific productivity gains.
d) profit sharing plans reward employees based on overall organizational profits.
e) profit sharing plans have no criticisms.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

82. In a(n) __________, employees are rewarded by being given company stock or by being allowed to purchase it at a price below market value.
a) single payoff
b) ESOP
c) gain-sharing plan
d) individualized payoff
e) lump-sum increase

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

83. Since stock prices can fall as well as rise, there is a risk associated with respect to __________ and that risk must be considered in respect to the motivational value of such pay systems.
a) merit pay systems
b) ESOPS
c) lump-sum increases
d) lump-sum payments
e) fringe benefit systems

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

84. __________ is a system that rewards people for acquiring and developing job-relevant skills.
a) Entitlement pay
b) Gain-sharing pay
c) Merit pay
d) Skill-based pay
e) Expert pay

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

85. Which of the following statements is NOT correct with regard to skill-based pay?
a) Although it has popular appeal, it is a fairly slow-growing pay innovation.
b) Skill-based pay compensates people for the mix and depth of skills they possess.
c) A potential advantage of skill-based pay is flexibility.
d) A potential disadvantage of skill-based pay is higher training costs.
e) A potential advantage of skill-based pay is employee cross-training.

Ans:
Pages: 126-127
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

86. Skill-based pay plans reward people __________.
a) based on their knowledge and education
b) based on their experience
c) for the mix and depth of skills they possess
d) for the particular job assignment they hold
e) at the same level of other people with the same job title

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

87. Which of the following are considered advantages of skill-based pay?
a) Flexibility
b) Employee cross-training
c) Fewer supervisors
d) More individual control over compensation
e) A reduction in compensation costs

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

88. One disadvantage of skill-based pay is __________.
a) the possible higher pay and training costs that are not offset by greater productivity
b) managers do not like working with a skill-based pay program
c) the program can be implemented quickly
d) that workers learn to do one another’s jobs
e) workers know in advance what is required to receive a pay rate

Ans:
Page: 127
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

89. The __________, __________, __________ relationship underlies the logic of any performance-based pay system.
a) performance; consistency; growth
b) hiring; work; performance
c) selection; performance; growth
c) promotion; merit; reward
d) effort; performance; reward
e) assignment; performance; increase

Ans:
Page: 127
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Motivation and Performance Management

90. All of the following are steps in a typical sequence of performance management EXCEPT:
a) identifying and set clear and measurable performance goals.
b) assigning people into the roles required to perform job responsibilities.
c) taking performance measurements to monitor goal progress.
d) providing feedback and coaching on performance results.
d) using performance assessment for human resource management decisions.

Ans:
Page: 127
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Management Process

91. __________ performance appraisal information is useful for making selection and placement decisions.
a) Involvement
b) Feedback
c) Elaboration
d) Evaluative
e) Development

Ans:
Page: 127
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Management Process

92. From a __________ perspective, performance measure facilitates decisions relating to planning for and gaining commitment to the continued training and personal development of workers.
a) growth
b) developmental
c) retention
d) turnover
e) promotional

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Management Process

93. When measuring employee performance, managers should make sure that measurements are:
a) based on clear job performance criteria.
b) accurate in assessing performance.
c) providing a defensible basis for differentiating between high and low performance.
d) useful as feedback that can help future performance.
e) all of the above.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

94. In the context of performance appraisal dimensions and standards, the goal of meeting product specification standards is an example of a(n) __________.
a) activity measure
b) differential measure
c) input measure
d) output measure
e) sustainability measure

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Management Process

95. In the context of performance appraisal dimensions and standards, __________ measures are typically obtained from the evaluator’s observation and rating.
a) output
b) input
c) activity
d) sustainability
e) engagement

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Management Process

96. Which statement about comparative methods of performance appraisal is false?
a) It is a method that seeks to identify one’s relative standing among those being rated.
b) This method indicates that one person is better than another on a given dimension.
c) This method explains how much better one person is on a given dimension when compared to another person.
d) Ranking is one method of comparative performance appraisal.
e) Critical incident diaries are not a comparative method of performance appraisal.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

97. Rankings, paired comparisons, and forced distributions are types of __________ performance appraisal methods.
a) absolute
b) definitive
c) comparative
d) discretionary
e) conclusive

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

98. __________ is a technique of performance appraisal that involves ordering each individual from best to worst on each performance dimension being considered.
a) Paired comparison
b) Critical incident diary
c) Forced distribution
d) Ranking
e) Management by objectives

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

99. __________ is a method of performance appraisal whereby each person is directly compared with every other person being rated.
a) Paired comparison
b) Behaviorally anchored rating scales
c) Forced distribution
d) Ranking
e) Graphic rating scale

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

100. __________ is a method of performance appraisal that uses a small number of performance categories, such as “very good,” “good,” “adequate,” and “very poor,” and slots a certain proportion of people into each category.
a) Paired comparison
b) Critical incident diary
c) Forced distribution
d) Ranking
e) Management by objectives

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

101. The primary appeal of graphic rating scales is their __________.
a) limited use
b) ease of use
c) close link with job analysis
d) application to a narrow range of jobs
e) use for employment development

Ans:
Page: 129
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

102. All of the following are correct statements regarding the behaviorally anchored rating scales EXCEPT:
a) it is known by the acronym BARS.
b) the procedure for developing a behaviorally anchored rating scale approach starts with the employee documenting job requirements.
c) behavioral descriptions include both superior and inferior performance.
d) once a large sample of behavioral descriptions is collected, each behavior is evaluated to determine the extent to which it describes good versus bad performance.
e) the final step of the process is to develop a rating scales in which the anchors are specific critical behaviors, each reflecting a different degree of performance effectiveness.

Ans:
Page: 129
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

103. __________ is a comprehensive approach to performance appraisal that uses the evaluations of bosses, peers, and subordinates as well as self-ratings, customer ratings, and ratings of others outside the work unit.
a) Total evaluation
b) 360° degree evaluation
c) Worldwide evaluation
d) Inside and outside evaluation
e) Bottom-up/top-down evaluation

Ans:
Pages: 130-131
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

104. For a performance appraisal system to be reliable, it must __________.
a) provide consistent results each time it is used.
b) be used in a wide cross-section of industries.
c) be statistically robust.
d) be used across hierarchical levels in an organization.
e) actually measure people on relevant job characteristics.

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

105. For a performance appraisal system to be valid, it must __________.
a) provide consistent results each time it is used
b) be statistically robust
c) be used in a wide cross-section of industries
d) be used across hierarchical levels in an organization
e) actually measure people on relevant job content

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

106. A __________ results when one person rates another person on several different dimensions and gives a similar rating for each dimension.
a) personal bias error
b) recency error
c) halo error
d) leniency error
e) central tendency error

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

107. A __________ occurs when managers lump everyone together around the average, or middle, category; this gives the impression that there are no very good or very poor performers on the dimensions being rates.
a) personal bias error
b) recency error
c) halo error
d) leniency error
e) central tendency error

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

108. Which of the following is a defining characteristic of the “best” job design?
a) A job design that meets organizational requirements for high performance.
b) A job design that offers an occasional fit with individual skills and needs.
c) A job design that does not provide opportunities for job satisfaction.
d) A job design that randomly meets organizational requirements for high performance.
e) A job design that does not meet individual or organizational requirements for high performance.

Ans:
Page: 132
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Motivation and Job Design

109. Frederick Taylor’s principles of scientific management include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) developing a science for each job that covers rules of motion, standard work tools, and supportive work conditions.
b) hiring workers with the right abilities for the job.
c) increasing job content by giving workers more responsibility.
d) training and motivating workers to do their jobs according to the science.
e) supporting workers by planning and assisting their work using the job science.

Ans:
Page: 132
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

110. Job simplification is a job design approach that __________.
a) identifies the best job-fits between job applicants and job requirement
b) ensures that jobs do not become too difficult to perform over time
c) standardizes work procedures and employs people in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks
d) uses simple checklists to monitor high job performance
e) creates many opportunities for promotions into more complex jobs

Ans:
Page: 132
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

111. The potential advantages of job simplification include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) increasing operating efficiency by reducing the number of skills required to do a job.
b) being able to hire low-cost labor.
c) keeping the needs for job training to a minimum.
d) emphasizing the accomplishment of repetitive tasks.
e) increased employee turnover.

Ans:
Pages: 132-133
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

112. The potential disadvantages of job simplification include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) loss of efficiency in the face of lower quality.
b) reduction in the skills required to perform a job.
c) higher turnover rates.
d) higher absenteeism rates.
e) demand for higher wages to compensate for unappealing jobs.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

113. Sometimes called horizontal loading, __________ increases job breadth by having the worker perform more and different tasks, but all at the same level of responsibility and challenge.
a) job enrichment
b) job reengineering
c) job embellishment
d) job enlargement
e) job simplification

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enlargement and Job Rotation

114. Which of the following statements about job rotation is correct? Job rotation:
a) standardizes job tasks and employs people in very routine jobs.
b) increases job content by giving workers more responsibility for planning and evaluating duties.
c) increases job variety by adding new tasks of similar difficulty to a job.
d) increases task variety by shifting workers among jobs involving tasks of similar difficulty.
e) defines job tasks and the work arrangements to accomplish them.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enlargement and Job Rotation

115. When your manager increases your job content by giving you more responsibility for planning and evaluating duties, which job design approach is being used?
a) Job simplification
b) Job enlargement
c) Job enrichment
d) Job rotation
e) Process reengineering

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enrichment

116. Regarding job enrichment, OB scholars __________.
a) believe that job enrichment is relevant for some cultures, but not for most cultures
b) have been reluctant to recommend job enrichment as a universal solution to all job performance and satisfaction problems
c) view job enrichment as “the answer” to the majority of performance and satisfaction problems in business today
d) believe that job enrichment is for everyone
e) believe that job enrichment is pertinent to some industries but not to most industries

Ans:
Page: 134
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enrichment

117. All of the following are core job characteristics as identified by Hackman and Oldham EXCEPT:
a) skill variety.
b) task significance.
c) autonomy.
d) motivating potential.
e) task identity.

Ans:
Page: 134
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

118. The degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and determining the procedures used in carrying it out is referred to as:
a) skill variety.
b) task identity.
c) autonomy.
d) job feedback.
e) task significance.

Ans:
Page: 134
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

119. A job’s motivating potential score can be raised through all of the following methods EXCEPT:
a) reducing tasks to create smaller jobs.
b) opening feedback channels to enable workers to know how well they are doing.
c) establishing client relationships to enable employees to experience feedback directly from customers.
d) employing vertical loading to create more planning opportunities.
e) employing vertical loading to create more controlling responsibilities.

Ans:
Page: 134
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

120. Alternative work arrangements commonly used today include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) job sharing.
b) telecommuting.
c) flexible working hours.
d) compressed workweek.
e) job enrichment.

Ans:
Page: 136
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Alternative Work Schedules

121. The most common form of __________ is a “4-40” schedule––that is, 40 hours of work is accomplished in four 10-hour days.
a) the compressed workweek
b) job sharing
c) flexible working hours
d) job simplification
e) telecommuting

Ans:
Page: 137
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Compressed Workweeks

122. A company that requires employees to be at work between 9:30 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. but allows them to schedule their remaining work day to fit personal needs is using __________.
a) the compressed workweek
b) job sharing
c) flexible working hours
d) elastic scheduling
e) telecommuting

Ans:
Page: 137
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Flexible Working Hours

123. Accenture and Booz Allen Hamilton offer suggestions for attracting and retaining talented working mothers. These include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) offering increased pay and extended time for maternity leave.
b) requiring employees to take challenging jobs requiring travel.
c) setting up mentoring and networking systems.
d) making sure new mother feel they are wanted back at work.
e) keeping in contact with employees who are on maternity leave.

Ans:
Page: 137
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Alternative Work Schedules

124. An organization that is able to employ two persons as one by having one person work mornings and the other person work afternoons on the same job is reaping the benefits of:
a) a compressed work week.
b) flextime.
c) flexible working hours.
d) job sharing.
e) telecommuting.

Ans:
Page: 138
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Job Sharing

125. All of the following are negatives about telecommuting EXCEPT:
a) isolation from co-workers.
b) decreased identification with the work team.
c) management of telecommuters.
d) technical difficulties with the computer linkages.
e) lower employee satisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 138
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Telecommuting

Fill in the blank

126. The feeling of achievement after completing a particularly challenging task in a job designed with a good person-job fit is an example of an __________.

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

127. __________ might include things like sincere praise for a job well done or symbolic tokens of accomplishment such as “employee-of-the-month” awards.

Ans:
Page: 123
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

128. __________ is a compensation system that bases an individual’s salary or wage increase on a measure of the person’s performance accomplishments during a specified time period.

Ans:
Page: 124
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

129. __________ rewards employees based on the entire organization’s performance.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

130. The incentive value of __________ is based on the notion that “employee owners” will be motivated to work hard so that the organization will perform well and its stock price will rise.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

131. With __________, workers are paid for the breadth of capability and their willingness to use any skills needed by the company.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

132. __________ give the right to purchase shares at a fixed price in the future.

Ans:
Page: 126
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Pay for Performance

133. __________ methods of performance appraisal seek to identify one’s relative standing among those being rated.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

134. A(n) __________ lists a variety of dimensions thought to be related to high-performance outcomes in a given job and that the individual is accordingly expected to exhibit.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

135. __________ in performance appraisal compares each person with every other.

Ans:
Page: 128
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

136. A(n) __________ is a method of performance appraisal that records incidents of each subordinate’s behavior that led to either unusual success or failure in a given performance aspect.

Ans:
Pages: 129-130
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

137. The evaluations of bosses, peers, subordinates, customers, and employees themselves are included in the __________ evaluation.

Ans:
Pages: 130-131
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Methods

138. When a rater fails to discriminate between an employee’s strong and weak points and allows these to carry over from one dimension to the next, the leader is likely to be experiencing the __________ performance appraisal measurement error.

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

139. When an employee is rated low on punctuality because the one incident of tardiness the day before the evaluation overshadows his usual promptness, the evaluator is experiencing the __________ in performance appraisal measurement.

Ans:
Page: 131
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

140. The history of scholarly interest in job design can be traced in part to the work of __________ with scientific management in the early 20th century.

Ans:
Page: 132
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

141. The classic automobile assembly line is an example of the job design strategy of __________.

Ans:
Page: 132
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Scientific Management

142. __________ increases task variety by adding new tasks of similar difficulty to a job.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enlargement and Job Rotation

143. Changes in a job that are designed to increase job breadth are sometimes called __________.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enlargement and Job Rotation

144. __________ increases job content by giving workers more responsibility for planning and evaluating duties.

Ans:
Page: 133
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enrichment

145. The job characteristics model identifies five core job characteristics that are especially important to job design. The five core job characteristics are __________.

Ans:
Page: 134
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

146. Individual difference moderators that can influence individual preferences in how jobs are designed are __________, __________, and __________ moderators.

Ans:
Page: 135
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

147. Any work schedule that allows a full-time job to be completed in less than the standard five days is known as the __________.

Ans:
Page: 137
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Compressed Workweeks

148. An organization that is able to employ two persons as one by having one person work mornings and the other person work afternoons on the same job is reaping the benefits of __________.

Ans:
Page: 138
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Job Sharing

149. __________ describes work done at home or in a remote location via use of computers and advanced telecommunication linkages with a central or other employment locations.

Ans:
Page: 138
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Telecommuting

150. Employees who work less than the standard 40-hour workweek but are considered to be permanent members of the organization’s workforce are called __________.

Ans:
Page: 139
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Part-Time Work

Essay

151. Define intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. Give an example of an intrinsic reward and an extrinsic reward.

Pages: 123-124
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the link between motivation, rewards, and performance.
Section Reference: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards

152. Identify and define five measurement errors in performance appraisal.

Page: 131
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the essentials of performance management including the process, methods, and errors.
Section Reference: Performance Measurement Errors

153. Describe the concept of job enrichment. How does job enrichment differ from other job design strategies of job enlargement or job rotation?

Pages: 133-134
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Enlargement and Job Rotation
Section Reference: Job Enrichment

154. Describe the core characteristics model of job enrichment. Explain how this model can provide guidance to practicing managers. Should everyone’s job be enriched? Why or why not?

Pages: 134-136
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain how job designs influence motivation and performance.
Section Reference: Job Characteristics Model

155. Describe each of the major alternative work arrangements. What are the advantages to the individual and/or organization in using these options?

Pages: 136-139
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Analyze the motivational effect of alternative work arrangements.
Section Reference: Alternative Work Schedules

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Chapter 7: Teams in Organizations

True/False

1. Scholars note that the same heart surgeons have lower death rates for similar procedures when performed in hospitals where they do more operations.

Ans:
Page: 146
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Teams and Teamwork

2. The catchwords for an effective team are empowerment, participation, and diversity.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizations as Network of Teams

3. A team is a small group of people with complementary skills, who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Teams and Teamwork

4. Teams that recommend things consist of people with formal responsibility for leading other groups.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

5. Teams that recommend things typically work with a target completion date and disband once their purpose has been fulfilled.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

6. Teams that run things may exist at all levels of responsibility, from the individual work unit composed of a team leader and team members to the top management team composed of a CEO and other senior executives.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

7. Teams that make or do things are functional groups and work units that perform ongoing tasks such as marketing departments.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

8. The head of a formal group serves a linchpin role that ties the group horizontally and vertically with the rest of the organization.

Ans:
Page: 148
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizations as Network of Teams

9. Temporary work groups often appear on organizational charts as departments, divisions, and teams.

Ans:
Page: 148
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizations as Network of Teams

10. Cross-functional teams, or task forces, are created for special problem-solving efforts.

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

11. Informal teams have the potential to speed up the workflow by enabling people to assist each other in ways that formal lines of authority fail to provide.

Ans:
Page: 148
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizations as Network of Teams

12. The informal structures and their embedded social relationships that are active in an organization are identified by social network analysis.

Ans:
Page: 148
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizations as Network of Teams

13. Cross-functional teams bring together persons from different organizations and industries to work on a common task.

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

14. The functional silos problem occurs when members of functional units focus on external issues and do not focus to a sufficient degree on their own areas of responsibility.

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

15. Virtual teams have members who convene and work together electronically via computers.

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Virtual Teams

16. Employee involvement teams describe a wide variety of teams whose members meet regularly to collectively examine important workplace issues.

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

17. Employee involvement teams discuss ways to enhance product or service quality, better satisfy customers, improve productivity, and enhance the quality of work life.

Ans:
Pages: 149-150
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

18. A quality circle is a small group of persons who meet periodically to discuss problems relating to quality, productivity, or cost, and to develop solutions for them.

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

19. Virtual teams are ones whose members meet at least part of the time electronically and with computer support.

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Virtual Teams

20. A potential advantage of virtual teams is that members have very little, if any, direct personal contact.

Ans:
Pages: 151-152
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Virtual Teams

21. A potential advantage of virtual teams is that computer mediation focuses interaction and decision making on facts and objective information rather than on emotional considerations.

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Virtual Teams

22. Self-managing teams are small groups that are empowered to make the decisions needed to manage themselves on a day-to-day basis.

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

23. Self-managing teams are also known as self-directed teams.

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

24. Members of a true self-managing work team make decisions on establishing strategy and providing resources to achieve it.

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

25. Members of a true self-managing work team make decisions on selecting new team members, training them for job skills, and evaluating performance.

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

26. Self-managing teams differ from the more traditional work group in that team members assume duties otherwise performed by a manager or first-line supervisor.

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

27. Multiskilling occurs when team members are trained in performing more than one job on the team.

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

28. The potential benefits of self-managing teams include productivity and quality improvements, production flexibility, and faster response to technological change, but not reduced absenteeism and turnover or improved work attitudes and quality of work life.

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

29. Self-managing teams have structural and management implications for organizations because they largely eliminate the first-line supervisors.

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

30. An effective group is one that achieves high levels of task performance, member satisfaction, and team viability.

Ans:
Page: 152
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Criteria of an Effective Team

31. The member satisfaction criterion of group effectiveness means that members are sufficiently satisfied to continue working well together on an ongoing basis and/or to look forward to working together again in the future.

Ans:
Page: 152
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Criteria of an Effective Team

32. The team viability criterion of group effectiveness refers to groups with members who believe that their participation and experiences are positive and meet important personal needs.

Ans:
Page: 152
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Criteria of an Effective Team

33. Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Synergy and Team Benefits

34. Social loafing, also known as the “Ringlemann effect,” occurs when people work less hard in a group than they would individually.

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Social Loafing and Team Problems

35. The performance advantages of teams over individuals are most evident in three situations: 1) when there is no clear “expert” for a particular task, 2) when the problems are complex and require a division of labor, and 3) when a riskier decision need be made.

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Synergy and Team Benefits

36. Research shows that teams tend to make less risky decisions than individuals.

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Synergy and Team Benefits

37. Ringlemann identified two reasons why people may not work as hard in groups as they would individually: (a) their individual contributions are less noticeable in the context of a group; and (b) group goals are often less well defined than individual goals.

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Social Loafing and Team Problems

38. In general, social facilitation theory indicates that working in the presence of others creates an emotional arousal or excitement that stimulates behavior and therefore affects performance.

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Social Facilitation

39. A team member might withdraw or tend toward social loafing when asked to do something he/she isn’t very good at.

Ans:
Page: 155
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Social Loafing and Team Problems

40. Formal work units, but not temporary task forces or virtual teams, pass through a series of life cycle stages.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Stages of Team Development

41. The five stages of team development are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Stages of Team Development

42. In the storming stage of team development, members are interested in getting to know each other and discovering what is considered acceptable behavior, in determining the real task of the team, and in defining team rules.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Storming Stage

43. The storming stage of team development is a period of high emotionality and tension among the team members.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Storming Stage

44. During the norming stage of team development, coalitions or cliques may form as individuals compete to impose their preferences on the team and to achieve a desired status position.

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Norming Stage

45. In the norming stage of team development, the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit.

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Norming Stage

46. In the norming stage of team development, holding the team together may become more important to some members than working on the team’s tasks.

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Norming Stage

47. The norming stage of the team development process is sometimes called “total integration.”

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Norming Stage

48. The willingness of a team to disband when the job is done and to work well together in future responsibilities is an important long-run test of team success.

Ans:
Page: 158
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Adjourning Stage

49. A study reported by Rutgers University professor Donald McCabe found that 86 percent of MBA students reported cheating by plagiarizing, downloading essays from the Web, and more.

Ans:
Page: 159
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Understanding Teams at Work

50. The technical demands of a task include relationships, ego involvement, controversies over ends and means, and the like.

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Nature of Team Task

51. Tasks that are complex in social demands require unique solutions and more information processing, whereas task that are complex in technical demands involve difficulties in reaching agreement on goals or methods for accomplishing them.

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Nature of Team Task

52. CEO and founder of Amazon.com, Jeff Bezos’ simple rule when it comes to the size of a product development team is “No team should be larger than two pizzas can feed.”

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Team Size

53. The optimal size for teams is between five and seven members.

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Team Size

54. Members of a homogenous group vary with respect to age, gender, race, ethnicity, experience, culture, and similar characteristics.

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

55. FIRO-B theory suggests that groups whose members have compatible needs are likely to be more effective than groups whose members have incompatible needs.

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Membership Composition of a Team

56. Homogeneous teams have members who are similar with respect to such variables as age, gender, race, experience, ethnicity, and culture.

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

57. Members of homogeneous teams experience difficulty in building social relations and engaging in the interactions needed for teamwork.

Ans:
Pages: 162-163
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

58. Heterogeneity may limit the team in terms of ideas, viewpoints, and creativity.

Ans:
Page: 163
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

59. Heterogeneous teams have members who are diverse in demography, experiences, life styles, and cultures, among other variables.

Ans:
Pages: 162-163
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

60. Status congruence occurs when a person’s position within the group is equivalent in status to positions held outside of the group.

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Membership Composition of a Team

61. The diversity-consensus dilemma is the tendency for diversity in groups to make working together more difficult, even though diversity itself expands the skills and perspectives available for problem solving.

Ans:
Page: 163
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

62. Even though homogeneous teams may struggle in the short run to resolve issues, they are also likely to develop enhanced performance potential once things are worked out.

Ans:
Pages: 162-163
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

63. Researchers have found that females score higher than males on social sensitivity.

Ans:
Page: 163
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

Multiple Choice

64. Team members and leaders can do all of the following to help their teams achieve high performance EXCEPT:
a) putting personal talents to work.
b) building disagreement so that the team gets multiple opinions.
c) persuading others to cooperate
d) accepting suggestions.
e) communicating ideas.

Ans:
Page: 146
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Teams and Teamwork

65. Teams that __________ typically work with a target completion date and disband once their purpose has been fulfilled.
a) recommend things
b) run things
c) study things
d) make or do things
e) review things

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

66. Teams that __________ may exist at all levels of responsibility, from the individual work unit composed of a team leader and team members to the top management team composed of a CEO and other senior executives.
a) review things
b) recommend things
c) run things
d) evaluate things
e) make or do things

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

67. Members of teams that __________ must have good long-term working relationships with one another, solid operating systems, and the external support needed to achieve effectiveness over a sustained period of time.
a) plan things
b) reengineer things
c) recommend things
d) make or do things
e) review things

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

68. Groups that form spontaneously through personal relationships or special interests, and not by any specific organizational endorsement, are called __________.
a) informal groups
b) virtual groups
c) temporary groups
d) interim groups
e) ad hoc groups

Ans:
Page: 148
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizations as Network of Teams

69. The potential benefits of informal groups include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) informal groups have the potential to speed up the workflow.
b) informal groups enable people to assist each other in ways that formal lines of authority fail to provide.
c) informal groups enable members to establish important goals for the formal work unit.
d) informal groups help individuals satisfy needs that are unmet in a formal group.
e) informal groups can provide their members with social satisfaction, security, and a sense of belonging.

Ans:
Page: 148
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizations as Network of Teams

70. __________ consist of persons with natural affinities for one another, and who tend to work together, sit together, take breaks together, and even do things together outside of the workplace.
a) Interest groups
b) Affiliation groups
c) Friendship groups
d) Connection groups
d) Familiarity groups

Ans:
Page: 148
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizations as Network of Teams

71. __________ teams bring together people from different functional departments or work units to work on a common task.
a) Cross-functional
b) Self-directed
c) Virtual
d) Self-managed
e) Employee involvement

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

72. The __________ occurs when members of functional units stay focused on matters internal to the function and minimize their interactions with members of other functions.
a) limited perspective problem
b) restriction of perspective problem
c) functional niche problem
d) functional silos problem
e) limited vision problem

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

73. The __________ is another name for the functional silos problem.
a) individual unit problem.
b) serviceable group problem
c) functional chimney problem
d) hyper-focused team problem
e) exclusive over-assemblage problem

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

74. Members of __________ can solve problems with a positive combination of functional expertise and integrative or total systems thinking.
a) cross-functional teams
b) self-directed teams
c) cross-departmental teams
d) virtual teams
e) statutory teams

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

75. Most self-managing teams include between __________ members.
a) 1 and 4
b) 5 and 15
c) 20 and 35
d) 50 and 65
e) 80 and 100

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

76. The potential advantages of virtual teams include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) virtual teams bring cost effectiveness to teamwork where members are unable to meet easily face-to-face.
b) virtual teams can bring speed to teamwork where members are unable to meet easily face-to-face.
c) virtual teams bring the power of the computer to bear on typical team needs for information processing and decision making.
d) virtual team members may have very little, if any, direct personal contact.
e) computer mediation focuses interaction and decision making on facts and objective information rather than on emotional considerations.

Ans:
Pages: 151-152
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Virtual Teams

77. Teams whose members convene and work together electronically via networked computers are called __________.
a) project teams
b) cybernetic teams
c) virtual teams.
d) implicit teams
e) networked teams

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Virtual Teams

78. The term __________ applies to a wide variety of teams whose members meet regularly to collectively examine important workplace issues.
a) employee engagement team
b) employee connection team
c) employee participation team
d) employee empowerment team
e) employee involvement team

Ans:
Pages: 149-150
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

79. Members of a true self-managing work team make decisions on all of the following EXCEPT:
a) establishing strategy and providing resources to achieve it.
b) scheduling work and allocating tasks.
c) training for job skills and evaluating performance.
d) selecting new team members.
e) controlling the quality of work.

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

80. Self-managing teams are also known as __________.
a) virtual teams
b) self-directed work teams
c) task teams
d) silo teams
e) employee teams

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

81. The potential benefits of self-managing teams include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) productivity and quality improvements.
b) production flexibility and faster response to technological change.
c) reduced absenteeism and turnover.
d) difficulty for some members to adjust to self-managing responsibilities.
e) improved work attitudes and quality of work life.

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

82. Self-managed teams have structural and management implications for organizations because they largely eliminate __________.
a) a firm’s staff functions
b) the line employees
c) the top management team
d) the CEO
e) the first-line supervisors

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

83. Which one of the following characteristics truly differentiates self-managing teams from the more traditional work group?
a) Team members typically work in isolation from the rest of the company.
b) Team members are typically asked to work on more challenging tasks than traditional work groups.
c) Team members assume duties otherwise performed by a manager or first-line supervisor.
d) Team members are typically paid more than the team members of traditional work teams.
e) Team members are typically more experienced than the team members of traditional work teams.

Ans:
Pages: 150-151
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

84. To create a successful virtual team, managers should do which of the following?
a) Select team members high in initiative
b) Begin with social messaging
c) Assign clear goals and roles
d) Gather regular feedback from members
e) Managers should do all of the above

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Virtual Teams

85. A(n) __________ team is one that achieves high levels of task performance, member satisfaction, and team viability.
a) functional
b) serviceable
c) operative
d) effective
e) practical

Ans:
Page: 152
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Criteria of an Effective Team

86. When a team achieves its performance goals regarding quantity, quality, and timeliness of work results, the __________ characteristic of team effectiveness is being demonstrated.
a) task performance
b) member satisfaction
c) team viability
d) team changeability
e) team excellence

Ans:
Page: 152
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Criteria of an Effective Team

87. When a team’s members believe that their participation and experiences are positive and meet important personal needs, the __________ characteristic of team effectiveness is being demonstrated.
a) task performance
b) member commitment
c) member satisfaction
d) team viability
e) team changeability

Ans:
Page: 152
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Criteria of an Effective Team

88. The __________ characteristic of team effectiveness is being demonstrated when the members of a team are sufficiently satisfied to continue working well together on an ongoing basis and/or look forward to working together again at some future point in time.
a) member satisfaction
b) team endurance
c) team excellence
d) team viability
e) team changeability

Ans:
Page: 152
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Criteria of an Effective Team

89. When teams accomplish more than the total of their individual members’ capabilities, __________ occurs.
a) exchange
b) association
c) synergy
d) harmony
e) union

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Synergy and Team Benefits

90. When people work less hard in teams than they would individually, __________ occurs.
a) social slacking
b) organizational shirking
c) individual loafing
d) organizational evading
e) social loafing

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Social Loafing and Team Problems

91. The performance advantages of teams over individuals are most evident in all of the following cases EXCEPT:
a) when a conservative decision is required.
b) when there is no clear “expert” for a particular task.
c) when problems are complex.
d) when a division of labor is required.
e) when a sharing of information is required.

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Synergy and Team Benefits

92. An example of social facilitation occurs when __________.
a) a team achieves more together than they would have individually
b) people work less hard in teams than they would individually
c) an athlete performs in front of an enthusiastic hometown audience
d) a lack of preparedness motivate a novice, nervous speaker to perform better
e) people work together via computer networks

Ans:
Pages: 154-155
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Social Facilitation

93. The study of social loafing by Price, Harrison, and Gavin designed natural teams consisting of __________.
a) tug-of-war teams
b) students working together in course study groups for a semester
c) 150 mid-level managers
d) representatives from 35 industries
e) 12 virtual team members

Ans:
Page: 155
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Social Loafing and Team Problems

94. Whether part of a formal work unit, a temporary task force, or a virtual team, the group itself passes through a series of __________.
a) decision-making steps
b) life cycle stages
c) cultural transformations
d) entrepreneurial ventures
e) environmental challenges

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Stages of Team Development

95. Which of the following sequences accurately describes the order of the stages of team development?
a) Introduction, growth, settling-in, maturation, and dismissal
b) Start-up, growth, leveling-off, settling-in, and disbanding
c) Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
d) Launch, growth, leveling-off, maturing, and decline
e) Introduction, orientation, settling-in, maturation, and decline

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Stages of Team Development

96. The five stages of team development include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) forming.
b) norming.
c) adjourning.
d) journeying.
e) storming.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Stages of Team Development

97. Which stage of team development has a primary concern with the initial entry of members to the team?
a) Forming
b) Storming
c) Norming
d) Performing
e) Adjourning

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Forming Stage

98. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the forming stage of team development?
a) Members are interested in getting to know each other.
b) Members are interested in discovering what is considered acceptable behavior.
c) Members are interested in maintaining the sense of harmony that has been established.
d) Members are interested in determining the real task of the team.
e) Members are interested in defining team rules.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Forming Stage

99. During which stage of team development does hostility and infighting occur with the team typically experiencing many changes?
a) Forming
b) Storming
c) Norming
d) Performing
e) Adjourning

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Storming Stage

100. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the storming stage of team development?
a) Hostility and infighting seldom occur.
b) The team typically experiences many changes, and coalitions or cliques may form.
c) Members’ expectations tend to be clarified, and attention shifts toward obstacles standing in the way of team goals.
d) Individuals begin to understand one another’s interpersonal styles.
e) Efforts are made to find ways to accomplish team goals while satisfying individual needs.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Storming Stage

101. During what stage of team development may a team member ask, “What can the group offer me? Can my needs be met at the same time that I contribute to the group?
a) Storming
b) Forming
c) Performing
d) Adjourning
e) Norming

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Forming Stage

102. Which stage of the team development process is sometimes called initial integration?
a) Storming
b) Forming
c) Performing
d) Adjourning
e) Norming

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Norming Stage

103. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the norming stage of team development?
a) The turmoil of the preceding stage gives way to a precarious balancing of forces.
b) Holding the team together may become more important to some members than working on the team’s tasks.
c) Minority viewpoints, deviations from group directions, and criticism are welcomed as members experience a preliminary sense of closeness.
d) Team members experience a new sense of harmony.
e) Some team members may mistakenly perceive this stage as one of ultimate maturity.

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Norming Stage

104. Which stage of the team development process is sometimes called total integration?
a) Storming
b) Forming
c) Performing
d) Adjourning
e) Norming

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Performing Stage

105. The performing stage of team development is described by all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
a) the team is able to deal with complex tasks and handle internal disagreements in creative ways.
b) the team structure is unstable.
c) members are motivated by team goals and are generally satisfied.
d) the primary team challenges are continued efforts to improve relationships and performance.
e) team members should be able to adapt successfully as opportunities and demands change over time.

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Performing Stage

106. An immature group will have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
a) dysfunctional decision-making methods.
b) flexible operating procedures.
c) unclear communications.
d) independent authority relations.
e) low acceptance of minority views.

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Performing Stage

107. The final stage in the team development process is known as the __________ stage.
a) adjourning
b) performing
c) dismissal
d) maturation
e) disbanding

Ans:
Page: 158
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Adjourning Stage

108. Which of the following is the correct equation for team effectiveness according to the open systems model of teams?
a) Team effectiveness = Quality of inputs x (Process gains + Process losses)
b) Team effectiveness = Quality of outputs + (Process gains x Team inputs)
c) Team effectiveness = Quality of inputs x (Process gains – Process losses)
d) Team effectiveness = Quality of outputs x (Process gains + Process losses)
e) Team effectiveness = Quality of outputs + (Process gains x Team inputs)

Ans:
Page: 158
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Open Systems Model of Teams

109. Key team inputs include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) the nature of the task.
b) goals, rewards, and resources.
c) team composition.
d) member satisfaction.
e) team size.

Ans:
Page: 158
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Open Systems Model of Teams

110. The open systems model of team effectiveness suggests that team effectiveness is influenced by all of the following EXCEPT:
a) inputs.
b) processes.
c) “right players in the right seats”.
d) “on the same bus, headed in the same direction”.
e) task performance.

Ans:
Page: 158
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Open Systems Model of Teams

111. All of the following are considered membership characteristics according to the open-systems model of team effectiveness EXCEPT:
a) abilities.
b) values.
c) cohesiveness.
d) personalities.
e) diversity.

Ans:
Page: 158
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Open Systems Model of Teams

112. Team performance can suffer when:
a) goals are unclear.
b) goals are too focused on individual-level accomplishments.
c) resources are inefficient to accomplish the task.
d) when goals are insufficiently challenging.
e) All of the above.

Ans:
Page: 159
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Team Resources and Setting

113. The __________ of a team’s task include its routineness, difficulty, and information requirements.
a) cognitive demands
b) mechanical demands
c) social demands
d) technical demands
e) psychological demands

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Nature of Team Task

114. The __________ of a team’s task involve relationships, ego involvement, controversies over means and ends, and the like.
a) cognitive demands
b) mechanical demands
c) social demands
d) technical demands
e) psychological demands

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Nature of Team Task

115. Tasks that are complex in __________ require unique solutions and more information processing than other tasks.
a) cognitive demands
b) mechanical demands
c) social demands
d) technical demands
e) psychological demands

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Difficult
Reference: Foundations of Team Performance
Section Reference: Nature of Team Task

116. Which of the following statements accurately describes the impact of team member competencies on team performance?
a) Talent alone can guarantee performance results.
b) It is relatively easy to overcome the performance limitations imposed by insufficient skills and competencies for the task at hand.
c) To achieve success, a team must have the right skills and competencies available for task performance.
d) In homogeneous teams, members are very different and bring needed diversity in skill sets to the team.
e) The difficulties of heterogeneity are especially pronounced in the long run.

Ans:
Page: 161
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Membership Composition of a Team

117. A good size for problem-solving teams is __________.
a) 1-2
b) 2-4
c) 4-5
d) 5-7
e) 8-10

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Team Size

118. When voting is required in problem solving teams, __________.
a) larger numbers of team members are preferred
b) smaller numbers of team members are preferred
c) even numbers of team members are preferred
d) odd numbers of team members are preferred
e) the team leader should make the decision

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Team Size

119. __________ teams have members who are very similar to one another.
a) Homogenous
b) Heterogeneous
c) Variant
d) Variegated
e) Conglomerate

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

120. __________ refers to a person’s relative rank, prestige, and standing in a group.
a) Condition
b) Standing
c) Fullness
d) Status
e) Prominence

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Membership Composition of a Team

121. The FIRO-B theory examines differences in how people relate to one another based on their needs to express and receive feelings of __________.
a) inclusion, control, and affection
b) status, control, and affiliation
c) power, achievement, and control
d) affection, nurturance, and affiliation
e) status, achievement, and power

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Membership Composition of a Team

122. The FIRO-B theory suggests that teams whose members have __________ needs are likely to be more effective than teams whose members are more __________.
a) compatible; incompatible
b) incompatible; compatible
c) diverse; similar
d) technical; social
e) social; technical

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Membership Composition of a Team

123. Symptoms of team member incompatibility include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) withdrawn members.
b) open hostilities.
c) status differences.
d) struggles over control.
e) domination of the group by a few members.

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Membership Composition of a Team

124. Which of the following statements provides an accurate description of homogeneous teams?
a) Homogeneous teams have members who are similar with respect to such variables as age, gender, race, experience, ethnicity, and culture.
b) Members of homogeneous teams experience difficulty in building social relations and engaging in the interactions needed for teamwork.
c) Homogeneity does not limit the team in terms of ideas, viewpoints, and creativity.
d) Team members have diverse cultures and lifestyles.
e) Members of homogeneous teams have different backgrounds and experience.

Ans:
Pages: 162-163
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

125. As a team gets larger, all of the following things tend to happen EXCEPT:
a) communication problems often set in.
b) coordination of the team members becomes more difficult.
c) satisfaction may dip.
d) turnover and absenteeism decrease.
e) social loafing may increase.

Ans:
Page: 160
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Team Size

126. Researchers have identified the tendency for increasing diversity among team members to create difficulties even as it offers improved potential for problem solving is known as the __________.
a) positive-negative dilemma
b) enhancement-enactment dilemma
c) upside-downside dilemma
d) good news-bad news dilemma
e) diversity-consensus dilemma

Ans:
Page: 163
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

127. __________ is the ability of a team to perform well across a range of tasks.
a) Collective intelligence
b) Emotional intelligence
c) Reliability intelligence
d) Generalized ability intelligence
e) None of the above.

Ans:
Page: 163
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

Fill in the blank

128. A(n) __________ is a group of people brought together to use their complementary skill to achieve a common purpose for which they are collectively accountable.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Teams and Teamwork

129. __________ occurs when group members actively work together in ways such that all their respective skills are well utilized to achieve a common purpose.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Teams and Teamwork

130. __________ are established to study specific problems and recommend solutions to them.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

131. __________ consist of people with the formal responsibility for leading other teams.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

132. __________ are functional groups and work units that perform ongoing tasks, such as marketing or manufacturing.

Ans:
Page: 147
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: What Teams Do

133. In a sense, functional department or work units can create artificial boundaries that discourage rather than encourage more integrative thinking and active coordination with other parts of an organization. This organizational problem is called __________.

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

134. A(n) __________ is set up to deal with a specific problem or opportunity.

Ans:
Page: 149
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

135. __________ are ones whose members meet at least part of the time electronically and with computer support.

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Virtual Teams

136. A(n) __________ is a small group of persons who meet periodically to discuss problems relating to quality, productivity, or cost, and to develop solutions for them.

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams

137. __________ are small teams empowered to make the decisions needed to manage themselves on a day-to-day basis.

Ans:
Page: 150
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

138. __________ occurs when team members are trained to perform more than one job on the team.

Ans:
Page: 151
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Self-Managing Teams

139. With regard to __________, the members of an effective team are sufficiently satisfied to continue working well together on an on-going basis and/or to look forward to working together again at some future point in time.

Ans:
Page: 152
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Criteria of an Effective Team

140. The creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts is known as __________.

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Synergy and Team Benefits

141. Max Ringelmann’s findings that people may not work as hard in groups because their individual contributions are less noticeable in the group context are known as __________.

Ans:
Page: 153
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Social Loafing and Team Problems

142. In the __________ stage of team development, members are interested in: getting to know each other, discovering what is considered acceptable behavior, determining the real task of the group, and defining team rules.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Forming Stage

143. The __________ stage of team development is a period of high emotionality and tension among the team members.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Storming Stage

144. During the __________ stage of team development, coalitions or cliques may form as individuals compete to impose their preferences on the group and to achieve a desired status position.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Storming Stage

145. The __________ stage of team development is the point at which the team really begins to come together as a coordinated unit.

Ans:
Page: 156
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Norming Stage

146. The __________ stage of team development marks the emergence of a mature, organized, and well-functioning team.

Ans:
Page: 157
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Performing Stage

147. The __________ stage of team development is especially important for the many temporary teams that are increasingly common in the new workplace.

Ans:
Page: 158
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Adjourning Stage

148. __________ teams have members who vary in age, gender, race, ethnicity, experience, and culture.

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

149. __________ occurs when a person’s position within the group is equivalent in status to positions held outside of the group.

Ans:
Page: 162
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Membership Composition of a Team

150. The __________ is the tendency for increasing diversity among team members to make it harder for them to work together, even though the diversity itself offers improved potential for problem solving.

Ans:
Page: 163
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

Essay

151. What is a team? What are the three types of teams in organizations?

Page: 147
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe teams and how they are used in organizations.
Section Reference: Teams and Teamwork
Section Reference: What Teams Do

152. Describe the concept of social loafing. Why does social loafing occur? What can be done to avoid social loafing in the workplace?

Page: 153
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Identify the criteria of an effective team and the problems teams can encounter.
Section Reference: Social Loafing and Team Problems

153. Identify the five stages of team development and explain what happens at each stage.

Pages: 156-158
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the stages of team development, including forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Section Reference: Stages of Team Development

154. What is the FIRO-B theory? What are its implications for teams?
Page: 162
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Membership Composition of a Team

155. Discuss the diversity-consensus dilemma.

Page: 163
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how we can better understand teams at work.
Section Reference: Diversity and Team Performance

Schermerhorn OB 12e
Chapter Number: 08

Question Type: True/False

1. An essential criterion of a true team is that the members feel “collectively accountable” for what they accomplish.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

2. High-performance teams turn a general sense of purpose into specific performance objectives.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

3. Members of high-performance teams have the right mix of technical, problem-solving, decision-making, and interpersonal skills.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

4. High-performance teams have strong core values that help the team members guide their attitudes and behaviors in directions consistent with the team’s purpose.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

5. High-performance teams’ members focus on individual effort and excellence.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

6. Teamwork usually happens naturally in a group, without much effort on the part of members and leaders.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

7. Specific objectives provide a clear focus for solving problems and resolving conflicts.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

8. Team building is a sequence of planned activities designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and to initiate changes designed to improve teamwork and increase team effectiveness.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.

Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

9. Team building is an effective way to deal with teamwork difficulties when they occur or to help prevent them from occurring in the first place.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

10. The first step in the team-building process is data gathering and analysis.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

11. The second step in the team-building process occurs when members work together in planning for team improvements.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

12. The last step in the team-building process occurs when members work together to evaluate the results.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

13. The team building process is highly collaborative.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

14. Team building in the formal retreat approach takes place in the firm’s headquarters facility, typically over a weekend, when the building is quiet.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

15. The formal retreat approach to team building offers opportunities for intense and concentrated effort to examine group accomplishments and operations.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

16. The outdoor experience approach to team building places group members in a variety of physically challenging situations that must be mastered through teamwork, not through individual work.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

17. In a continuous improvement approach to team building, the team members commit themselves to monitoring group developments and accomplishments on an ongoing basis and making the day-to-day changes needed to ensure team effectiveness.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

18. In a continuous improvement approach to team building, the manager, team leader, or group members themselves take responsibility for regularly engaging in the team-building process.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

19. Special problems relating to team processes may arise as more and more jobs are turned over to teams and as more and more traditional supervisors are being asked to function as team leaders.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

20. Effective teams have no further need for leadership efforts, after team building, to improve team processes.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

21. Problems regarding participation, goals, control, relationships, and process are likely to occur in a new team or when new members join existing teams.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

22. According to Schein, the friendly helper is insecure, suffering uncertainties of intimacy and control.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

23. In coping with the challenge of entering a team, tough battlers are those individuals who are frustrated by a lack of identity in the new group and who may act aggressively or reject authority.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

24. In his studies of how people cope with the challenge of entering a team, Edgar Schein labeled individuals who act in a passive, reflective, and even single-minded manner while struggling with the fit between individual goals and group directions as disruptive entrants.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

25. Research in social psychology suggests that the achievement of sustained high performance by groups requires that members’ task needs and maintenance needs are met.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

26. Distributed leadership is the sharing of responsibility, by all members, for meeting individual needs.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

27. Maintenance activities directly contribute to the performance of important group tasks.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

28. A role is a set of expectations associated with a job or position on a team.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

29. Role ambiguity occurs when a person is uncertain about his or her role in a job or on a team.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

30. Role conflict occurs when someone is unable to meet the expectations of others.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

31. The norms of a group or team represent ideas or beliefs about how members are expected to behave.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

32. The performance norm conveys expectations about how hard group members should work and what the team should accomplish.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

33. A leader can establish positive norms within groups and teams by acting as a positive role model, reinforcing and rewarding desired behaviors, selecting members who can and will perform, and providing support and training for members.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

34. The statement “on our team, people always try to work hard” is an example of a positive high-achievement norm.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

35. The statement, “People on this committee are good listeners and actively seek out the ideas and opinions of others” reinforces the negative support and helpfulness norm.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

36. Cohesiveness of a group or team is the degree to which group or team members are attracted to and motivated to remain a part of the group or team.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

37. Generally, the more cohesive the group, the greater the conformity of members to group norms.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

38. In terms of team productivity, the best-case scenario of a work team’s performance norms and cohesiveness occurs with high performance norms and high team cohesiveness.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

39. From a manager’s perspective, the worst-case scenario of a work team’s performance norms and cohesiveness occurs with negative performance norms and high team cohesiveness.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

40. Team cohesiveness tends to be low when members are similar in age, attitudes, needs, and backgrounds.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

41. Group cohesiveness tends to decrease when groups are physically isolated from others and when they experience performance success or crisis.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

42. A key negative aspect of inter-team dynamics is that the members of each team may divert energies toward their mutual animosities rather than on the performance of important tasks.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

43. A positive aspect of intergroup competition occurs when the members of each group work harder, become more focused on key tasks, and develop more internal loyalty.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

44. Inter-team dynamics are relationships between groups cooperating and competing with one another.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

45. Decentralized communication networks create high levels of member satisfaction and work best when team tasks are complex and non-routine.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

46. The counteracting team pattern results in a decentralized communication network in which all team members communicate directly and share information with one another.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

47. In the co-acting team pattern, information flows to a central person and is redistributed to form a centralized communication network.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

48. Wheel communication networks and chain communication network are other names for a centralized communication network.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

49. Problems of destructive competition in inter-team dynamics are likely in restricted communication networks.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

50. Proxemics refers to the use of space as people interact.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

51. Virtual communication networks allow team members to be in electronic contact with one another and empower team members.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

52. In decision by lack of response, one idea after another is suggested without any discussion taking place. When the team finally accepts an idea, all others have been bypassed and discarded by simple lack of response rather than by critical evaluation.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

53. In decision by minority rule, the chairperson, a manager, or a leader makes a decision for the group. This can be done with or without discussion and is very time efficient.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

54. In decision by majority rule, all team members agree totally on the course of action to be taken.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

55. Teams will make decisions by consensus when discussion leads to one alternative being favored by most members and the others members agreeing to support it.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

56. To achieve group consensus, members should not argue blindly and should consider others’ reactions to one’s points.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

57. Teams will make decisions by unanimity when all team members agree totally on a course of action.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

58. The potential advantages of group decision making include more knowledge and expertise being applied to the problem, more alternatives being considered, greater understanding and acceptance of the final decision, and more commitment among group members to making the final decision work.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

59. The potential disadvantages of group decision making include social pressure to conform, minority domination, and time delays.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

60. When groupthink occurs in highly cohesive groups, poor decisions may result from the members’ unwillingness to criticize one another’s ideas and suggestions, overemphasis on agreement, desire to hold the group together, underemphasis on critical discussion, and desire to avoid unpleasant circumstances.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

61. Groupthink can be avoided by having the leader express his/her pSection Reference for a particular course of action.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

62. Groupthink can be avoided when team leaders hold “second-chance” meetings after consensus is apparently achieved.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

63. The guidelines for brainstorming include ruling out all criticism, welcoming “freewheeling,” emphasizing quantity of ideas, and encouraging “piggy-backing” on others’ ideas.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

64. The nominal group technique is a group decision-making approach that involves structured rules for generating and prioritizing ideas.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

Question Type: Multiple Choice

65. A high-performing team can be created by doing the all of the following EXCEPT:
a) communicating high-performance standards.
b) having members spend time together.
c) creating a sense of urgency.
d) setting a clear/challenging direction.
e) ensuring that new information is kept to a minimum.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

66. Each of the following is a characteristic of high-performance teams EXCEPT:
a) high-performance teams have strong core values.
b) high-performance teams turn a general sense of purpose into specific performance objectives.
c) high-performance teams have members who focus on individual effort and excellence.
d) members of high-performance teams have the right mix of skills.
e) members of high-performance teams feel “collectively accountable.”

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

67. Researchers point out that collective intelligence is _________ in teams whose processes result in social sensitivity and absence of domination by one or a few members.
a) higher
b) lower
c) a constant
d) nonexistent
e) none of the above

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

68. __________ is a sequence of planned activities designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a team and to initiate changes designed to improve teamwork and increase team effectiveness.
a) Team enhancing
b) Team building
c) Team structuring
d) Team championing
e) Team organizing

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

69. Which of the following accurately describes the sequence of steps in the team-building process?
a) Establishing a team mission statement; team goal setting; data gathering and analysis; implementing team goals; and evaluation of results
b) Planning for team effectiveness; data gathering and analysis; establishment of team goals and objectives; implementing team goals; and evaluation of results
c) Establishing a team mission statement; team cohesiveness training; data gathering and analysis; actions to improve team functioning; and implementing team goals
d) Planning for team effectiveness; team goal setting; implementing team goals, evaluation of results; and reassessment of team goals
e) Problems or opportunity in team effectiveness; data gathering and analysis; planning for team improvements; actions to improve team functioning; and evaluation of results

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

70. In the __________, team building takes place during off-site meetings.
a) formal retreat approach
b) informal withdrawal approach
c) privacy approach
d) informal isolation approach
e) formal seclusion approach

Answer:
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

71. Which of the following is the third step in the team building process?
a) Data gathering and analysis
b) Problem or opportunity in team effectiveness
c) Actions to improve team functioning
d) Planning for team improvements
e) Evaluation of results

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

72. The __________ to team building offers opportunities for intense and concentrated effort to examine group accomplishments and operations.
a) informal withdrawal approach
b) privacy approach
c) informal isolation approach
d) formal seclusion approach
e) formal retreat approach

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

73. In a(n) __________ to team building, the manager, team leader, or group members themselves take responsibility for regularly engaging in the team-building process.
a) formal retreat approach
b) employee participation approach
c) outdoor experience approach
d) continuous improvement approach
e) incremental enhancement approach

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

74. The __________ approach to team building places group members in a variety of physically challenging situations that must be mastered through teamwork, not individual work.
a) formal retreat
b) outdoor experience
c) continuous improvement
d) rustic experience
e) informal withdrawal

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

75. Which of the following statements about improving team processes is NOT accurate?
a) Team members must be prepared to handle more members.
b) As more and more jobs are turned over to teams, special problems relating to team processes may arise.
c) As more and more traditional supervisors are being asked to function as team leaders, special problems relating to team processes may arise.
d) Effective teams have no further need, after team-building, for leadership efforts to improve team processes.
e) Team members must be prepared to handle disagreements on rules and responsibilities

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

76. To improve team processes, both team leaders and members must be prepared to deal with all of the following EXCEPT:
a) introducing new members.
b) handling disagreements on goals and responsibilities.
c) handling reward distribution issues.
d) resolving delays and disputes when making decisions.
e) reducing friction and interpersonal conflicts.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

77. Which of the following is NOT one of the problems that face new group members?
a) Participation
b) Goals
c) Lack of originality
d) Control
e) Process

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

78. Edgar Schein identified three common behavior profiles that may hinder group operations when people try to cope with individual entry problems in self-serving ways. These three profiles are __________.
a) passive, aggressive, and regressive
b) focused, unfocused, and mid-focused
c) tough battler, friendly helper, and objective thinker
d) primal, emotional, and rational
e) thoughtful, aggressive, and modal

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

79. In coping with the challenge of entering a team, __________ are individuals who act in a passive, reflective, and even single-minded manner while struggling with the fit between individual goals and group directions.
a) friendly helpers
b) tough battlers
c) objective thinkers
d) amiable entrants
e) thoughtful newcomers

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

80. __________ is the sharing of responsibility for meeting group task and maintenance needs.
a) Participative partnering
b) Conjunctive leadership
c) Authentic leadership
d) Empowered leadership
e) Distributed leadership

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

80. __________ directly contribute to the performance of important group tasks.
a) Task activities
b) Assignment mandates
c) Directive activities
d) Responsibility activities
e) Maintenance activities

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

81. A team member contributes __________ leadership by encouraging the participation of others, trying to harmonize differences of opinion, praising the contributions of others, and agreeing to go along with a popular course of action.
a) task
b) functional
c) transactional
d) maintenance
e) directive

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

82. All of the following statements about maintenance activities are true EXCEPT:
a) maintenance activities support the social and interpersonal relationships among group members.
b) when maintenance leadership is poor, members become dissatisfied with one another.
c) in an effective group, maintenance activities support the relationships needed for team members to work well together over time.
d) when maintenance leadership is weak, the value of group membership may diminish.
e) maintenance activities include initiating discussion, sharing information, asking information of others, clarifying something that has been said and summarizing the status of a deliberation.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

83. Disruptive behaviors that can harm group process include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) being overly aggressive toward other members.
b) trying to recognize others and give them attention.
c) withdrawing and refusing to cooperate with others.
d) horsing around when there is work to be done.
e) talking too much about irrelevant matters.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

84. _________-role conflict occurs when a person’s values and needs come into conflict with role expectations.
a) Intrasender
b) Intersender
c) Person
d) Inter
e) Outer

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

85. All of the following statements regarding role ambiguity are true EXCEPT:
a) to do any job well in a group, people need to know what is expected of them.
b) in a new group or team situation, role ambiguities may create problems as members find that their work efforts are wasted or unappreciated by others.
c) even in mature groups and teams, the failure of members to share expectations and listen to one another may create a lack of understanding.
d) role ambiguity cannot be managed through awareness of role dynamics and their causes.
e) being asked to do too much or too little as a team member can create problems.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

86. __________ occurs when too much is expected and the individual feels overwhelmed with work.
a) Role conflict
b) Role indifference
c) Role encumberment
d) Role overload
e) Role frustration

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

87. All of the following are part of four common forms of role conflict EXCEPT:
a) intrasender role conflict.
b) extrasender role conflict.
c) intersender role conflict.
d) person-role conflict.
e) interrole conflict.

Answer:
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

88. __________ occurs when different people send conflicting and mutually exclusive expectations.
a) Person-role conflict
b) Intrasender role conflict
c) Parallel role conflict
d) Interrole role conflict
e) Intersender role conflict

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

89. __________ occurs when the expectations of two or more roles held by the same individual become incompatible, such as the conflict between work and family demands.
a) Interrole conflict
b) Person-role conflict
c) Correspondent role conflict
d) Divergent role conflict
e) Intersender role conflict

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

90. Which of the following statements about norms is NOT correct?
a) Norms help clarify the expectations associated with a person’s membership in a group.
b) Although important, norms are not considered to be rules or standards of conduct.
c) Norms allow members to structure their own behavior.
d) When someone violates a group norm, other members typically respond in ways that are aimed at enforcing the norm.
e) Norms allow members to predict what others will do.

Answer:
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

91. Role __________ is a process for discussing and agreeing upon what team members expect of one another.
a) negotiation
b) agreement
c) overload
d) expectation
e) cooperation

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

92. Positive norms within groups and teams can be established by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
a) acting as a positive role model.
b) reinforcing and rewarding desired behaviors.
c) encouraging principled dissenters to join the group.
d) selecting members who can and will perform.
e) providing support and training for members.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

93. All of the following statements about group norms are correct EXCEPT:
a) in order for a task force to operate effectively, group norms regarding attendance at meetings, punctuality, and preparedness are needed.
b) groups also commonly have norms regarding how to deal with supervisors, colleagues, and customers.
c) norms for establishing guidelines for honesty and ethical behaviors are important for groups to discuss.
d) norms should be identified by the management team only.
e) norms are expressed in everyday conversations

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

94. Which of the following statements does the best job of reinforcing positive “ethics” norms?
a) “In our department, people are always looking for better ways of doing things.”
b) “People on this committee are good listeners and actively seek out the ideas and opinions of others.”
c) “We try to make fair and just decisions, and we expect others to do the same.”
d) “On our team, people always try to work hard.”
e) “It is a tradition around here for people to stand up for the company when others criticize it unfairly.”

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

95. Which of the following statements does the best job of reinforcing positive “organizational and personal pride” norms?
a) “In our department, people are always looking for better ways of doing things.”
b) “People on this committee are good listeners and actively seek out the ideas and opinions of others.”
c) “Our company strives for both efficiency and effectiveness.”
d) “On our team, people always try to work hard.”
e) “It is a tradition around here for people to stand up for the company when others criticize it unfairly.”

Answer:
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

96. __________ refers to the tendency to reduce effort when working in groups.
a) Social mooching
b) Social management
c) Social loafing
d) Social contract
e) Social engagement

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems related to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

97. In contrast to less cohesive groups, members of highly cohesive group members display all of the following EXCEPT:
a) being more energetic when working on group activities.
b) tending to leave work early when possible.
c) remaining less likely to be absent.
d) enduring more likely to be happy about performance success.
e) continuing more likely to be sad about performance failures.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems related to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

98. In terms of team productivity, the best-case scenario of a work team’s performance norms and cohesiveness occurs with __________ performance norms and __________ team cohesiveness.
a) high; high
b) positive; high
c) negative; high
d) negative; low
e) positive; low

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems related to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

99. From a manager’s perspective, the worst-case scenario of a work team’s performance norms and cohesiveness occurs with __________ performance norms and __________ team cohesiveness.
a) high; high
b) high; low
c) negative; high
d) negative; low
e) positive; low

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems related to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

100. All of the following techniques increase group or team cohesiveness EXCEPT:
a) getting agreement.
b) increasing team diversity.
c) making the team smaller.
d) isolating the team from other teams.
e) rewarding team results.

Answer:
Page: 186

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems related to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

101. The positive aspects of inter-team competition include all of the following outcomes EXCEPT:
a) the members of each team may work harder.
b) the members of each team may become more focused on key tasks.
c) the members of each team may develop more internal loyalty and satisfaction.
d) the members of each team may achieve a higher level of creativity in problem solving.
e) the members of each team may use their energies toward their mutual animosities.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems related to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

102. Organizations and their managers can discourage the negative aspects and encourage the positive aspects of inter-team dynamics by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
a) refocusing the teams on a common enemy or a common goal.
b) training members to work more cooperatively.
c) promoting direct negotiations between teams.
d) using win-lose reward systems.
e) focusing reward distribution on contributions to the total organization.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems related to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

103. The interacting team pattern results in a __________ in which all team members communicate directly and share information with one another.
a) decentralized communication network
b) centralized communication network
c) restricted communication network
d) synergistic communication network
e) vertical communication network

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

104. Wheel communication network and chain communication network are other names for __________.
a) restricted communication networks
b) parallel communication networks
c) centralized communication networks
d) synergistic communication networks
e) hierarchical communication networks

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

105. Tasks that are routine and easily subdivided lend themselves to:
a) hierarchical communication networks.
b) parallel communication networks.
c) decentralized communication networks.
d) restricted communication networks.
e) centralized communication networks.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

106. __________ form when subgroups emerge within a team due to issue-specific disagreements.
a) Co-acting teams
b) Counteracting teams
c) Interacting teams
d) Disparate teams
e) Countervailing teams

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

107. The counteracting team pattern involves a __________ in which polarized subgroups disagree with one another’s positions and maintain sometimes antagonistic relations.
a) countervailing communication network
b) counteracting communication network
c) centralized communication network
d) decentralized communication network
e) restricted communication network

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

108. When workspace architecture is studied as an influence on communication behavior, this is part of:
a) cohesiveness.
b) proxemics.
c) virtual communication networks.
d) team building.
e) relationships.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

109. GE’s launch of the “Tweet Squad” is an example of a:
a) study in proxemics.
b) vertical communication network
c) virtual communication network.
d) centralized network.
e) all of the above.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

110. Decision by __________ occurs when one idea after another is suggested without discussing them and the team finally accepts an idea without any critical evaluation.
a) majority rule
b) lack of response
c) authority rule
d) consensus
e) minority rule

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

111. Decision by __________ is often done by providing a suggestion and then forcing quick agreement by challenging the group with such statements as “Does anyone object?…No? Well, let’s go ahead then.
a) majority rule
b) lack of response
c) authority rule
d) consensus
e) minority rule

Answer:
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

112. All of the following statements about majority rule are true EXCEPT:
a) formal voting may take place or members may be polled to find the majority viewpoint.
b) all group members will feel successful as a result of the majority rule.
c) some people will feel like “winners” and others will feel like “losers” when the final vote is tallied.
d) the very process of voting can create coalitions.
e) this method parallels the democratic political system and is often used without awareness of its potential problems.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

113. To achieve group consensus, members should adhere to all of the following guidelines EXCEPT:
a) don’t argue blindly; consider others’ reactions to your points.
b) don’t change your mind just to reach quick agreement.
c) don’t use voting, coin tossing, and bargaining to avoid conflict.
d) don’t try to involve everyone in the decision process.
e) don’t focus on winning versus losing; seek alternatives acceptable to all.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

114. __________is a “logically perfect” group decision making method because all team members agree totally on a course of action.
a) Consensus
b) Unanimity
c) Majority rule
d) Minority rule
e) Lack of response

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

115. In regards to decision-making, the best teams:
a) let the smartest person in the group make most of the decisions.
b) stay together as a group all of the time because they work well together.
c) take decisions spontaneously, without much discussion.
d) do not limit themselves to just one decision-making method, using it over and over again regardless of circumstances.
e) do not encourage exchange of ideas.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

116. When groupthink occurs in highly cohesive groups, poor decisions may result from the members’ tendencies to do all of the following EXCEPT:
a) being unwilling to criticize one another’s ideas and suggestions.
b) underemphasizing agreement.
c) desiring to hold the group together.
d) underemphasizing critical discussion.
e) seeking to avoid unpleasant circumstances.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

117. Groupthink can be avoided by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
a) assigning the role of critical evaluator to each group member.
b) creating subgroups that each work on the same problem.
c) inviting outside experts to observe and react to group processes.
d) having the leader express his/her preference for a particular course of action.
e) writing alternative scenarios for the intentions of competing groups.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

118. Historical examples of groupthink according to Janis include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) space shuttle disasters.
b) decision-making during the Vietnam War.
c) American intelligence regarding weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.
d) the lack of preparedness by U.S. forces at Pearl Harbor before entry into WWII.
e) Cuban Missile Crisis.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

119. Of the following, which is a symptom of teams displaying groupthink?
a) Illusions of invulnerability
b) Rationalizing unpleasant and disconfirming data
c) Belief in inherent group morality
d) All of the above

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

120. The guidelines for brainstorming include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) all criticism is ruled out.
b) “freewheeling” is welcomed.
c) quantity is important.
d) quality is important
e) “piggy-backing” on others’ ideas is encouraged.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

121. The team decision technique of __________ asks everyone to respond individually and in writing to a basic question such as: “What should be done to improve the effectiveness of this work team?”
a) statutory technique
b) nominal group technique
c) brainstorming technique
d) freewheeling technique
e) Delphi technique

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

122. A group decision-making approach developed by the Rand Corporation for use in situations where group members are unable to meet face to face is
a) electronic brainstorming.
b) the nominal group technique.
c) the Delphi technique.
d) the freewheeling technique.
e) computer-mediated analysis.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

Question Type: Fill in the blank

123. __________ teams are able to turn a general sense of purpose into specific performance objectives and the members feel collectively accountable for moving together in a compelling direction toward a goal.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

124. __________ is the ability of a team to perform well across a range of tasks.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

125. When difficulties occur within a group or team, __________ can help in addressing problems and resolving issues.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

126. In his studies on how people cope with the challenge of entering a team, Edgar Schein labeled individuals who show extraordinary support for others, behave in a dependent way, and seek alliances in subgroups or cliques as __________.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes..
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

127. Research in social psychology suggests that the achievement of sustained high performance by groups requires that both __________ needs and __________ needs be met.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

128. __________ include initiating discussion, sharing information, asking information of others, clarifying something that has been said, and summarizing the status of a deliberation.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

129. Activities that support the team’s social and interpersonal relationships are called __________.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

130. Behaviors that harm the team process like talking too much about irrelevant matters are called __________.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

131. __________ occurs when a person is uncertain about his or her role in a job or on a team..

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

132. __________ occurs when too little work is expected and the individual feels underutilized.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

133. __________ occurs when the same person sends conflicting expectations.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

134. The __________ of a group or team represent the ideas or beliefs about how members are expected to behave.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

135. The __________ conveys expectations about how hard group members should work.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

136. __________ is a process for discussing and agreeing upon what team members expect of one another.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

137. The rule of __________ states that the greater the team cohesiveness, the greater the conformity of members to team norms.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

138. __________ is the degree to which group or team members are attracted to and motivated to remain a part of the group or team.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

139. All-channel or star communication networks are other names for __________.

Answer:

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

140. __________ are work arrangements where members work on tasks independently, while linked through some form of central coordination.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

141. The attention to office design in building spaces conducive to communication needed by teams today is part of __________.

Answer:
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain communication networks, including their use in a team setting, ways they can be improved, and how proxemics and use of space impact communication.
Section Reference: Improving Team Communication

142. __________ is the process of choosing among alternative courses of action.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

143. In decision by __________, when the group finally accepts an idea, all others in the group have been bypassed and discarded by simple __________ rather than by critical evaluation.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

144. Decision by __________ is being used when a chairperson, leader, or manager makes a decision for the team.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

145. Decision by __________ is being used when two or three people can dominate the majority or “railroad” the majority into agreeing to a solution.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

146. Teams will make decisions by __________ when discussion leads to one alternative being favored by most members and the others members agree to support it.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

147. __________ is the tendency of members in highly cohesive groups to lose their critical evaluative capabilities.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

148. In __________, group members actively generate as many ideas and alternatives as possible, and they do so relatively quickly and without inhibitions.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

149. When President Kennedy chose to absent himself from strategy discussions by his Cabinet during the Cuban Missile Crisis, he avoided the tendency for his Cabinet members to figure out what he wanted and give it to him, thereby avoiding __________.

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

150. The __________ is a group decision-making approach that involves structured rules for generating and prioritizing ideas.”

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

151. __________ involves generating decision-making alternatives in groups through a series of survey questionnaires.

Answer:

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

Question Type: Essay

152. Describe the characteristics that enable a high-performance team to excel at teamwork.

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

153. Discuss the following approaches to team building: the formal retreat approach, the continuous improvement approach, and the outdoor experience approach.

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the characteristics of high performance teams, the team building process, and its alternatives.
Section Reference: High-Performance Teams

154. Describe the differences between role ambiguity, role overload, role underload, and role conflict.

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

155. What are norms? What is cohesiveness? How are norms and cohesiveness related?

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss problems relating to team processes.
Section Reference: Improving Team Processes

156. What is groupthink? Why can groupthink be detrimental to effective group functioning?

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the ways teams make decisions, the assets and liabilities of team decisions, groupthink symptoms and remedies, and team decision techniques.
Section Reference: Improving Team Decisions

File: ch9, Chapter 9: Decision-Making and Creativity

True/False

1. Decision-Making is the process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem or opportunity.

Ans:
Page: 196
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

2. Rational Decision-Making is a five-step process that starts with recognition and definition of the problem or opportunity, and ends with evaluation of results and any needed follow-up.

Ans:
Page: 196
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

3. Decision-Making choices usually have a moral dimension that might be overlooked.

Ans:
Page: 197
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

4. Teams may suffer from lack of participation error in the stage of decision-making where alternative courses of action are identified and analyzed.

Ans:
Page: 197
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

5. A moral dilemma is defined as a situation in which a decision-maker faces two or more ethically uncomfortable alternatives.

Ans:
Page: 198
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

6. Consideration of the moral problem might change decisions, but seldom would change how the decision is implemented.

Ans:
Page: 198
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

7. The justice criteria asks if the decision satisfies all constituents or stakeholders.

Ans:
Page: 199
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

8. The utility question asks if the decision respects the rights and duties of everyone.

Ans:
Page: 199
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

9. Programmed decisions are made as standardized responses to recurring
situations and routine problems.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

10. Programmed decisions implement solutions that have already been determined by past experience as appropriate for the problem at hand.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

11. Examples of programmed decisions include reordering inventory automatically when stock falls below a predetermined level and issuing a written reprimand to someone who violates a specific work rule.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

12. Nonprogrammed decisions address routine problems that arise on a regular basis and for which standard solutions have been derived.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

13. Nonprogrammed decisions are created to deal uniquely with a problem at hand.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

14. An example of a nonprogrammed decision is when a senior marketing manager who has to respond to the introduction of a new product by a foreign competitor.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

15. The most extreme type of programmed decision is the crisis decision.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

16. Acts of terrorism and workplace violence are examples of crisis decisions.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

17. When a crisis occurs, managers should disregard skeptics as these people foster disagreement and lack of commitment.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

18. Unfortunately, formal crisis management programs are decreasing in popularity in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

19. Decisions in organizations are typically made under three different conditions or environments: certainty, jeopardy, and skepticism.

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

20. Certain environments exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation.

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

21. Certainty is a less than ideal condition for managerial problem solving and Decision-Making.

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

22. Certainty is the norm in decision situations.

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

23. Risk environments exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action, but they are aware of the probabilities associated with their occurrence.

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

24. When dealing with risk environments, probabilities are assigned through objective statistical procedures rather than intuition.

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

25. Uncertain environments exist when managers have so little information that they cannot even assign probabilities to various alternatives and their possible outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 202
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

26. Of the three decision-making environments (certainty, risk, and uncertainty), risk environments are the most difficult for decision makers.

Ans:
Page: 202
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

27. Responses to uncertain environments seldom involve intuition, educated guesses, or hunches.

Ans:
Page: 202
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

28. Risk management focuses on anticipating risk in situations and factoring risk alternatives into the decision-making process.

Ans:
Page: 202
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Risk Management in Decision Making

29. Threats to a brand or the firm’s reputation are referred to as reputation risks.

Ans:
Page: 202
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Risk Management in Decision Making

30. In the classical decision model, the problem is not clearly defined, knowledge of possible action alternatives and their consequences is limited, and the manager chooses a satisfactory solution to the problem.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Classical Decision Model

31. In the behavioral decision model, the manager faces a clearly defined problem, knows all possible action alternatives and their consequences, and then chooses the alternative that offers the optimum solution to the problem.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

32. Classical decision theory models view the manager as acting in a world of complete certainty.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Classical Decision Model

33. Behavioral decision theory models view the manager as acting in a world of complete certainty.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

34. The behavioral decision model allows for an optimizing decision that gives the absolute best solution to the problem.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

35. Classical decision theory appears to fit very well in today’s chaotic world of globalizing high-tech organizations.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Classical Decision Model

36. Behavioral decision theory models accept the notion of bounded rationality and suggest that people act only in terms of what they perceive about a given situation.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

37. Behavioral scientists are cautious about applying classical decision theory to many decision situations because they recognize that human beings have cognitive limitations that restrict their information-processing capabilities.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

38. Bounded rationality refers to the idea that, while individuals reason well and are logical, they have their limits with respect to interpreting and making sense of things within the context of their personal situations.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

39. The behavioral decision maker is viewed as acting most often under uncertain conditions and with limited information.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

40. Bounded rationality is choosing the first alternative that appears to give an acceptable or satisfactory resolution of the problem.

Ans:
Page: 203-204
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

41. A key element in Decision-Making under risk and uncertainty is intuition.

Ans:
Page: 204
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Systematic and Intuitive Thinking

42. Intuition adds elements of flexibility and spontaneity to Decision-Making, thereby offering potential for creativity and innovation.

Ans:
Page: 204
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Systematic and Intuitive Thinking

43. Jeff Bezos of Amazon.com believes there is a place for both systematic and intuitive decision-making in management.

Ans:
Page: 204
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Systematic and Intuitive Thinking

44. Teams engaged in systematic thinking would be expected to make a plan before taking action.

Ans:
Page: 204
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Systematic and Intuitive Thinking

45. Judgment, or the use of one’s intellect, is important in all aspects of Decision-Making.

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

46. Heuristics are simplifying strategies or “rules of thumb” used to make decisions.

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

47. The availability heuristic involves assessing a current event based on past occurrences that are easily available in one’s memory.

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

48. The representativeness heuristic bases a decision on similarities between the situation at hand and stereotypes of similar occurrences.

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

49. An example of the application of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic is the team leader who selects a new member not because of any special qualities of the person, but only because the individual comes from a department known to have produced high performers in the past.

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

50. In managing the decision-making process, one of the first issues to address is whether to actually address the decision situation.

Ans:
Page: 206
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing When to Decide

51. Research shows that to prevent future errors, small problems should get the same time and attention as bigger ones.

Ans:
Page: 206
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing When to Decide

52. A mistake commonly made by many new managers and team leaders is presuming that they must solve every problem by making every decision themselves.

Ans:
Page: 207
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

53. Creativity is more likely to occur when a person has a lot of task expertise.

Ans:
Page: 212
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss what can be done to stimulate creativity in decision making.
Section Reference: Personal Creativity Drivers

54. Switching members among teams to gain insights from diverse backgrounds and experiences is known as associative play.

Ans:
Page: 213
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss what can be done to stimulate creativity in decision making.
Section Reference: Team Creativity Drivers

Multiple Choice

55. The process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem or opportunity is __________.
a) selection making
b) decision shaping
c) decision-making
d) judgment resolution
e) judgment generation

Ans:
Page: 196
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

56. Which of the following is NOT one of the five basic steps involved in the rational decision model?
a) recognize and define the problem or opportunity.
b) identify and analyze alternative courses of action, and estimate their effects on the problem or opportunity.
c) choose a preferred course of action.
d) inform relevant stakeholders of the decision and its consequences.
e) implement the preferred course of action.

Ans:
Page: 196
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

57. The first step in the rational decision model is _______________.
a) choosing a preferred course of action
b) recognizing and defining the problem or opportunity
c) identifying the alternative courses of action
d) evaluating the results
e) implementing the preferred course of action

Ans:
Page: 196-197
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

58. The lack-of-participation error occurs in which phase of the rational decision model?
a) evaluating results
b) identifying alternatives
c) implementing preferred course of action
d) choosing a preferred course of action
e) recognizing the problem

Ans:
Page: 197
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

59. When a decision maker faces two or more ethically uncomfortable alternatives, it is referred to as a __________________.
a) criteria question
b) moral dilemma
c) justice decision
d) moral problem
e) rational decision

Ans:
Page: 198
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

60. Which of the following is NOT one of Cavanagh’s criteria questions for assessing ethics in decision-making?
a) Does the decision satisfy all constituents or stakeholders?
b) Does the decision respect the rights of everyone?
c) Is the decision consistent with the canons of justice?
d) Does the decision make sense?
e) Is the decision consistent with my responsibility to care?

Ans:
Page: 199
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

61. Which of the following is Cavanagh’s utility question for assessing ethics in Decision-Making?
a) Does the decision satisfy all constituents or stakeholders?
b) Does the decision respect the rights and duties of everyone?
c) Is the decision consistent with the canons of justice?
d) Is the decision consistent with my responsibilities to care?
e) None of the above.

Ans:
Page: 199
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

62. A decision is exposed to public scrutiny and forces decision-makers to consider it in the context of full transparency with the use of __________.
a) rational decision-making
b) spotlight questions
c) satisficing
d) moral dilemmas
e) criteria questions

Ans:
Page: 199
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

63. Which of the following is considered to be a spotlight question as mentioned in the text?
a) What might my friend do if he was in a similar situation as me?
b) How would I feel if my family found out about this decision?
c) If I make this decision, will I be able to sleep at night?
d) Would most other people in society make the same decision as I would?
e) None of the above.

Ans:
Page: 199
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

64. __________ are routine problems that arise on a regular basis and which can be addressed through standard responses.
a) Arbitrary decisions
b) Nonprogrammed decisions
c) Fixed decisions
d) Programmed decisions
e) Standardized decisions

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

65. Examples of __________ decisions include reordering inventory automatically when stock falls below a predetermined level and issuing a written reprimand to someone who violates a specific work procedure.
a) uniform
b) standardized
c) programmed
d) fixed
e) nonprogrammed

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

66. __________ decisions are specifically crafted or tailored to the situation at hand.
a) Ad hoc
b) Discretionary
c) Nonprogrammed
d) Arbitrary
e) Elective

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

67. Acts of terrorism and IT failures are examples of which type of decision?
a) rational decisions
b) ethical decisions
c) non-programmed decisions
d) programmed decisions
e) crisis decisions

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

68. Problem-solving decisions in organizations are typically made under three different conditions or environments. These are __________.
a) confidence, chance, and doubt
b) certainty, risk, and uncertainty
c) conviction, hazard, and concern
d) certainty, jeopardy, and skepticism
e) confidence, hazard, and doubt

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

69. __________ is an ideal condition for managerial problem solving and Decision-Making.
a) Certainty
b) Risk
c) Uncertainty
d) Turbulence
e) Chaos

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

70. __________ environments exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action, but they are aware of the probabilities associated with their occurrence.
a) Jeopardy
b) Hazard
c) Risk
d) Assured
e) Uncertain

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

71. When dealing with risk environments, managers may assign __________ through objective statistical procedures or through personal intuition.
a) potentialities
b) expectations
c) prospects
d) probabilities
e) feasibilities

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

72. __________ environments exist when managers have so little information that they cannot even assign probabilities to various alternatives and their possible outcomes.
a) Uncertain
b) Risk
c) Unpredictable
d) Jeopardy
e) Hazard

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

73. The most difficult environment for decision makers to cope with is the __________ environment.
a) risk
b) certain
c) expectant
d) uncertain
e) statutory

Ans:
Page: 202
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

74. All of the following statements about uncertain environments are correct EXCEPT:
a) uncertain environments provide little, if any, information to predict expected results for decision-making alternatives.
b) behavioral responses to uncertain environments seldom involve intuition, educated guesses, or hunches.
c) uncertain environments require unique, novel, and often totally innovative alternatives to existing patterns of behavior.
d) an uncertain decision environment may be characterized as a rapidly changing organizational setting in terms of external conditions.
e) an uncertain decision environment may be characterized as a rapidly changing organizational setting in terms of the personnel who influence problem and choice definitions.

Ans:
Page: 202
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

75. KPMG’s practice that focuses on helping executives identify threats to their firm and manage them is known as __________.
a) operational risk
b) enterprise risk management
c) strategic management
d) uncertainty avoidance management
e) reputation risk management

Ans:
Page: 202
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Risk Management in Decision Making

76. Threats to overall business success are called __________ risks.
a) strategic
b) operational
c) financial
d) reputation
e) functional

Ans:
Page: 202
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Risk Management in Decision Making

77. The __________ model views decision makers as acting in a world of complete certainty.
a) behavioral decision
b) true decision
c) cognitive decision
d) classical decision
e) aesthetic decision

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Classical Decision Model

78. __________ accepts the notion of bounded rationality and assumes that decision makers act only in terms of what they perceive about a given situation.
a) Behavioral decision theory
b) Perceptive decision theory
c) Cognitive decision theory
d) Classical decision theory
e) Visual decision theory

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

79. Behavioral scientists are cautious about applying classical decision theory to many decision situations because they recognize that human beings have __________ that restrict their information-processing capabilities.
a) sociological limitations
b) cognitive limitations
c) subjective limitations
d) emotional limitations
e) psychological limitations

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

80. The __________ model accepts the notion of bounded rationality and suggests that people act only in terms of what they perceive about a given situation.
a) behavioral decision theory
b) rational decision theory
c) rigid decision theory
d) scientific decision theory
e) potential investment decision theory

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

81. __________ is consistent with the rational model where a decision is approached in a step-by-step and analytical fashion.
a) Scientific thinking
b) Strategic thinking
c) Systematic thinking
d) Irrational thinking
e) Satisficing

Ans:
Page: 204
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Systematic and Intuitive Thinking

82. A key element in Decision-Making under risk and uncertainty is __________.
a) discernment
b) unrestrained rationality
c) recognition
d) intuition
e) assimilation

Ans:
Page: 204
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Systematic and Intuitive Thinking

83. Which of the following statements pertaining to intuition is incorrect?
a) A key element in Decision-Making under certainty is intuition.
b) Intuition is the ability to know or recognize quickly and readily the possibilities of a given situation.
c) Intuition adds elements of flexibility to Decision-Making.
d) Intuition adds elements of spontaneity to Decision-Making.
e) Intuition offers potential for creativity and innovation.

Ans:
Page: 204
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Systematic and Intuitive Thinking

84. __________, or the use of one’s intellect, is important in all aspects of Decision-Making.
a) Intuition
b) Attitudinal formation
c) Judgment
d) Perceiving
e) Sensing

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

85. __________ are simplifying strategies or “rules of thumb” used to make decisions.
a) Hindsights
b) Disciplines
c) Regulations
d) Codes
e) Heuristics

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

86. __________ can lead to systematic errors that affect the quality, and perhaps ethical implications, of any decision that is made.
a) Disciplines
b) Regulations
c) Heuristics
d) Rules
e) Codes

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

87. An example of the __________ is a product development specialist who bases a decision to not launch a new product on her recent failure with another product offering.
a) representativeness heuristic
b) accessibility heuristic
c) hindsight heuristic
d) utility heuristic
e) availability heuristic

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

88. An example of the application of the __________ is the team leader who selects a new member not because of any special qualities of the person, but only because the individual comes from a department known to have produced high performers in the past.
a) productiveness heuristic
b) accessibility heuristic
c) anchoring and adjustment heuristic
d) representativeness heuristic
e) suitability heuristic

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

89. An example of the application of the __________ is the executive who makes salary increase recommendations for key personnel by simply adjusting their current base salaries by a percentage amount.
a) representativeness heuristic
b) anchoring and adjustment heuristic
c) equivalence heuristic
d) incremental change heuristic
e) availability heuristic

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

90. A form of selective perception, the __________ involves seeking only those cues in a situation that support a preexisting opinion.
a) documentation trap
b) confirmation error
c) validation pitfall
d) authentication trap
e) affirmation pitfall

Ans:
Page: 206
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Decision Biases

91. Individual decisions are also called __________ decisions.
a) authority
b) consultative
c) solitary
d) valid
e) hindsight

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

92. The central premise of the decision-making model developed by Vroom, Yetton, and Jago is that __________.
a) decisions should be made in the most cost-efficient manner possible
b) group Decision-Making is superior to authority or consultative Decision-Making
c) authority decisions are superior to consultative decisions
d) consultative decisions are superior to authority decisions
e) the decision-making method used should always be appropriate to the problem being solved

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

93. The key problem attributes of the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision-making model include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) the required quality of the decision.
b) the commitment needed from subordinates.
c) the leader’s commitment to participation.
d) commitment probability.
e) goal congruence.

Ans:
Page: 209
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

94. In the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision-making model, __________ are made when the manager or team leader uses information that he or she possesses and decides what to do without involving others.
a) groupthink decisions
b) authority decisions
c) consultative decisions
d) group decisions
e) minority decisions

Ans:
Page: 209
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

95. A decision maker tells subordinates that lunch schedule is needed and asks them when they would like to schedule their lunch and why before making a decision. This is an example of a ________________ decision.
a) groupthink
b) authority
c) consultative
d) strategic
e) minority

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

96. A decision maker holds a meeting to get everyone’s agreement on a system for deciding how to make a lunch schedule. This is an example of a(n) _________ decision method.
a) groupthink
b) authority
c) consultative
d) team
e) minority

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

97. In the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision-making model, __________ involves the manager solving the problem or making the decision alone, using information available at the time.
a) variant 1 of authority decisions
b) variant 2 of authority decisions
c) variant 1 of consultative decisions
d) variant 2 of consultative decisions
e) variant 3 of authority decisions

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

98. In the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision-making model, __________ involves the manager obtaining the necessary information from subordinate(s) or other group members and then deciding on the problem solution
a) variant 1 of authority decisions
b) variant 2 of authority decisions
c) variant 1 of consultative decisions
d) variant 2 of consultative decisions
e) variant 3 of authority decisions

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

99. In the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision-making model, __________ involves the manager sharing the problem with relevant subordinates or other group members individually, getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group, and. then making a decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ input.
a) variant 1 of authority decisions
b) variant 2 of authority decisions
c) variant 1 of consultative decisions
d) variant 2 of consultative decisions
e) variant 3 of authority decisions

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

100. In the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision-making model, __________ involves the manager sharing the problem with subordinates or other group members, collectively obtaining their ideas and suggestions, and then making a decision that may or may not reflect the subordinates’ input.
a) variant 1 of authority decisions
b) variant 2 of authority decisions
c) variant 1 of consultative decisions
d) variant 2 of consultative decisions
e) variant 3 of authority decisions

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

101. What Decision-Making concept is reflected in the popular adage, “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again?”
a) Intuition
b) Escalating commitment
c) Bounded rationality
d) Non-programmed Decision-Making
e) Satisficing

Ans:
Page: 210
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing When to Quit

102. __________ is a form of decision entrapment that leads people to do things that the facts of a situation do not justify.
a) Intuition
b) Nonprogrammed Decision-Making
c) Satisficing
d) Bounded rationality
e) Escalating commitment

Ans:
Page: 211
Level: Moderate
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing When to Quit

103. All of the following statements relating to escalating commitment are correct EXCEPT:
a) the tendency to escalate commitments often outweighs the willingness to disengage from them.
b) decision makers may rationalize negative feedback resulting from an escalated commitment as a temporary condition.
c) an escalated commitment may result in a decision maker protecting his or her ego by not admitting that the original decision was a mistake.
d) once it is determined that a chosen course of action is “not working,” decision makers will re-group and select a different course of action.
e) decision makers may characterize any negative results from an escalated commitment as a “learning experience” can be overcome with added future effort.

Ans:
Page: 211
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing When to Quit

104. All of the following are ways to avoid getting trapped in escalating commitments EXCEPT:
a) setting limits in advance on your involvement and commitment to a particular course of action.
b) making your own decisions.
c) carefully determining just why you are continuing a course of action.
d) reminding yourself of the costs of a course of action.
e) All of the above are ways to avoid getting trapped in escalating commitments.

Ans:
Page: 211
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing When to Quit

105. All of the following approaches can be used to increase creativity EXCEPT:
a) establishing high expectations for creativity.
b) using associative play.
c) switching members among teams.
d) using analogies.
e) using metaphors to describe a problem.

Ans:
Page: 213
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss what can be done to stimulate creativity in decision making.
Section Reference: Team Creativity Drivers

Fill in the blank

106. __________ is the process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem or opportunity.

Ans:
Page: 196
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

107. The 5-step process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem is referred to as ________.

Ans:
Page: 196
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

108. A(n) ________ exists when the decision-maker faces two or more ethically uncomfortable alternatives.

Ans:
Page: 198
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

109. __________ is the philosophical study of morality.

Ans:
Page: 198
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making

110. __________ decisions simply implement solutions that have already been determined by past experience as appropriate for the problem at hand.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

111. A(n) __________ occurs when an unexpected problem can lead to disaster if not resolved quickly and appropriately.

Ans:
Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

112. __________ environments exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation.

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

113. A(n) __________ is the degree of likelihood of an event’s occurrence.

Ans:
Page: 201
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Decision Environments

114. __________ is a short-hand term suggesting that, while humans are capable of exercising reason and logic, they have their limits.

Ans:
Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

115. __________ is choosing the first alternative that appears to give an acceptable or satisfactory resolution of the problem.

Ans:
Page: 204
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

116. __________ is the ability to know or recognize quickly and readily the possibilities of a given situation.

Ans:
Page: 204
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Systematic and Intuitive Thinking

117. Many managers use simplifying strategies or “rules of thumb” as a means of making it easier to deal with uncertainty and limited information in problem situations. These simplifying strategies are called __________.

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

118. The __________ involves assessing a current event based on past occurrences that are easily available in one’s memory.

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

119. The __________ bases a decision on similarities between the situation at hand and one’s stereotypes of similar occurrences.

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

120. The __________ involves assessing an event by taking an initial value from historical precedent or an outside source, and then incrementally adjusting this value to make a current assessment.

Ans:
Page: 205
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Judgmental Heuristics

121. The __________ is the tendency to seek confirmation for what is already thought to be true and to neglect opportunities to acknowledge or find disconfirming information.

Ans:
Page: 206
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Decision Biases

122. The __________ is a tendency for the decision maker to overestimate the degree to which he or she could have predicted an event that has already taken place.

Ans:
Page: 206
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Decision Biases

123. __________ developed a framework for helping managers choose the Decision-Making methods most appropriate for various problem situations to insure both better choices and implementation.

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

124. In the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision-making model, __________ decisions are made when the manager or team leader solicits input from other people and then, based on this information and its interpretation, makes a final choice.

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

125. In the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision-making model, __________ decisions are made by both consulting with others and allowing them to help make the final choice.

Ans:
Page: 208
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing Who to Involve

126. The generation of a novel idea or unique approach to solving performance problems or exploiting performance opportunities is known as __________.

Ans:
Page: 211
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss what can be done to stimulate creativity in decision making.
Section Reference: Stages of Creative Thinking

127. Switching members among teams to gain insights from diverse experiences when working on problems is referred to as ___________.

Ans:
Page: 213
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss what can be done to stimulate creativity in decision making.
Section Reference: Team Creativity Drivers

Essay

128. Define Decision-Making. What are the five basic steps involved in the rational decision model?

Page: 196-197
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Steps in Decision Making

129. Describe the difference between programmed and Nonprogrammed decisions. Provide an example of each type of decision.

Page: 200
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe what is involved in the decision-making process.
Section Reference: Types of Decisions

130. Explain the basic differences between the classical decision model and the behavioral decision model.

Page: 203
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the alternative decision-making models including the classical, behavioral, and intuitive decision models.
Section Reference: Classical Decision Model
Section Reference: Behavioral Decision Model

131. Describe the concept of escalating commitment. Explain why escalating commitment can occur.
Page: 210-211
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Identify the key decision-making traps and issues.
Section Reference: Knowing When to Quit

132. Define creativity and identify the individual and the team creativity drivers.

Page: 211-212
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss what can be done to stimulate creativity in decision making.
Section Reference: Personal Creativity Drivers
Section Reference: Team Creativity Drivers

File: ch10, Chapter 10: Conflict and Negotiation

True/False

1. Conflict occurs whenever disagreements exist in a social situation over issues of substance, or whenever emotional antagonisms create frictions between individuals or groups.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Conflict in Organizations

2. In today’s environment, research shows that managers and team leaders spend relatively little time dealing with conflicts.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Conflict in Organizations

3. Substantive conflict involves a fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Types of Conflict

4. A dispute with one’s boss over a plan of action to be followed, such as a marketing strategy for a new product, is an example of emotional conflict.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Types of Conflict

5. Substantive conflict is commonly known as a clash of personalities.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Types of Conflict

6. When emotional conflicts creep into work situations, they can be conducive to teamwork because they get people to talk about their feelings.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Types of Conflict

7. Intrapersonal conflict occurs within the individual because of actual or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

8. Approach-approach conflict, avoidance-avoidance conflict, and approach-avoidance conflict are different types of interpersonal conflict.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

9. Choosing between a valued promotion in the organization or a desirable new job with another firm is an example of approach-approach conflict.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

10. Avoidance-avoidance conflict occurs when a person must choose between two negative, equally unattractive alternatives.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

11. An example of approach-avoidance conflict is being asked to accept a job transfer to another town in an undesirable location or to have one’s employment with an organization terminated.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

12. Being offered a higher paying job whose responsibilities entail unwanted demands on one’s personal time is an example of approach-avoidance conflict.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

13. Interpersonal conflict occurs between two or more individuals in opposition to each other, and may be either substantive or emotional or both.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

14. Two persons debating each other aggressively on the merits of two different proposed advertising campaigns is an example of emotional interpersonal conflict.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

15. Two persons continually in disagreement over each other’s choice of work attire is an example of an emotional interpersonal conflict.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

16. Intergroup conflict occurs among different teams or groups in an organization.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

17. Conflict between functional departments such as marketing and manufacturing is a common example of intragroup conflict.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

18. The use of cross-functional teams and task forces is one way of trying to minimize intergroup conflict.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

19. The classical example of interorganizational conflict is conflict among functional groups or departments, such as marketing and manufacturing, in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

20. An example of interorganizational conflict is the disagreements between unions and the organizations employing the union members.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

21. Conflict in organizations can be upsetting both to the individual directly involved and to others affected by its occurrence.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

22. Functional conflict results in positive benefits to individuals, the group, or the organization.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

23. Unfortunately, functional conflict cannot bring important problems to the surface and as such they cannot be addressed constructively.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

24. Functional conflict can cause decisions to be considered carefully and to be perhaps reconsidered to ensure that the right course of action is being followed.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

25. Functional conflict can offer opportunities for creativity that can improve individual, team, or organizational performance.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

26. Functional conflict is also referred to as constructive conflict.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

27. Dysfunctional conflict works to the individual’s, group’s, or organization’s disadvantage often diverting energies and hurting group cohesion.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

28. Daniel and Carol are unable to work together because of their interpersonal differences. This exemplifies a destructive substantive conflict.

Ans:
Page: 223
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

29. Attitudes toward time is a cultural difference that can have a substantial impact on conflict.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Culture and Conflict

30. Individuals who are not able to recognize and respect the impact of culture on behavior may contribute to the emergence of functional conflict.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Culture and Conflict

31. Conflict resolution occurs when the reasons for a dysfunctional conflict are eliminated.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Conflict Management

32. The conflict resolution process begins with a good understanding of its causes and recognition of the stage to which it has developed.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Conflict Management

33. Conflict antecedents establish the conditions from which conflicts are likely to develop.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

34. When the antecedent conditions become the basis for substantive or emotional differences between people or groups, the stage of felt conflict exists.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

35. In the context of the stages of conflict, when the antecedent conditions become the basis for substantive or emotional differences between people or groups, the stage of perceived conflict exists.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

36. Perceived conflict is experienced as tension that motivates the person to take action to reduce feelings of discomfort.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

37. Conflict that is experienced as tension and motivates a person to take action to reduce feelings of discomfort is called felt conflict.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

38. When conflict is expressed openly in behavior, it is said to be manifest conflict.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

39. Manifest conflict may be resolved by removing or correcting its antecedents.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

40. Suppression is a superficial and often temporary form of conflict resolution.

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

41. Horizontal conflict occurs between hierarchical levels. It commonly involves supervisor-subordinate disagreements over resources, goals, deadlines, or performance results.

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Hierarchical Causes of Conflict

42. Vertical conflict occurs between persons or groups at the same hierarchical level. It commonly involves goal incompatibilities, resource scarcities, or purely interpersonal factors.

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Hierarchical Causes of Conflict

43. Role ambiguity conflicts occur when the communication of task expectations proves unclear or upsetting.

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Hierarchical Causes of Conflict

44. Disputes and open disagreements may erupt among units and people when workflow independence is high.

Ans:
Page: 226
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Contextual Causes of Conflict

45. Disputes and open disagreements may erupt among units and people when workflow interdependence is high.

Ans:
Page: 226
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Contextual Causes of Conflict

46. Resource scarcity is a likely cause of conflict in organizations that are experiencing downsizing or financial difficulties.

Ans:
Page: 226
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Contextual Causes of Conflict

47. Conflict can be created by the power or value asymmetries that exist when interdependent people or groups differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values.

Ans:
Page: 226
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Contextual Causes of Conflict

48. People working in roles such as project liaison can serve as linking pins to reduce interdependence between groups, such as engineering and sales, which are prone to conflict.

Ans:
Page: 227
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Indirect Conflict Management Strategies

49. An appeal to common goals can focus the attention of potentially conflicting parties on one mutually desirable conclusion.

Ans:
Page: 227
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Indirect Conflict Management Strategies

50. In some situations, conflict is superficially managed by scripts, which are behavioral routines that become part of the organization’s culture.

Ans:
Page: 227
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Indirect Conflict Management Strategies

51. If conflict is severe and recurring, the continual use of hierarchical referral may not result in true conflict resolution.

Ans:
Page: 227
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Indirect Conflict Management Strategies

52. An example of the indirect conflict management approach of using scripts is a monthly meeting of department heads which is held presumably for purposes of coordination and problem solving but actually becomes a polite forum for superficial agreement.

Ans:
Page: 227-228
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Indirect Conflict Management Strategies

53. Managed interdependence, appeals to common goals, upward referral, and altering scripts and myths are examples of direct conflict management strategies.

Ans:
Page: 226-228
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Indirect Conflict Management Strategies

54. Avoidance involves pretending a conflict does not really exist.

Ans:
Page: 228
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

55. Lose-lose strategies may result from outright competition or authoritative command where the solution is dictated by an authority figure.

Ans:
Page: 228
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

56. Accommodation is a conflict management strategy may be used when an issue is trivial.

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

57. Three criteria for effective negotiation are quality, harmony, and efficiency.

Ans:
Page: 231
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Negotiation Goals and Outcomes

58. An example of constituency negotiation occurs when representatives of management and labor negotiate a collective bargaining agreement.

Ans:
Page: 232
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizational Settings for Negotiation

59. The hard approach to distributive negotiation may lead to a win-lose outcome.

Ans:
Page: 233
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Approaches to Distributive Negotiation

60. When negotiating for a pay raise, it is important to do research and find out what others make for a similar position inside and outside the organization.

Ans:
Page: 234
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Approaches to Distributive Negotiation

61. The myth of the fixed pie occurs when people become committed to their demands and are reluctant to back down.

Ans:
Page: 235
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Common Negotiation Pitfalls

62. In arbitration, the neutral third party has the power to issue a binding decision.

Ans:
Page: 236
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Third Party Roles in Negotiation

Multiple Choice

63. Which of the following statements about conflict is incorrect?
a) Managers and team leaders can spend considerable time dealing with conflicts.
b) The manager or team leader may act as a mediator to resolve conflicts between other people.
c) Managers and team leaders should always push conflict to the highest level.
d) Managers and team leaders should be able to recognize situations that have the potential for conflict.
e) Managers and team leaders should be able to deal with conflict situations in ways that will best serve the needs of both the organization and the people involved.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Conflict in Organizations

64. Conflict as it is experienced in the daily workplace involves at least two basic forms. These are __________.
a) rational conflict and irrational conflict
b) sanctioned conflict and ad-hoc conflict
c) substantive conflict and emotional conflict
d) bureaucratic conflict and personal conflict
e) institutional conflict and rational conflict

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Types of Conflict

65. __________ involves interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, and the like.
a) Substantive conflict
b) Emotional conflict
c) Indigenous conflict
d) Rational conflict
e) Impulsive conflict

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Types of Conflict

66. Samantha stated that she does not like her coworker, Mary. Samantha said, “Mary always rubs me the wrong way.” Samantha is experiencing __________ conflict with Mary.
a) substantive
b) emotional
c) indigenous
d) rational
e) impulsive

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Types of Conflict

67. Choosing between a valued promotion in the organization or a desirable new job with another firm is an example of __________ conflict.
a) retreat-advance
b) avoidance-avoidance
c) advance-retreat
d) avoidance-approach
e) approach-approach

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

68. An example of __________ conflict is being asked to accept a job transfer to another town in an undesirable location or to have one’s employment with an organization terminated.
a) avoidance-avoidance
b) approach-approach
c) retreat-retreat
d) avoidance-approach
e) approach-avoidance

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

69. Being offered a higher paying job whose responsibilities entail unwanted demands on one’s personal time is an example of __________.
a) avoidance-avoidance conflict
b) approach-approach conflict
c) approach-avoidance conflict
d) retreat-retreat conflict
e) avoidance-approach conflict

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

70. Two persons debating each other aggressively on the merits of two different proposed advertising campaigns is an example of __________.
a) substantive intrapersonal conflict
b) substantive group conflict
c) emotional interpersonal conflict
d) substantive interpersonal conflict
e) emotional intrapersonal conflict

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

71. Two persons continually in disagreement over each other’s work attire is an example of __________.
a) substantive intrapersonal conflict
b) substantive group conflict
c) emotional interpersonal conflict
d) substantive interpersonal conflict
e) emotional intrapersonal conflict

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

72. Conflict between functional departments such as marketing and manufacturing is a common example of __________.
a) interpersonal conflict
b) intergroup conflict
c) intragroup conflict
d) interorganizational conflict
e) extra-organizational conflict

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

73. Use of cross-functional teams and task forces is one way of trying to minimize __________ and promote more creative and efficient operations.
a) interpersonal conflict
b) intragroup conflict
c) intergroup conflict
d) interorganizational conflict
e) extra-organizational conflict

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

74. __________ most commonly occurs in the context of the competition and rivalry that characterize firms operating the same markets.
a) Shared organizational conflict
b) Intraorganizational conflict
c) Cross-organizational conflict
d) Interorganizational conflict
e) Extra-organizational conflict

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

75. All of the following are examples of interorganizational conflict EXCEPT:
a) disagreements between unions and the organizations employing the union members.
b) disagreements between government regulatory agencies and the organizations subject to their surveillance.
c) the battle between U.S. businesses and their global rivals.
d) disagreements with members of another work team.
e) disagreements between organizations and those who supply them with raw materials.

Ans:
Page: 221-222
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

76. Continuing battles between U.S. businesses and their global rivals such as Ford versus Hyundai and AT&T versus Verizon are examples of which of the following?
a) Interorganizational conflict
b) Intergroup conflict
c) Intrapersonal conflict
d) Interpersonal conflict
e) Substantive conflict

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

77. All of the following are considered levels of conflict EXCEPT:
a) emotional conflict.
b) interorganizational conflict.
c) intergroup conflict.
d) intrapersonal conflict.
e) interpersonal conflict.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

78. Which of the following is not considered a benefit of functional conflict?
a) Functional conflict can bring important problems to the surface so they can be addressed.
b) Functional conflict can cause decisions to be considered carefully.
c) Functional conflict can cause decisions to be reconsidered to ensure that the right course of action is being followed.
d) Functional conflict can decrease the amount of information used for decision making.
e) Functional conflict can offer opportunities for creativity that can improve individual, team, or organizational performance.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

79. The type of conflict that diverts energies, hurts group cohesion, promotes interpersonal hostilities, and overall creates a negative environment for workers is called __________.
a) inappropriate conflict
b) inconsistent conflict
c) functional conflict
d) dysfunctional conflict
e) contradictory conflict

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

80. Individuals who are not able to recognize and respect cultural differences may contribute to the emergence of __________.
a) constructive conflict
b) functional conflict
c) dysfunctional conflict
d) appropriate conflict
e) useful conflict

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Culture and Conflict

81. The __________ process begins with a good understanding of the causes of conflict and recognition of the stage to which conflict has developed.
a) conflict fortitude
b) conflict reconciliation
c) conflict resolution
d) conflict judgment
e) conflict determination

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Conflict Management

82. __________ establish the conditions from which conflicts are likely to develop.
a) Conflict antecedents
b) Perceived conflicts
c) Manifest conflicts
d) Felt conflicts
e) Distinct conflicts

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

83. In the context of the stages of conflict, when the antecedent conditions become the basis for substantive or emotional differences between people or groups, the stage of __________ exists.
a) felt conflict
b) distinct conflict
c) manifest conflict
d) perceived conflict
e) apparent conflict

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

84. Conflict that is experienced as tension and motivates a person to take action to reduce feelings of discomfort is called __________.
a) perceived conflict
b) felt conflict
c) distinct conflict
d) manifest conflict
e) apparent conflict

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

85. When conflict is expressed openly in behavior, it is considered ____________.
a) felt conflict
b) perceived conflict
c) apparent conflict
d) distinct conflict
e) manifest conflict

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

86. __________ is a superficial and often temporary form of conflict resolution that leaves the situation open to future conflict over similar issues.
a) Leniency
b) Suppression
c) Neglect
d) Avoidance
e) Tolerance

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Stages of Conflict

87. __________ commonly involves supervisor-subordinate disagreements over resources, goals, deadlines, or performance results.
a) Line-staff conflict
b) Upright conflict
c) Bureaucratic conflict
d) Horizontal conflict
e) Vertical conflict

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Hierarchical Causes of Conflict

88. _________ occurs between persons or groups at the same hierarchical level.
a) Horizontal conflict
b) Role conflict
c) Vertical conflict
d) Line-staff conflict
e) Bureaucratic conflict

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Hierarchical Causes of Conflict

89. __________ commonly involve goal incompatibilities, resource scarcities, or purely interpersonal factors.
a) Bureaucratic conflicts
b) Cross-diagonal conflicts
c) Horizontal conflicts
d) Hierarchical conflicts
e) Vertical conflicts

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Hierarchical Causes of Conflict

90. __________ conflicts occur when the communication of task expectations is unclear or upsetting in some way, such as a team member receiving different expectations from the leader and other members.
a) Vertical
b) Horizontal
c) Line-staff
d) Task
e) Role ambiguity

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Hierarchical Causes of Conflict

91. Which of the following is (are) a common cause(s) of conflict in organizations?
a) Unresolved prior conflicts
b) Resource scarcities
c) Role ambiguities
d) Structural differentiation
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 225-226
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Hierarchical Causes of Conflict
Section Reference: Contextual Causes of Conflict

92. When people are unclear about how their objectives or those of their teams fit with those being pursued by others, or when their objectives directly compete in a win-lose fashion, which of the following may be the cause of conflict?
a) Unresolved prior conflicts
b) Resource scarcities
c) Domain ambiguities
d) Structural differentiation
e) Task interdependencies

Ans:
Page: 226
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Contextual Causes of Conflict

93. In a course team where members are arguing over content choices for a PowerPoint presentation, it might help to remind everyone that the goal is to impress the instructor and get an “A” for the presentation and that this is only possible if everyone contributes their best. This is an example of which indirect conflict management strategy?
a) Managed interdependence
b) Appeals to common goals
c) Upward referral
d) Altering scripts and myths
e) None of the above

Ans:
Page: 227
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Indirect Conflict Management Strategies

94. The conflict management style of __________ involves being cooperative and unassertive. This style is characterized by letting the wishes of others rule, and smoothing over or overlooking differences to maintain harmony.
a) avoidance
b) accommodation
c) competition
d) compromise
e) collaboration

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

95. Ken is being cooperative but unassertive with his employees during a conflict situation. He tries to smooth over their differences but it only produces a false sense of harmony among them. Ken is using which conflict management style?
a) Avoidance
b) Competition
c) Accommodation
d) Compromise
e) Collaboration

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

96. Whenever he is involved in a disagreement, Harry tries to partially satisfy both his concerns and the other party’s concerns through bargaining and appropriate trade-offs. Harry uses which conflict management style?
a) Avoidance
b) Competition
c) Accommodation
d) Compromise
e) Collaboration

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

97. The conflict management style of __________ involves being uncooperative and assertive. This style is characterized by working against the wishes of the other party, engaging in win-lose competition, and/or forcing things to a favorable conclusion through the exercise of authority.
a) avoidance
b) accommodation
c) competition
d) compromise
e) collaboration

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

98. The conflict management style of __________ involves being both cooperative and assertive. This style is characterized by trying to fully satisfy everyone’s concerns by working through differences and finding and solving problems so that everyone gains.
a) avoidance
b) accommodation
c) competition
d) compromise
e) collaboration

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

99. Len emphasizes cooperation and assertiveness in dealing with conflict situations in his department. Differences are worked through together so that everybody’s concerns are addressed and everyone gains something in the end. Len uses which conflict management style?
a) Competition
b) Avoidance
c) Collaboration
d) Accommodation
e) Compromise

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

100. __________ may be used when issues are more important to others than to yourself or when you want to build “credits” for use in later disagreements.
a) Collaboration and problem solving
b) Avoidance
c) Authoritative command
d) Accommodation
e) Compromise

Ans:
Page: 230
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

101. Suppose that a manager responds to a disagreement between subordinates by saying: “I don’t want to get in the middle of your personal disputes.” This manager is using which conflict management style?
a) Avoidance
b) Authoritative command
c) Accommodation
d) Collaboration
e) Unassertiveness

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

102. __________ occurs when a formal authority simply dictates a solution and specifies what is gained and what is lost by whom.
a) Competition
b) Avoidance
c) Collaboration
d) Authoritative command
e) Compromise

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

103. Two important goals must be considered in negotiation. These goals are __________.
a) substantive goals and emotional goals
b) statutory goals and discretionary goals
c) interpersonal goals and intrapersonal goals
d) substance goals and relationship goals
e) direct goals and indirect goals

Ans:
Page: 230-231
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Negotiation Goals and Outcomes

104. __________ goals deal with outcomes that relate to the “content” issues under negotiation.
a) Relationship
b) Substance
c) Object
d) Discretionary
e) Material

Ans:
Page: 230
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Negotiation Goals and Outcomes

105. The dollar amount of a wage agreement in a collective bargaining situation is an example of a(n) __________ goal.
a) emotional
b) discretionary
c) relationship
d) substance
e) article

Ans:
Page: 230-231
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Negotiation Goals and Outcomes

106. __________ goals deal with outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiation and any constituencies they may represent are able to work with one another once the process in concluded.
a) Process
b) Substance
c) Relationship
d) Collaborative
e) Statutory

Ans:
Page: 231
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Negotiation Goals and Outcomes

107. An example of a(n) __________ goal is the ability of union members and management representatives to work together effectively after a contract dispute has been settled.
a) emotional
b) discretionary
c) relationship
d) substance
e) article

Ans:
Page: 231
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Negotiation Goals and Outcomes

108. __________ negotiation occurs when substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or even improved.
a) Effective
b) Decisive
c) Collaborative
d) Conclusive
e) Efficient

Ans:
Page: 231
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Negotiation Goals and Outcomes

109. The manager negotiates directly with one other person in __________ negotiation.
a) intergroup
b) constituency
c) two-party
d) group
e) intragroup

Ans:
Page: 232
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizational Settings for Negotiation

110. In __________ negotiation, the manager is part of a group that is negotiating with another group to arrive at a decision regarding a problem or situation affecting both.
a) group
b) two-party
c) intragroup
d) intergroup
e) constituency

Ans:
Page: 232
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizational Settings for Negotiation

111. In __________ negotiation, the manager is involved in negotiation with other persons, with each party representing a broader constituency.
a) intergroup
b) constituency
c) two-party
d) group
e) intragroup

Ans:
Page: 232
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Organizational Settings for Negotiation

112. __________ negotiation focuses on positions staked out or declared by the parties involved who are each trying to claim certain portions of the available pie.
a) Integrative
b) Distributive
c) Good-faith
d) Consolidating
e) Process

Ans:
Page: 232
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Negotiation Strategies

113. __________ negotiation focuses on the merits of the issues, and the parties involved try to enlarge the available pie rather than stake claims to certain portions of it.
a) Integrative
b) Distributive
c) Good-faith
d) Consolidating
e) Process

Ans:
Page: 232
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Negotiation Strategies

114. __________ negotiation takes place when each party holds out to get its own way.
a) Soft distributive
b) Hard distributive
c) Direct distributive
d) Indirect
e) Integrative

Ans:
Page: 233
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Approaches to Distributive Negotiation

115. __________ distributive negotiation takes place when one party is willing to make concessions to the other to get things over with.
a) Indirect
b) Hard distributive
c) Direct distributive
d) Integrative
e) Soft distributive

Ans:
Page: 233
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Approaches to Distributive Negotiation

116. Gaining truly integrative agreements rests on which set of factors?
a) Friendly interpersonal relationships, constructive task roles, and good information
b) Supportive attitudes, constructive behaviors, and good information
c) Supportive attitudes and values
d) Constructive plans and cooperative behaviors
e) Good information, ethical values, and effective maintenance roles

Ans:
Page: 234
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: How to Gain Integrative Agreements

117. All of the following are important behavioral foundations for gaining integrative agreements EXCEPT:
a) the ability to separate the people from the problem in order to prevent emotional considerations from affecting the negotiations.
b) the ability to focus on positions rather than interests.
c) the ability to avoid making premature judgments.
d) the ability to keep the acts of alternative creation separate from their evaluation.
e) the ability to judge possible agreements on an objective set of criteria or standards.

Ans:
Page: 234
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: How to Gain Integrative Agreements

118. __________ is the tendency in negotiations to stake out your position based on the assumption that in order to gain your way, something must be subtracted from the other party’s way.
a) The myth of the fixed pie
b) Escalating commitment
c) Overconfidence
d) The telling problem
e) The selling problem

Ans:
Page: 235
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Common Negotiation Pitfalls

119. The negotiating pitfall of __________ occurs when people become committed to their demands and are reluctant to back down once the demands have been stated.
a) the myth of the fixed pie
b) escalating commitment
c) overconfidence
d) the telling problem
e) the selling problem

Ans:
Page: 235
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Common Negotiation Pitfalls

120. The negotiation pitfall of __________ occurs when negotiators believe that their positions are the only correct ones.
a) the myth of the fixed pie
b) escalating commitment
c) overconfidence
d) the telling problem
e) the selling problem

Ans:
Page: 235
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Common Negotiation Pitfalls

121. Negotiations can break down because of a(n) __________ problem, wherein the parties don’t really talk to one another, at least not in the sense of making themselves truly understood.
a) telling
b) selling
c) perceptual
d) hearing
e) cognitive

Ans:
Page: 235
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Common Negotiation Pitfalls

122. In __________, a neutral third party tries to engage the parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument.
a) arbitration
b) mediation
c) accommodation
d) compromise
e) ADR

Ans:
Page: 236
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Third Party Roles in Negotiation

Fill in the blank

123. __________ involves a fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Types of Conflict

124. Emotional conflict is commonly known as a(n) __________.

Ans:
Page: 220
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Types of Conflict

125. __________ occurs within the individual because of actual or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

126. Approach-approach conflict, avoidance-avoidance conflict, and approach-avoidance conflict are different types of __________.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

127. __________ occurs when a person must choose between two positive and equally attractive alternatives.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

128. __________ occurs when a person must choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

129. __________ conflict occurs when a person must decide to do something that has both positive and negative consequences.

Ans:
Page: 221
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Level of Conflict

130. __________ conflict results in positive benefits to individuals, the group, or the organization.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

131. Functional conflict is also called __________.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

132. Dysfunctional conflict is also called __________.

Ans:
Page: 222
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

133. __________ occurs when the underlying reasons for a destructive conflict are eliminated.

Ans:
Page: 224
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Conflict Management

134. __________ conflict occurs between persons or groups working at the same hierarchical level.

Ans:
Page: 225
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Hierarchical Causes of Conflict

135. Decoupling is a simple indirect conflict management strategy used to reduce __________.

Ans:
Page: 227
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Indirect Conflict Management Strategies

136. __________ conflict occurs when no one gets what he/she wants, while the underlying reasons for conflict remain unaffected and a similar conflict is likely to occur in the future.

Ans:
Page: 228
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

137. __________ is preferred to gain true conflict resolution when time and cost permit.

Ans:
Page: 230
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

138. __________ may be used when an issue is trivial, when more important issues are pressing, or when people need to cool down temporarily and regain perspective.

Ans:
Page: 230
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

139. __________ may be used to arrive at temporary settlements of complex issues or to arrive at expedient solutions when time is limited.

Ans:
Page: 230
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

140. When conflict management results in one party achieving its desires and the other party not achieving its desires, the conflict is considered to be a __________ conflict.

Ans:
Page: 229
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

141. __________ is the process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences.

Ans:
Page: 230
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Negotiation Goals and Outcomes

142. Principled negotiation is another name for __________.

Ans:
Page: 232
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Negotiation Strategies

143. The __________ is the range between one party’s minimum reservation point and the other party’s maximum reservation point in a negotiating situation.

Ans:
Page: 233
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Approaches to Distributive Negotiation

144. In the __________ approach to negotiation, participants would say: “Let’s find a way to make this work for both of us.”

Ans:
Page: 232
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Approaches to Distributive Negotiation

145. When people state their demands and then become committed to them and are reluctant to back down, they are demonstrating the negotiation pitfall known as __________.

Ans:
Page: 235
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Common Negotiation Pitfalls

146. In __________, a neutral third party works with persons involved in a negotiation to help them resolve impasses and settle disputes

Ans:
Page: 235
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Third Party Roles in Negotiation

147. In __________, a neutral third party tries to engage the parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument.

Ans:
Page: 236
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Third Party Roles in Negotiation

148. In __________, a neutral third party acts as judge with the power to issue a decision binding for all parties.

Ans:
Page: 236
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Third Party Roles in Negotiation

Essay

149. What is conflict? In what ways are managers involved with conflict?
Page: 220
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Conflict in Organizations

150. What is the difference between functional conflict and dysfunctional conflict?

Page: 222-223
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss the types and levels of both functional and dysfunctional conflict, as well as culture and conflict in organizations.
Section Reference: Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict

151. In the context of direct conflict management approaches, what are assertiveness and cooperativeness? How are assertiveness and cooperativeness related to each of the five basic direct conflict management approaches?

Page: 229
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Explain the stages and causes of conflict and how conflict can be managed.
Section Reference: Direct Conflict Management Strategies

152. What is negotiation? What are the two primary goals in the negotiation process? Provide an example of each type of goal. In the context of these goals, when is negotiation effective?

Page: 230-231
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Explain the nature of negotiation in organizations.
Section Reference: Negotiation Goals and Outcomes

153. Explain the basic nature and likely results of distributive and integrative negotiation?
Page: 232-234
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Identify alternative strategies for negotiation, common negotiation pitfalls, and third-party roles in negotiation.
Section Reference: Approaches to Distributive Negotiation
Section Reference: How to Gain Integrative Agreements

File: ch11, Chapter 11: Communication and Collaboration

True/False

1. Communication is the process of sending and receiving symbols with attached meanings.

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

2. Successful organizations value and promote effective communication across organizational boundaries but fortunately not at the interpersonal level.

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

3. The key elements in the communication process include a source, who encodes an intended meaning into a message; a receiver, who decodes the message into a perceived meaning; and noise, which is any disruption in the transference of the message.

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

4. The role of the “source” in the communication process is to encode an intended meaning into a message.

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

5. The role of the “receiver” in the communication process is to decode the message into a perceived meaning.

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

6. Static is the term used to describe any disturbance that influences the effectiveness of the communication process.

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

7. The process of translating an idea or thought into a message consisting of verbal, written, or nonverbal symbols, or some combination of them, is called decoding.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

8. Communication channels are the pathways through which messages are communicated.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

9. Encoding-decoding conduits are the pathways through which messages are transmitted.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

10. Fortunately, the choice of communication channel does not have an impact on the communication process.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

11. The communication process is completed when a message is sent.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

12. In order for meaning to be assigned to any received message, its contents must be interpreted through encoding.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

13. The process of decoding is complicated by many factors, including the knowledge and experience of the receiver and his or her relationship with the sender.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

14. Feedback is the process through which the receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

15. Feedback communicates how one feels about something another person has done or said.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

16. Unfortunately, in most workplaces, there is too much feedback rather than too little.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

17. Nonverbal communication occurs by facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

18. Communicating with someone through facial expressions, body posture, eye contact, and other physical gestures is referred to as non-audible communication.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

19. Nonverbal communication affects the impressions that people make on others. It also can hold the key to what someone is really thinking or what he/she really means.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

20. Nonverbal communication can take place through the physical arrangement of space.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

21. Kinesics is the study of the way space is utilized, whereas proxemics is study of gestures and body postures.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

22. Furniture placement can provide nonverbal communication.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

23. When Sam cannot listen objectively to Tinesha due to a lack of trust, he is experiencing an interpersonal barrier to communication.

Ans:
Page: 245
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

24. Interpersonal barriers occur when individuals are not able to objectively listen to the sender due to things such as lack of trust, personality clashes, and a bad reputation.

Ans:
Page: 245
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

25. Semantic barriers occur only when people communicate in two different languages.

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

26. The ability to listen well is a distinct asset to anyone whose job involves a large proportion of their time spent communicating with other people.

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

27. Telling and listening are two sides of the communication process.

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

28. The ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means is called dynamic listening.

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

29. The concept of active listening comes from the work of counselors and therapists, who are trained to help people express themselves and talk about things that are important to them.

Ans:
Pages: 246-247
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

30. To be an effective active listener, a person should listen only for content –– trying to hear exactly what is being said.

Ans:
Page: 247
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

31. To be an effective active listener, research suggests, that people should only pay attention to verbal expressions and ignore nonverbal expressions.

Ans:
Page: 247
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

32. Ethnocentrism is often accompanied by an unwillingness to try to understand alternative points of view.

Ans:
Pages: 248-249
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

33. Crossed legs are quite acceptable in the United Kingdom but are rude in Saudi Arabia if the sole of the foot is directed toward someone.

Ans:
Page: 249
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

34. The U.S. is a low-context culture where words convey only part of a message, while the rest of the message must be inferred from body language and additional contextual cues.

Ans:
Page: 250
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

35. International business experts advise that one of the best ways to gain understanding of cultural differences is to hire people from different countries.

Ans:
Page: 250
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

36. Information flows in organizations through both formal and informal channels of communication.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

37. Formal channels of communication follow the chain of command established by an organization’s hierarchy of authority.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

38. Informal channels of communication do not adhere to the organization’s hierarchy of authority.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

39. Both formal channels and informal channels follow the chain of command.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

40. A grapevine transfers rumors and other unofficial information through networks of friendships and acquaintances.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

41. Being part of a grapevine can provide a sense of security from “being in the know” and can help fulfill the needs of people involved in them.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

42. The primary disadvantage of grapevines occurs when they transmit incorrect or untimely information.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

43. The primary disadvantage of grapevines is that they transfer information slowly and fairly inefficiently.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.

Section Reference: Communication Channels

44. Channel richness is the capacity of a communication channel to convey information in an effective manner.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

45. In general, the richest communication channel is face-to-face communication.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

46. In general, the leanest communication channel is a posted notice or bulletin.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

47. Leaner channels work well for more routine and straightforward messages, whereas richer channels work well with complex and open-ended messages.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

48. Upward communication follows the chain of command from top to bottom.

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

49. One of the major functions of downward communication is to achieve influence by providing information.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

50. A lack of adequate downward communication is often cited as a management failure.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

51. The flow of messages from lower to higher organizational levels is downward communication.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

52. Upward communication keeps higher organizational levels informed about the organization’s strategies and policies.

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

53. Upward communication keeps higher organizational levels informed about what lower-level employees are doing and the problems they are having.

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

54. Inside an organization, employees communicate across departmental levels through parallel communication.

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

55. For lateral communication to be effective, people must be willing and able to communicate across departmental or functional boundaries.

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

56. For lateral communication to be effective, people must be willing to listen to other functions and departments from the perspective of serving their needs as “internal customers.”

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

57. The study of how building design may influence communication and productivity by improving lateral communications is referred to as organizational ecology.

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

58. The study of how building design may influence communication and productivity by improving lateral communications is known as organizational proxemics.

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

59. A problem in electronic communication today is controlling one’s emotions.

Ans:
Page: 254
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

60. In a 24/7 world, most companies take the cue from P & G in telling employees it is not acceptable to turn their presence status to off or unavailable.

Ans:
Page: 255
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

61. With the rise of social networking tools, the withholding of information is becoming more difficult giving customers more information power than ever.

Ans:
Page: 255
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Collaboration Technologies

62. Interest in transparency concepts are on the decline with so much information available on the internet.

Ans:
Page: 256
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Interactional Transparency

63. A supportive communication principle is to focus on the problem and not the person.

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

64. When engaging in supportive communication, it is helpful for a person to use absolutes such as, “You never listen to me.”

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

Multiple Choice

65. There are six sources of noise that are common to most interpersonal exchanges. These six sources are __________.
a) semantic problems, proximity problems, mixed messages, cultural differences, absence of planning, and status effects
b) cultural differences, physical distractions, semantic problems, mixed messages, absence of feedback, and status effects
c) mixed messages, cultural differences, absence of feedback, proximity problems, absence of commitment to effective communication, and status effects
d) physical distractions, semantic problems, absence of feedback, cultural differences, absence of commitment to effective communication, and cultural differences
e) tangible distractions, people problems, inconsistent messages, cultural differences, absence of prior planning, and absence of feedback

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

66. In all interpersonal communication, it is important to understand the sources of __________ that can easily cause problems in the communication process.
a) communicating
b) e-mailing
c) noise
d) talking
e) writing

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

67. Potential noise comes from all of the following EXCEPT:
a) cultural similarities.
b) semantic problems.
c) mixed messages.
d) absence of feedback.
e) physical distractions.

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

68. Which of the following statements is NOT true with respect to two-way communication?
a) Two-way communication goes from sender to receiver and back again.
b) Two-way communication is characterized by the normal interactive conversation in our daily experiences.
c) Research indicates that two-way communication is often less effective than one-way communication.
d) Two-way communication is more time consuming than one-way communication.
e) Two-way communication is more costly than one-way communication.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

69. In comparing two-way communication with one-way communication, research indicates that __________.
a) two-way communication is more accurate
b) one-way communication is more accurate
c) both types of communication are the same in terms of accuracy
d) two-way communication is more accurate in large firms, and one-way communication is more accurate in small firms
e) two-way communication is more accurate in small firms, and one-way communication is more accurate in large firms

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

70. Which of the following is NOT an effective way to give constructive feedback?
a) Limit how much feedback the receiver gets at one time.
b) Focus on things the receiver can control.
c) Give feedback when the receiver is most ready to accept it.
d) Be general so as not to hurt the person’s feelings.
e) Give feedback directly and in a spirit of mutual trust.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

71. The art of impression management during interviews requires careful attention to __________.
a) dress
b) verbal communication
c) timeliness
d) nonverbal aspects of communication
e) both verbal and nonverbal aspects of communication

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

72. Research indicates that __________ communication is more accurate and effective than __________ communication.
a) one-way; two-way
b) individual; group
c) team; individual
d) two-way; one-way
e) one-way; group

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

73. __________ communication is more costly and time consuming than __________ communication.
a) One-way; two-way
b) Individual; group
c) Team; individual
d) Two-way; one-way
e) One-way; group

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

74. Examples of one-way communication include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) memos.
b) discussion boards.
c) letters.
d) e-mail.
e) voice mail.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

75. Because of their efficiency, __________ are frequently used in work settings.
a) three-way communications
b) two-way communications
c) one-way communications
d) group communications
e) individual communications

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

76. __________ occurs when individuals block out information or only hear things that match preconceived notions.
a) Mangled messages
b) Selective listening
c) Perceptual distractions
d) Semantic problems
e) Communication barriers

Ans:
Page: 245
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

77. Which of the following may lead to an interpersonal barrier?
a) Lack of trust
b) Personality clashes
c) A bad reputation
d) Stereotypes/prejudices
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 245
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

78. John dislikes his co-worker, Dylan. Dylan must miss the morning staff meeting as he has other work-related responsibilities to complete at this time. It is John’s responsibility to fill Dylan in on what happened at the meeting. Many times John decides to leave out critical details or pointers that may help Dylan to be more successful in getting things done. John is engaging in which communication barrier?
a) Selective listening
b) Filtering
c) Semantic barriers
d) Physical distractions
e) None of the above

Ans:
Page: 245
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

79. When in doubt regarding the clarity of your written or spoken message, the recommended course of action to follow is:
a) “keep it smart and short.”
b) “keep it straightforward and simple.”
c) “keep it simple and smart.”
d) “keep it short and simple.”
e) “keep it sophisticated and savvy.”

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

80. Semantic barriers to communication involve __________.
a) foreign communication
b) weak communication links
c) breaks in communication transmissions
d) loud noises that disrupt what is communicated
e) a poor choice or use of words and mixed messages

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

81. The popular KISS principle of communication stands for __________.
a) keep it swift and safe
b) keep it short and simple
c) keep it step-by-step
d) keep in style and standard
e) keep it speedy and specific

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

82. __________ is the ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means.
a) Ordered listening
b) Expressive listening
c) Trained listening
d) Formal listening
e) Active listening

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

83. There are two sides to the communication process __________ and __________.
a) forwarding a message; receiving a message
b) forwarding a message; listening to a message
c) sending a message; reinforcing a message
d) telling a message; reinforcing a message
e) sending a message; receiving a message

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

84. Guidelines for active listening include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) listen for content.
b) listen for feelings.
c) watch for mistakes.
d) respond to feelings.
e) reflect back.

Ans:
Page: 247
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

85. The success of international business practices such as outsourcing often rests with the quality of __________.
a) ethnocentrism
b) honesty
c) ethics
d) cross-cultural communication
e) an individual’s ability to speak one language

Ans:
Page: 248
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

86. __________ is often accompanied by an unwillingness to try to understand alternative points of view.
a) Self-preservation
b) Self-centeredness
c) Ethnocentrism
d) Individual affirmation
e) Personal protection.

Ans:
Pages: 248-249
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

87. The difficulties with cross-cultural communication are perhaps most obvious in respect to __________ differences.
a) language
b) moral
c) outsourcing
d) stamina
e) writing

Ans:
Page: 249
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

88. __________ cultures are very explicit in using the spoken and written word.
a) High and low-continuity
b) Low-content
c) High-content
d) Low-context
e) High-context

Ans:
Page: 249
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

89. Which of the following countries is a low-context culture?
a) United States
b) India
c) Japan
d) France
e) Scotland

Ans:
Page: 250
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

90. Members of high-context cultures use all of the following to convey their messages EXCEPT:
a) body language.
b) the physical setting.
c) past relationships.
d) words for only a limited part of a message.
e) explicit words for the majority of a message.

Ans:
Page: 250
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

91. Which of the following statements is accurate?
a) Many Asian cultures are considered low context cultures.
b) Most Western cultures are high context cultures.
c) Canada is a high-context culture.
d) Many Middle Eastern cultures are considered low-context cultures.
e) The United States is a low-context culture.

Ans:
Page: 250
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

92. __________ is often accompanied by an unwillingness to understand alternative points of view and to take the values they represent seriously.
a) Ethnocentrism
b) Proxemics
c) Kinesics
d) Internal affirmation
e) Self importance

Ans:
Page: 249
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

93. The difficulties with cross-cultural communication are perhaps most obvious with respect to __________.
a) geographic differences
b) language differences
c) religious differences
d) lifestyle differences
e) ethnic differences

Ans:
Page: 249
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

94. Which of the following statements about cross-cultural communication is NOT accurate?
a) People must always exercise caution when communicating with people of different geographical or ethnic groupings within one country.
b) Ethnocentrism can easily create communication problems among people of diverse backgrounds.
c) Language differences represent a major difficulty in cross-cultural communication.
d) Gestures mean basically the same thing in various cultures of the world.
e) People must always exercise caution when communicating with people of different national cultures.

Ans:
Pages: 248-249
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

95. Which of the following statements about the role of language in cross-cultural communication is NOT correct?
a) Members of low-context cultures are very explicit in using the spoken and written word.
b) In low-context cultures, the message is rarely conveyed by the words someone uses, with greater emphasis on the “context” in which the words are spoken.
c) Australia, Canada and the United States have low-context cultures.
d) Members of high-context cultures use words to convey only a limited part of the message.
e) In high-context cultures, must of the message communicated must be inferred or interpreted from the context, which includes body language, the physical setting and past relationships.

Ans:
Pages: 249-250
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

96. Examples of communication channels include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) face-to-face meetings.
b) e-mail.
c) online discussions.
d) decoding.
e) written letters.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

97. All of the following statements about information channels are correct EXCEPT:
a) networking takes place through the use of informal channels.
b) informal channels adhere to an organization’s hierarchy of authority.
c) informal channels coexist with the formal channels of an organization.
d) informal channels diverge from formal organization channels by skipping levels in the hierarchy or cutting across vertical chains of command.
e) informal channels help to create open communications in organizations and ensure that the right people are in contact one another.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

98. Grapevines have the advantage of __________.
a) always including the leaders of the organization
b) separating “those with information” from “those who shouldn’t have information”
c) sharing information that is always correct
d) ensuring that everyone who needs to hear the information gets the information
e) being able to transmit information quickly and efficiently

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

99. The primary disadvantage of grapevines is, it __________.
a) provides a sense of security from “being in the know”
b) provides social satisfaction as information is exchanged interpersonally
c) helps fulfill the needs of people involved in them
d) transmits incorrect or untimely information
e) transmits information quickly and efficiently

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

100. When messages get more complex and open-ended, __________are necessary to achieve effective communication.
a) leaner channels
b) richer channels
c) more channels
d) senior channels
e) correct channels

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

101. __________work well for more routine and straightforward messages, such as announcing the location of a previously scheduled meeting.
a) Elegant channels
b) Additional channels
c) Richer channels
d) Leaner channels
e) Foreign channels

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

102. Downward communication does all of the following EXCEPT:
a) follows the chain of command top to bottom.
b) achieves influence through information.
c) helps create a sense of security and involvement among receivers who feel they know the whole story.
d) as a favorite management strategy that often occurs.
e) helps minimize the spread of rumors.

Ans:
Page: 252
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

103. The flow of messages at the same levels across organizations is known as __________.
a) team communication
b) upward communication
c) downward communication
d) lateral communication
e) collaborative communication

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

104. All of the following are true of the study by Detert and Burris on leadership behaviors EXCEPT:
a) personalized behavior is not enough to generate employee voice.
b) if leaders are going to overcome employee restraint in speaking up, they must indicate openness to change.
c) openness behaviors send a clear signal that voice is welcome.
d) many individuals don’t feel safe speaking up in their organizations.
e) transformational leader behaviors are enough to signal openness.

Ans:
Page: 254
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

105. The term __________ is sometimes used to describe rudeness in electronic communication.
a) flaming
b) filtering
c) selective perception
d) noise
e) presence

Ans:
Page: 254
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

106. __________ differences in organizations create potential communication barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks.
a) Minority vs. majority
b) Cultural
c) Status
d) Gender
e) Age

Ans:
Page: 255
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Status Effects

107. Given the authority of their positions, managers may be inclined to do a lot of __________, but not much __________.
a) screaming; talking
b) intuitively deciding; sound evaluating.
c) decision making; listening
d) answering; creating
e) telling; listening

Ans:
Page: 255
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Status Effects

108. Because communication is frequently biased when flowing upward, subordinates may __________.
a) only communicate with their bosses only when they have to.
b) use email as a means to communicate with their bosses.
c) communicate to their bosses only in writing.
d) filter information and tell their superiors only what they think the boss wants to hear.
e) tell their bosses everything they know about a subject.

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Status Effects

109. The mum effect can occur for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a) an employee’s fear of retribution for bringing bad news.
b) an employee’s unwillingness to identify personal mistakes.
c) an employee’s general desire to please.
d) an employee’s desire to be polite.
e) an employee’s desire to speak out at meetings.

Ans:
Page: 255
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Status Effects

110. A potential advantage of electronic communication is __________.
a) people are interacting with machines so interactions are often impersonal
b) allowing broader and more immediate access to information
c) nonverbal communications is removed from interactions
d) recipients are typically accurate is identifying the tone or intent of email
e) people are interacting less with each other directly

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

111. Software that allows users to view others’ real-time availability and readiness to communicate is known as __________.
a) the 24/7 environment
b) presence-aware tools
c) electronic eavesdropping
d) privacy tools
e) flaming

Ans:
Page: 255
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

112. Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the effects of status on interpersonal communication?
a) Status differences in organizations create potential communication barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks.
b) Given the authority of their positions, managers may be inclined to do a lot of listening but not much telling.
c) Communication is frequently biased when flowing upward in organizational hierarchies.
d) Subordinates may filter information and tell their superiors only what they think the boss wants to hear.
e) Higher-level decision makers may take the wrong actions because of biased and inaccurate information supplied from below.

Ans:
Page: 255
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Status Effects

113. The term “flaming” is sometimes used to describe rudeness in __________.
a) verbal communication
b) written communication
c) electronic communication
d) nonverbal communication
e) communications in large group settings

Ans:
Page: 254
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

114. The use of computers makes people feel less inhibited, more impatient in what they say, and more likely to engage in __________.
a) the mum effect
b) information overload
c) flaming
d) collaborative approaches
e) feedback.

Ans:
Page: 254
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

115. The open and honest sharing of information is known as __________.
a) feedback
b) constructive feedback
c) interactional transparency
d) disconfirmation
e) the mum effect

Ans:
Page: 256
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Interactional Transparency

116. A result of the rise of social networking tools and additional collaboration technologies has been __________.
a) a reduction of status differentials and breaking down of corporate silos
b) an increase of status differentials and breading down of corporate silos
c) an increase of status differentials and an increase in corporate silos
d) a reduction of status differentials and an increase in corporate silos
e) less information power for customers

Ans:
Page: 256
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Collaboration Technologies

117. Which of the following is NOT a component of interactional transparency?
a) Sharing relevant information
b) Being forthcoming regarding motives
c) Proactively seeking feedback
d) Guarding against corporate fraud
e) Proactively giving feedback

Ans:
Page: 256
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Interactional Transparency

118. A set of tools to approach difficult conversations are known as __________.
a) transparency
b) supportive communication principles
c) presence-aware tools
d) proxemics
e) active listening

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

119. The primary emphasis of supportive communication is to avoid __________.
a) transparency and disconfirmation
b) defensiveness and transparency
c) defensiveness and disconfirmation
d) selective listening and defensiveness
e) disconfirmation and selective listening

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

120. __________ occurs when an individual feels his self-worth is being questioned.
a) Transparency
b) Defensiveness
c) Flaming
d) Proxemics
e) Disconfirmation

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

121. __________ occurs when individuals feel they are being attacked and they need to protect themselves.
a) Transparency
b) Defensiveness
c) Flaming
d) Proxemics
e) Disconfirmation

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

122. Which of the following is NOT a supportive communication principle?
a) Focus on the problem and not the person.
b) Be specific and descriptive, not global or evaluative.
c) Own, rather than disown, the communication.
d) Seek to be heard and understood.
e) Be congruent – match the words with the body language.

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

Fill in the blank

123. __________ is a process of sending and receiving messages with attached meanings.

Ans:
Page: 242
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

124. __________ is the process through which a receiver communicates with a sender by returning another message.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

125. __________flows from sender to receiver only, as in the case of a written memo or a voice-mail message.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

126. In __________ communication, there is no direct and immediate feedback from the recipient of a message.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

127. __________ communication goes from sender to receiver and back again.

Ans:
Page: 243
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

128. When verbal and nonverbal messages do not match, receivers will pay more attention to the __________.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

129. __________ communication takes place through facial expressions, body position, eye contact and other physical gestures.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

130. __________ is the study of gestures and body postures.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

131. __________ is the act of speaking without using words.

Ans:
Page: 244
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Nonverbal Communication

132. __________ barriers to communication involve a poor choice or use of words and mixed messages.

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

133. Interruptions such as a telephone ringing, someone knocking on your door, or someone dropping by your office when you are trying to communicate with someone else are examples of __________ in effective communication.

Ans:
Page: 246
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Communication Barriers

134. Suppose you work for an international food company. Although you like your boss, one thing that bothers you is that he openly believes that his culture is superior to other cultures. This common problem is called __________.

Ans:
Page: 248
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

135. __________is the tendency to believe one’s culture and its values are superior to those of others.

Ans:
Page: 248
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Cross-Cultural Communication

136. The types of information flows in organizations are __________ and __________.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

137. __________ is the study of how building design may influence communication and productivity by improving lateral communications.

Ans:
Page: 253
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

138. __________ channels follow the chain of command established by an organization’s hierarchy of authority.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

139. __________ takes place through the use of information channels that do not adhere to an organization’s hierarchy of authority.

Ans:
Page: 251
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Channels

140. The tendency to sometimes withhold information from a desire to be polite and a reluctance to transmit bad news is sometimes called the __________.

Ans:
Page: 255
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Status Effects

141. __________ tools are software that allow a user to view others’ real-time availability status and readiness to communicate.

Ans:
Page: 255
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

142. __________ in communication occurs when individuals feel they are being attacked and they need to protect themselves.

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

143. In supportive communication, we are supposed to focus on the problem and not the __________.

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

144. __________ occurs when an individual feels his or her self-worth is being questioned.

Ans:
Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

Essay

145. What are the key elements in the communication process?

Page: 242-243
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: The Communication Process

146. What does the term “feedback” refer to in the context of interpersonal communication? Why is it important? In practice, how does the feedback process typically work and how is it accomplished effectively?

Page: 243
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe the communication process, feedback and communication, and nonverbal communication.
Section Reference: Feedback and Communication

147. What is active listening and what are the recommended guidelines for its use?

Page: 246-247
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss issues in interpersonal communication including communication barriers, active listening, and cross-cultural communication.
Section Reference: Active Listening

148. Briefly describe each of the following communication flows: downward, upward, and lateral. What does each type of flow accomplish in an organization?

Pages: 252-253
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Define communication channels, communication, and status effects.
Section Reference: Communication Flows

149. What are supportive communication principles?

Page: 257
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss ways we can build more collaborative work environments.
Section Reference: Supportive Communication Principles

File: ch12, Chapter 12: Power and Politics

True/False

1. Power is a behavioral response to the exercise of influence.

Ans:
Page: 264
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Power and Influence

2. Influence is the ability to get someone to do something you want done or the ability to make things happen in the way you want them to.

Ans:
Page: 264
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Power and Influence

3. Few instances exist where individual and organizational interests are compatible.

Ans:
Page: 264
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Power and Influence

4. The foundation for power rests in interdependence.

Ans:
Page: 264
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Interdependence, Legitimacy, and Power

5. Stanley Milgram designed experiments to determine the extent to which people obey the commands of an authority figure, even if they believe they are endangering the life of another person.

Ans:
Page: 265
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Obedience

6. The basic conclusion of Stanley Milgram’s studies is there is a tendency for individuals to comply with and be obedient to authority.

Ans:
Page: 266
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Obedience

7. According to Chester Barnard, subordinates accept a directive from a superior when one or the other of the following conditions is met: (a) the subordinate can and must understand the directive, or (b) the subordinate must feel mentally and physically capable of carrying out the directive.

Ans:
Page: 266
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

8. To accept and follow a manager’s order, the subordinate does not need to understand how the proposed action will help the organization.

Ans:
Page: 267
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

9. When employees believe the organization has not delivered on its implicit promises, in addition to disobedience, there is more loyalty, lower turnover intentions, and high job satisfaction.

Ans:
Page: 267
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

10. A zone of indifference is the range of authoritative requests to which a subordinate is willing to respond without subjecting the directions to critical evaluations or judgment.

Ans:
Page: 267
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

11. According to Chester Barnard, directives falling within the zone of indifference are obeyed, whereas those falling outside of it are not considered legitimate under the terms of the psychological contract.

Ans:
Page: 267
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

12. When a boss would like a subordinate to do something outside the zone of indifference, the manager must attempt to enlarge the zone to accommodate additional behaviors.

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

13. The zone of indifference is fixed.

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

14. Position power is available to a manager solely as a result of her or his position in the organization.

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

15. There are seven important aspects of position power: legitimate, reward, coercive, process, information, representative power, and subordination.

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

16. Power can be based on punishment instead of reward.

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

17. Legitimate power, or formal hierarchical authority, stems from the extent to which a manager can control subordinates’ behavior because they believe the boss has the right to do so.

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

18. Having the formal authority to approve or deny employees requests for job transfers, equipment purchases, overtime, or personal time off are examples of a manager’s legitimate power.

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

19. Voluntarism is the degree to which an employee contributes his or her time and energy to charitable organizations.

Ans:
Page: 269
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

20. Coercive power is the extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people.

Ans:
Page: 269
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

21. The presence of unions and organizational policies on employee treatment can weaken the ability of a manager to use coercive power.

Ans:
Page: 269
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

22. Specialists who determine the procedures by which investment proposals will be analyzed and evaluated are utilizing process power.

Ans:
Page: 269
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

23. Information power may complement legitimate hierarchical power.

Ans:
Page: 270
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

24. Representative power is based upon access to and/or control of information.

Ans:
Page: 270
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

25. Personal power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual’s position within an organization.

Ans:
Page: 270
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

26. Four bases of personal power are expert power, rational persuasion, referent power, and coalition power.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

27. Expert power is the ability to control another’s behavior through the possession of knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person does not have but needs.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

28. Expert power is absolute, not relative.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

29. Rational persuasion involves both explaining the desirability of expected outcomes and showing how specific actions will achieve these outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

30. The personal power of rational persuasion can be developed by always honoring implied and explicit social contracts in order to build trust.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

31. Referent power is the ability to control another’s behavior because, through the individual’s efforts, the person accepts the desirability of an offered goal and a reasonable way of achieving it.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

32. Referent power is the ability to control another’s behavior because of the individual’s desire to identify with the power source.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

33. A person’s referent power can be enhanced when the individual taps into the morals held by another or shows a clearer long-term path to a morally desirable end.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

34. Coalition power is the ability to control another’s behavior indirectly because the individual owes an obligation to you or another as part of a larger collective interest.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

35. To build a coalition, individuals negotiate trade-offs to arrive at a common position.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

36. Power-oriented behavior is action directed primarily at developing or using relationships in which other people are to some degree willing to defer to one’s wishes.

Ans:
Page: 272
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

37. The effective manager is one who succeeds in building and maintaining high levels of both position power and personal power over time.

Ans:
Page: 272
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

38. A manager’s personal power can be enhanced by demonstrating to others that his or her work unit is highly relevant to organizational goals and can respond to urgent organizational needs.

Ans:
Page: 272
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

39. Nelson Mandela used his personal and position as president of South Africa to help transform a whole society using a rugby team.

Ans:
Page: 272
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

40. Three personal characteristics ⎯ expertise, tactfulness, and experience ⎯ have special potential for enhancing personal power in an organization.

Ans:
Page: 273
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

41. Managers can enhance their personal power by building expertise through advanced training and education, participation in professional associations, and involvement in the early stages of projects.

Ans:
Page: 273
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

42. By learning better ways to negotiate, persuade people, and understand the goals and means people are willing to accept, an individual can learn political savvy in order to increase his or her personal power.

Ans:
Page: 273
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

43. A manager’s referent power is increased by characteristics that enhance his or her “likeability” and create personal attraction in relationships with other people.

Ans:
Page: 273
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

44. Most managers attempt to increase the visibility of their job performance by: expanding the number of contacts they have with senior people, making oral presentations of written work, participating in problem-solving task forces, sending out notices of accomplishments, and generally seeking additional opportunities to increase personal name recognition.

Ans:
Page: 274
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

45. By defining a problem in a manner that fits the manager’s expertise, it is natural for that manager to be in charge of solving it, which in turn subtly shifts his or her position power.

Ans:
Page: 274
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

46. The most common strategies of turning power into relational influence include friendliness, coalition, bargaining, and higher authority but exclude reason, assertiveness, and sanctions.

Ans:
Page: 274
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Relational Influence Techniques

47. Friendliness, assertiveness, bargaining, and higher authority are used more frequently to influence supervisors than to influence subordinates.

Ans:
Page: 275
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Relational Influence Techniques

48. Downward influence generally includes mobilization of both position and personal power sources, whereas upward influence is more likely to draw on personal power.

Ans:
Page: 275
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Relational Influence Techniques

49. Empowerment is the process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work.

Ans:
Page: 275
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Empowerment

50. The traditional view of power considers it to be relational in terms of problems and opportunities, whereas the empowerment view looks at power in terms of the ability to make things happen.

Ans:
Page: 276
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Keys to Empowerment

51. When embarking on an empowerment program, management needs to recognize the current zone of indifference and systematically move to contract it.

Ans:
Page: 276
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Keys to Empowerment

52. The key to empowering all employees is to change the concept of power within the organization from a view that stresses power over others to one that emphasizes the use of power to get things done.

Ans:
Page: 276
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Power as an Expanding Pie

53. A clearer definition of roles and responsibilities may help managers empower others.

Ans:
Page: 276
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Power as an Expanding Pie

54. By providing opportunities for creative problem solving coupled with the discretion to act, real empowerment increases the total power available in the organization.

Ans:
Page: 277
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Power as an Expanding Pie

55. The Machiavellian tradition of organizational politics considers managers to be political when they seek their own goals or use means that are not currently authorized by the organization or that push legal limits.

Ans:
Page: 278
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

56. The second tradition of organizational politics involves the use of power to develop socially acceptable ends and means that balance individual and collective interests.

Ans:
Page: 279
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

57. Organizational politics can serve a number of important functions, including overcoming personnel inadequacies, coping with change, and substituting for formal authority.

Ans:
Page: 280
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

58. Managers may gain a better understanding of political behavior to forecast future actions by placing themselves in the position of other persons involved in critical decisions or events.

Ans:
Page: 280
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

59. Organizational politics are inherently bad.

Ans:
Page: 280
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

60. Workflow linkages for lateral political action involve contacts with units that precede or follow in a sequential production chain.

Ans:
Page: 281
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

61. Individuals can employ three common strategies to protect themselves against the adverse effects of organizational politics. Individuals can take action but avoid risk, redirect accountability and responsibility, or maintain a low profile.

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

62. People who are really devious will engage in political self-protection by using the redirecting techniques of: blaming the problem on someone or some group who has difficulty engaging in self-defense; blaming the problem on uncontrollable events; or escalating commitment to a losing course of action.

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

63. Agency theory reflects the notion that managers are “agents” of the owners and suggests that public corporations can function effectively even though its managers are self-interested and do not automatically bear the full consequences of their managerial actions.

Ans:
Page: 283
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

64. To place appropriate controls on agents, stockholders with a large stake in the firm take an active role on the board of directors and a strong, independent board is established.

Ans:
Page: 284
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

65. Organizational governance is the pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization.

Ans:
Page: 286
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

66. Whereas organizational governance was an internal and rather private matter in the past, it is today becoming more public and controversial.

Ans:
Page: 286
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

Multiple Choice

67. The essence of power is __________.
a) personal desire
b) the ability to provide support
c) a distinguished reputation
d) control over the behavior of others
e) having a Machiavellian personality.

Ans:
Page: 264
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Power and Influence

68. In today’s modern organization the base for power and politics rests on a system of authority. Which of the following statements about legitimacy regarding power is inaccurate?
a) The unstated underpinning of legitimacy in most organizations is an implicit technical and moral order.
b) In U.S. firms, “higher authority” denotes those close to the top of the corporate pyramid.
c) In other societies, “higher authority” does not have a bureaucratic or organizational reference but consists of those with moral authority such as tribal chiefs, religious leaders, etc.
d) In firms, the legitimacy of those at the top increasingly derives from their positions as representatives for various constituencies.
e) Senior managers may justify their lofty positions within organizations by separating themselves from stockholders.

Ans:
Page: 265
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Interdependence, Legitimacy, and Power

69. Milgram designed experiments to determine the extent to which people __________.
a) learn from personal failures
b) obey the commands of an authority figure
c) are willing to use coercive power to gain influence
d) are motivated by financial rewards
e) are willing to learn new things as a means of gaining expert power

Ans:
Page: 265
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Obedience

70. Which one of the following statements does NOT provide an accurate description of Stanley Milgram’s experiments?
a) Milgram designed a series of experiments to determine the extent to which people obey the commands of an authority figure, even if they believe they are endangering the life of another person.
b) Experimental subjects were falsely told that the purpose of the experiment was to determine the effects of punishment on the learning of word pairs.
c) Experimental subjects were instructed to give what they believed were successively higher levels of electric shocks to people who missed the word pairs.
d) The experimental results revealed that 35 percent of the subjects subjected the “learner” to the maximum level of shock and the remaining 65 percent refused to obey the experimenter at various intermediate points.
e) The basic conclusion of Milgram’s studies is there is a tendency for individuals to comply with and be obedient to authority.

Ans:
Page: 265-266
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Obedience

71. Barnard’s studies on obedience and compliance relate to all of the following concepts EXCEPT:
a) compliance in organizations stemmed from the “consent of the governed.”
b) in every day organizational life, subordinates accepted or followed a managerial directive only if specific circumstances were met.
c) obedience is not the only reason for compliance in organizations.
d) subordinates must believe that a management directive is consistent with the purpose of an organization, but not necessarily the personal interests of the individual.
e) Bernard built his analysis on the notion of a psychological contract between the individual and the firm.

Ans:
Page: 266
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

72. According to Barnard, all of the following conditions must be met for a subordinate to accept or follow a directive EXCEPT:
a) the subordinate can and must understand the directive.
b) the subordinate must feel mentally and physically capable of carrying out the directive.
c) the subordinate must believe that the directive is not inconsistent with the purpose of the organization.
d) the subordinate must believe that the directive is not inconsistent with his or her personal interests.
e) the subordinate must know how the directive will help the organization.

Ans:
Pages: 266-267
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

73. The __________ is an unwritten set of expectations about a person’s exchange of inducements and contributions with an organization.
a) psychological contract
b) zone of indifference
c) political agreement
d) rational persuasion
e) interorganizational pact

Ans:
Page: 267
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

74. A __________ is the range of authoritative requests to which a subordinate is willing to respond without subjecting the directives to critical evaluation or judgment.
a) territory of unconcern
b) region of inattention
c) region of insensibility
d) section of apathy
e) zone of indifference

Ans:
Page: 267
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

75. Directives falling within the zone of indifference are __________.
a) subjected to slight scrutiny
b) ignored
c) rejected
d) obeyed
e) subjected to severe scrutiny.

Ans:
Page: 267
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

76. When a boss wants a subordinate to do things falling outside the zone of indifference, as identified by Chester, the manager must ______________.
a) publicize the importance of the zone to employees
b) acknowledge the power and influence of the zone
c) limit the zone to highlight certain behaviors
d) enlarge the zone to accommodate additional behaviors
e) explain the zone to employees

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

77. Managers derive power from both organizational and individual sources, which are called __________.
a) bureaucratic power and individual power
b) authority power and indigenous power
c) position power and personal power
d) statutory power and individual power
e) hierarchical power and personal power

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

78. All of the following are types of position power EXCEPT:
a) reward power.
b) coercive power.
c) legitimate power.
d) statutory power.
e) information power.

Ans:
Pages: 268-269
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

79. When Linda, a manager in a department store, tells someone to do something and refers to the fact that she is the boss and therefore the other person must do as asked, she is trying to use which type of power to influence the other person’s behavior?
a) Personal power
b) Reward power
c) Legitimate power
d) Coercive power
e) Process power

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

80. What type of power does a manager exercise when he or she approves or denies employee requests such as job transfers, equipment purchases, personal time off, or overtime work?
a) Legitimate power
b) Expert power
c) Coercive power
d) Referent power
e) Reward power

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

81. What type of power does a manager exercise when he or she offers pay raises, bonuses, special assignments, or compliments as incentives to subordinates?
a) Legitimate power
b) Expert power
c) Coercive power
d) Referent power
e) Reward power

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

82. A manager who withholds positive outcomes, such as special assignments or bonuses, as a means for controlling the behavior of employees is using which type of power?
a) Legitimate power
b) Expert power
c) Coercive power
d) Process power
e) Reward power

Ans:
Page: 269
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

83. Consider a financial analyst who reviews, analyzes, and makes recommendations regarding investment proposals from other organizational units. What type of position power is the analyst most likely using in doing her/his job?
a) Reward power
b) Coercive power
c) Legitimate power
d) Process power
e) Information power

Ans:
Page: 269
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

84. Karl is the manager of an engineering department. He refuses to allow engineering drawings to be circulated outside of the department. Karl is exercising which type of power?
a) Coercive power
b) Information power
c) Legitimate power
d) Process power
e) Representative power

Ans:
Page: 270
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

85. Which type of power is being used by an investor relations manager who is responsible for anticipating the questions of investors and guiding the types of responses that senior management makes?
a) Legitimate power
b) Information power
c) Representative power
d) Reward power
e) Coercive power

Ans:
Page: 270
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

86. President Barack Obama chose Jay Carney to be the White House press secretary. As a result, he became “the face of the administration.” Jay Carney holds which type of power?
a) Legitimate power
b) Coercive power
c) Representative power
d) Reward power
e) Legal power

Ans:
Page: 270
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

87. The four bases of personal power are __________, __________, __________, and __________.
a) legitimate; expert; information; referent
b) coercive; expert; reward; rational persuasion
c) reward; process; rational persuasion; coalitions
d) referent; reward; legitimate; expert
e) expert; rational persuasion; referent; coalitions

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

88. Ralph makes it a point to always offer help in technical areas in which he is skilled and knowledgeable. His subordinates trust his judgment, and form one of the most productive units in the company. What type of power is Ralph exerting?
a) Legitimate power
b) Coercive power
c) Referent power
d) Reward power
e) Expert power

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

89. In leading his work team on any project, Mike and the team members will typically discuss the project goals and the best way to achieve those goals. Which form of personal power is Mike using?
a) Process power
b) Expert power
c) Referent power
d) Rational persuasion
e) Information power

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

90. __________ behavior is action directed primarily at developing or using relationships in which other people are willing to some degree to defer to one’s wishes.
a) Skill-oriented
b) Endowment-oriented
c) Capability-oriented
d) Power-oriented
e) Referent-oriented

Ans:
Page: 272
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

91. __________ can be enhanced when managers are able to demonstrate to others that their work units are highly relevant to organizational goals and are able to respond to urgent organizational needs.
a) Statutory power
b) Personal power
c) Position power
d) Hierarchical power
e) Bureaucratic power

Ans:
Page: 272
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

92. In order to increase their centrality and criticality in the organization, managers may seek to acquire a more central role in the workflow by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
a) having information filtered through them.
b) occupying an office convenient to main traffic flows.
c) expanding their network of communication contacts.
d) increasing their political savvy.
e) making at least part of their job responsibilities unique.

Ans:
Pages: 272-273
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

93. A manager may attempt to increase task relevance to add criticality by doing which of the following?
a) By becoming an internal coordinator within the firm
b) By moving to provide unique services and information to other units
c) By shifting the emphasis on his or her group’s activities toward emerging issues central to the organization’s top priorities
d) By becoming an external representative of the firm
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 273
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Power and Influence Capacity

94. Which strategy for exercising relational influence can be described as “using the exchange of benefits as a basis for negotiation?”
a) Assertiveness
b) Sanctions
c) Bargaining
d) Reason
e) Coalition

Ans:
Page: 274
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Relational Influence Techniques

95. Which one of the following strategies for exercising relational influence can be defined as “using a direct and forceful personal approach?”
a) Assertiveness
b) Reason
c) Coalition
d) Sanctions
e) Higher authority

Ans:
Page: 274
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Relational Influence Techniques

96. Managers may attempt to increase the visibility of their job performance by doing which of the following?
a) Expanding the number of contacts they have with senior people
b) Making oral presentations of written work
c) Participating in problem-solving task forces
d) Sending out notices of accomplishments
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 274
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Relational Influence Techniques

97. Research on the various ways of exercising relational influence has concluded that __________ is the most popular strategy overall.
a) coalition
b) bargaining
c) reason
d) friendliness
e) sanctions

Ans:
Page: 275
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Relational Influence Techniques

98. __________ is a key foundation of the increasingly popular self-managing work teams and other creative worker involvement groups.
a) Reengineering
b) Continuous improvement
c) Empowerment
d) Strategic human resource management
e) Total quality management

Ans:
Page: 275
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Empowerment

99. Which statement about empowerment is not true?
a) In business today, managers in progressive organizations are expected to be good at empowering the people with whom they work.
b) Rather than considering power to be something at higher levels, power can be shared by everyone working in flatter and more collegial structures.
c) The concept of empowerment is part of the sweeping change being witnessed in today’s corporations.
d) Empowerment is a key foundation of the increasingly popular self-managing work teams and other creative worker involvement groups.
e) One of the bases for empowerment is the need to maintain older views of power itself.

Ans:
Page: 275
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Empowerment

100. When an organization attempts to move power down the hierarchy, it must also alter the existing pattern of __________ power.
a) personal
b) individual
c) special
d) position
e) exclusive

Ans:
Page: 276
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Keys to Empowerment

101. When embarking on an empowerment program, management needs to recognize the current zone of indifference and systematically move to __________ it.
a) neutralize
b) contract
c) inactivate
d) balance
e) expand

Ans:
Page: 276
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Keys to Empowerment

102. The key to expanding the amount of available power in an organization is to change from a view that stresses __________ to a view that emphasizes __________.
a) power over others; power over things
b) power over others ; power over self
c) power over others; power to get things done
d) power over self; power to get things done
e) power over subordinates; power over peers

Ans:
Page: 276
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Power as an Expanding Pie

103. Which of the following statements about empowerment is NOT correct?
a) A clearer definition of roles and responsibilities may help managers empower others.
b) Empowerment increases the total power available in an organization by providing opportunities for creative problem solving coupled with the discretion to act.
c) Empowerment means that all managers need to emphasize different ways of exercising influence.
d) Special support may be needed for managers so that they become comfortable in developing their own power over events and activities.
e) Executives and middle managers will change their thinking about and use of traditional position and personal power without having any inducement for changing their thinking or for acting on it.

Ans:
Pages: 276-277
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Power as an Expanding Pie

104. Beyond just empowering employees, Jeffrey Pfeffer suggests that organizations place employees at the center of their strategy by taking all of the following steps EXCEPT:
a) develop employment security for a selectively recruited workforce.
b) pay high wages with incentive pay and the potential for employee ownership.
c) encourage information sharing and participation with an emphasis on self-managed teams.
d) emphasize individual training and skill development with little cross-utilization of talent and cross–training.
e) pursue egalitarianism with little pay compression across units and enable extensive internal promotion.

Ans:
Page: 277
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: From Empowerment to Valuing People

105. According to the Machiavellian tradition, __________ is the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned influence means.
a) organizational psychology
b) organizational sociology
c) organizational power
d) organizational politics
e) social science

Ans:
Page: 278
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

106. In building on the Machiavellian tradition, managers are often considered __________ when they seek their own goals or use means that are not currently authorized by the organization or that push legal limits.
a) reasonable
b) devious
c) political
d) rational
e) effective

Ans:
Page: 278
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

107. One tradition in the analysis of organizational politics treats it as a necessary function resulting from differences in the self-interests of individuals. Which one of the following statements about this tradition is NOT accurate?
a) Organizational politics is viewed as the art of creative compromise among competing interests.
b) Politics arise because individuals need to develop compromises, avoid confrontation, and live together.
c) Organizationally powerful individuals negotiate with others to establish the goals of the organization and the acceptable means for achieving them.
d) Managers seek their own goals or use means that are not currently authorized by the organization.
e) Organizational politics is the use of power to develop socially acceptable ends and means that balance individual and collective interests.

Ans:
Page: 279
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

108. Which statement about political forecasting is false? Managers can attempt to forecast future political actions by __________.
a) placing themselves in the position of other persons involved in critical decisions or events
b) examining the benefits for all concerned parties with respect to each decision and action
c) considering the costs to all involved parties regarding each decision and action
d) spontaneously taking action with little thought
e) framing the situation in the context of a political payoff matrix

Ans:
Page: 280
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

109. Which one of the following statements about subunit power is accurate?
a) International units are typically more powerful than are staff groups.
b) Units toward the bottom of the organizational hierarchy are often more powerful than those toward the top.
c) Subtle power differentials are found among units at or near the same level in a firm.
d) Every unit has the same power.
e) Units have no power.

Ans:
Page: 281
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

110. Political __________ links managers more formally to one another as representatives of their work units.
a) savvy
b) movement
c) eventfulness
d) response
e) action

Ans:
Page: 281
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

111. With respect to political action and subunit power, __________ linkages involve formal staff units that have special expertise.
a) workflow
b) approval
c) service
d) advisory
e) auditing

Ans:
Page: 281
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

112. In the context of political action and subunit power, __________ linkages involve organizational units that have the right to evaluate the actions of others after action has been taken.
a) workflow
b) approval
c) service
d) advisory
e) auditing

Ans:
Page: 281
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

113. Individuals can employ three common strategies to protect themselves against organizational politics. These three strategies are __________.
a) protecting accountability, maintaining dominant values, and defending turf
b) forbearance of foes, redirecting accountability and responsibility, and maintaining a low profile
c) avoiding action and risk taking, redirecting accountability and responsibility, and defending turf
d) abstaining from cultural involvement, promotion of competing interests, and maintaining a low profile
e) forbearance of foes, directing task activities, and maintaining a low profile

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

114. In the context of self-protection against organizational politics, the methods of avoiding action and risk taking include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) working to the rules.
b) playing dumb.
c) depersonalization.
d) passing the buck.
e) routine or creative stalling.

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

115. “Creative stalling” is an avoidance strategy in the politics of self-protection wherein the manager or employee __________.
a) treats customers, clients, or subordinates as numbers, things or objects
b) accepts blame for the negative consequences of his/her actions
c) pretends to not be aware of the rules, policies, or procedures or of events that have occurred
d) adheres strictly to all the rules, policies, and procedures, and does not allow deviations or exceptions
e) spends time delaying implementation of undesirable changes

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

116. In the context of self-protection against organizational politics, the methods of redirecting accountability includes all of the following EXCEPT:
a) rewriting history.
b) blaming the problem on someone or some group that has difficulty defending themselves.
c) working to the rules.
d) blaming the problem on uncontrollable events.
e) escalating commitment to a losing course of action.

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

117. __________ is a political self-protection approach of redirecting responsibility by claiming to be an early supporter of something that turns out to be successful, or one who had initial reservations if a programs fails.
a) Passing the buck
b) Buffing (or rigorous documentation)
c) Preparing a blind memo
d) Rewriting history
e) Scapegoating

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

118. __________ is a political self-protection approach of redirecting responsibility by blaming the problem on someone or some group that has difficulty engaging in self-defense.
a) Passing the buck
b) Buffing (or rigorous documentation)
c) Preparing a blind memo
d) Rewriting history
e) Scapegoating

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

119. Defending turf is a method of political self-protection that can result from one of the following situations __________.
a) minimized commitment to a course of action
b) managers seeking to improve their power by attempting to expand the jobs their groups perform
c) organizations having various departments and groups with aligning interests
d) teams working closely together
e) managers sacrificing their personal interests for the sake of their departments

Ans:
Page: 283
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

120. __________ theory suggests that public corporations can function effectively even though their managers are self-interested and do not automatically bear the full consequences of their managerial actions.
a) Representative
b) Agency
c) Empowerment
d) Legitimate power
e) Indifference theory

Ans:
Page: 283
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

121. Which one of the following statements accurately describes a key premise of agency theory?
a) By protecting stockholder interests, all the interests of society are served.
b) Stockholders do not have a clear interest in greater returns.
c) Managers are self-interested and willing to sacrifice those self-interests for others (particularly stockholders.
d) Employees monitor how agents handle company strategies.
e) Newspapers report how agents manage company strategies.

Ans:
Page: 283
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

122. Which of the following control mechanisms is commonly used to ensure that executives and managers, as agents of the firm’s owners, act in the best interests of those owners?
a) Pay plan incentives do not align the interests of management and stockholders.
b) The establishment of a strong, independent board of directors.
c) Stockholders with a large stake in the firm taking a weak role on the board.
d) Stockholders read board of director reports.
e) People read what is stated in newspapers.

Ans:
Page: 284
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

123. The issue of __________ is an important ethical consideration with respect to agency theory.
a) pay of manufacturing workers
b) pay of service workers
c) pay of lower level managers
d) pay of middle level managers
e) pay of chief executive officers

Ans:
Page: 284
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

124. Under which of the following conditions does the resource dependence of an organization increase?
a) As needed resources become scarcer
b) As outsiders have less control over needed resources
c) As more substitutes for a particular type of resource are available
d) As more companies can provide the necessary key resources
e) As competitor firms become weaker in your market

Ans:
Page: 284
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

125. According to research by Hillman, Shropshire, and Cannalla, which of the following is true?
a) Larger firms were more likely to have female board members than smaller corporations.
b) Firms with more female employees were more likely to have a female board member.
c) Firms with less diversification and more closely related products and services were more likely to have a female board member.
d) Firms doing a lot of business with organizations that also had a female board member were more likely to have female board members.
e) All of the above are true.

Ans:
Page: 285
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

Fill in the blank

126. The ability to get someone else to do something you want done or to make things happen the way you want is called __________.

Ans:
Page: 264
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Power and Influence

127. __________ is what a person has when exercising power and it is expressed by others’ behavioral response to this exercise of power.

Ans:
Page: 264
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Power and Influence

128. __________ argued that subordinates accept or follow directives from a boss only under special circumstances.

Ans:
Page: 266
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

129. Chester Barnard refers to the area in which authoritative directions are obeyed as the __________.

Ans:
Page: 267
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

130. __________, or formal authority, is the extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the “boss” has a “right of command” to control their behavior.

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

131. __________ is the extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people.

Ans:
Page: 268
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

132. __________ power is the extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or administer punishments to control other people.

Ans:
Page: 269
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

133. The source of __________ power is the placing of an individual in a position to influence how inputs are transformed into outputs from a firm, department or small group.

Ans:
Page: 269
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

134. __________ power is the access to and/or the control of information.

Ans:
Page: 270
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

135. __________ is the formal right conferred by the firm to speak as a representative for a potentially important group composed of individuals across departments or outside the firm.

Ans:
Page: 270
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power

136. __________ power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual’s position.

Ans:
Page: 270
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

137. When a person controls another’s behavior by convincing him or her of the desirability of a goal and a reasonable way of achieving it, __________ is being used.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

138. __________ is the ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

139. __________ is the ability to control another’s behavior indirectly because the individual owes an obligation to you or another as part of a larger collective interest.

Ans:
Page: 271
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Personal Power

140. __________ is the process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work.

Ans:
Page: 275
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the keys to empowerment, power as an expanding pie, and getting from empowerment to valuing people.
Section Reference: Empowerment

141. With respect to political action and subunit power, __________ linkages involve contacts with units that precede or follow in a sequential production chain.

Ans:
Page: 281
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

142. In the context of political action and subunit power, __________ linkages involve contacts with units that are established to help with problems.

Ans:
Page: 281
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

143. __________ is an avoidance strategy in the politics of self-protection wherein the manager or employee adheres strictly to all the rules, policies, and procedures, and does not allow deviations or exceptions.

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

144. __________ is an avoidance strategy in the politics of self-protection wherein the manager or employee treats customers, clients, or subordinates as numbers, things or objects.

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

145. __________ is an avoidance strategy in the politics of self-protection where the employee slows down the pace of work to expand the task so that the individual appears to be working hard.

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

146. __________ is a political self-protection approach of redirecting responsibility by defining the task in such a way that it becomes someone else’s formal responsibility.

Ans:
Page: 282
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics of Self-Protection

147. __________ reflects the notion that managers are “agents” of company owners.

Ans:
Page: 283
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

148. __________ refers to the pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization.

Ans:
Page: 286
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

Essay

149. Define power from an organizational behavior perspective. What is the difference between power and influence?
Page: 264
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Power and Influence

150. Describe the zone of indifference.

Page: 267
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define interdependence, legitimacy and power, obedience, acceptance of authority and the zone of indifference.
Section Reference: Acceptance of Authority and Zone of Indifference

151. What are the six forms of position power and the four forms of personal power? Briefly describe each form.

Page: 268-271
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the key sources of power and influence, power and influence capacity, and the relational influence techniques.
Section Reference: Position Power
Section Reference: Personal Power

152. What are the two traditions in organizational politics?

Page: 278-279
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Traditions of Organizational Politics

153. What does the term organizational governance mean?

Page: 286
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the traditions of organizational politics, the politics of self-protection, and politics and governance.
Section Reference: Politics and Governance

File: ch13, Chapter 13: Leadership Essentials

True/False

1. A key way of differentiating between management and leadership is to argue that the role of management is to promote adaptive or useful change while the role of leadership is to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly.

Page: 292
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

2. Both management and leadership are needed in an organization, and if managers do not assume responsibility for both, then they should ensure that someone else handles the neglected activity

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

3. Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

4. Leadership appears in two forms: implicit leadership and explicit leadership.

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

5. Formal leadership is exerted by persons who are appointed or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

6. Informal leadership is exerted by persons who become influential because they have special skills that meet the resource needs of others.

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

7. Trait perspectives assume that traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and non-leaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 293
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

8. The “great person-trait approach” is a new approach to studying leadership that focuses on the relationship between empowerment and leadership.

Ans:
Page: 293
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

9. Trait theories reveal that leaders who tend to be energetic, operate on an even keel, are ambitious, and have a high need for achievement.

Ans:
Page: 293
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

10. Trait perspectives indicate that leaders crave power not as a means to achieving a vision or desired goals but as an end in itself.

Ans:
Page: 293
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

11. Leaders must have enough emotional maturity to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses, and have to be oriented toward self-improvement.

Ans:
Page: 293
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

12. Prosocial power motivation refers to a high need for achievement.

Ans:
Page: 293
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

13. Leaders do not need to be brilliant and they usually do not have to possess extensive specific knowledge concerning their industry, firm, and job.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

14. The behavioral perspective of leadership assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

15. Leadership studies conducted at the University of Michigan derived two basic forms of leader behavior called consideration and initiating structure.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.

Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

16. Two basic forms of leader behavior, called employee-centered and production-centered, were identified as a result of leadership studies conducted at the University of Michigan.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

17. According to the Michigan leadership studies, employee-centered supervisors are those who place strong emphasis on their subordinates’ welfare.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

18. The results of the Michigan leadership studies indicate that production-centered supervisors tend to have more productive work groups than employee-centered supervisors.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

19. Sometimes the more general terms of human relations oriented leadership and task oriented leadership are used to refer, respectively, to employee-centered supervisors and production-centered supervisors.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

20. Two basic forms of leader behavior derived by leadership studies at Ohio State University include employee-centered and production-centered behaviors.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

21. A highly considerate leader is sensitive to people’s feelings and, much like the employee-centered leader, tries to make things pleasant for his or her followers.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

22. A leader high in initiating structure is concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of the work agenda.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

23. Initial results of the Ohio State leadership studies were deceptive in indicating that effective leaders were high on both consideration and initiating structure.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

24. Consideration is analogous to socioemotional leadership and initiating structure is analogous to task leadership.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

25. Despite earlier beliefs, the Ohio State leadership studies concluded that leaders should be moderate on: consideration behaviors and initiating structure behaviors.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

26. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed the “leadership grid” approach, which emphasizes combinations of concern for production and concern for people.

Ans:
Pages: 294-295
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

27. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton’s leadership grid results are plotted on a fifteen-position grid.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

28. According to the leadership grid, leaders with a 1/1 style are termed “impoverished,” while a 5/5 style is labeled “middle of the road.”

Ans:
Page: 295
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

29. According to the leadership grid, a leader with a 9/1 style has high concern for people and high concern for production.

Ans:
Page: 295
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

30. According to the leadership grid, a leader with a 9/9 style is high on both concern for people and concern for production, and has the ideal leadership style.

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

31. Some research carried out in the United States, Britain, Hong Kong and Japan, on cross cultural implications shows that leadership behaviors should be carried out in the same ways in alternative cultures.

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

32. Successful leaders adjust their influence attempts to the situation.

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

33. Leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies to predict leader or organizational outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Situational Contingency Leadership

34. According to situational leadership theories, leader flexibility should be the most predictive in stable environments or when leaders lead the same people over time.

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Situational Contingency Leadership

35. According to situational leadership theories, prosocial power motivation is likely to be most important in complex organizations where decision implementation requires lots of persuasion and social influence.

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Situational Contingency Leadership

36. According to situational leadership models, leader traits and behaviors will have less impact in a strong situation than in a weak unstructured situation.

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Situational Contingency Leadership

37. Fiedler’s leadership contingency view holds that group effectiveness depends on an appropriate match between a leader’s style and the demands of the situation.

Ans:
Page: 296-297
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

38. The least-preferred co-worker scale is a measure of a person’s leadership style based on a description of the person with whom respondents have been able to work least well.

Ans:
Page: 297
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

39. Fielder argues that low LPC leaders have a relationship-motivated leadership style, whereas high LPC leaders have a task-motivated leadership style.

Ans:
Page: 297
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

40. According to Fiedler’s contingency theory, the relationship-motivated leader has greater group effectiveness under high or low situational control.

Ans:
Page: 297
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

41. In Fiedler’s contingency theory, situational control is a function of leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.

Ans:
Page: 297
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

42. According to Fiedler’s cognitive resource perspective, a leader should use directive or nondirective behavior depending on the following situational contingencies: the leader’s or subordinate group members’ ability or competency, stress, experience, and group support of the leader.

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

43. Cognitive resource theory views nondirective leader behavior as most helpful for performance when the leader is competent, relaxed, and supported.

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

44. According to Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory, group member ability becomes most important when the leader is directive and receives strong support from group members.

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

45. In Fiedler’s LPC instrument, the biggest controversy concerns exactly what Fiedler’s LPC instrument measures.
Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

46. In leader match training, leaders are trained to diagnose the situation to match their high or low LPC scores with situational control.

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

47. Because unanswered questions concerning Fiedler’s contingency theory remain, the perspective and the leader match program have relatively little support.

Ans:
Page: 299
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

48. Robert House’s path-goal leadership theory has its roots in the expectancy model of motivation.

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

49. House’s path-goal theory of leadership assumes that a leader’s key function is to adjust his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies that influence the accomplishment of personal goals and organizational goals.

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

50. In House’s leadership theory, the term path-goal emphasizes how a leader influences subordinates’ perceptions of both work goals and personal goals and the links found between these two sets of goals.

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

51. Directive leadership is predicted to have a positive impact on subordinates when the task is ambiguous; it is predicted to have just the opposite effect for clear tasks.

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

52. Supportive leadership will increase the satisfaction of subordinates who work on highly repetitive tasks or on tasks considered to be unpleasant, stressful, or frustrating.

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

53. Current assessments of path-goal theory by well-known scholars have pointed out that most aspects have been thoroughly validated.

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

54. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory focuses on the situational contingency of maturity, or “readiness,” of followers.

Ans:
Page: 302
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

55. Hersey and Blanchard argue that situational leadership requires adjusting the leader’s emphasis on task behaviors and relationship behaviors according to the readiness of followers to perform their tasks.

Ans:
Page: 302
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

56. According to Hersey and Blanchard, a “telling” leadership style is best for low follower readiness.

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

57. Substitutes for leadership can prevent a leader from behaving in a certain way or nullify the effects of a leader’s actions.

Ans:
Page: 304
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Substitutes for Leadership

58. Passive followership beliefs are beliefs that followers should express opinions, take initiative, and constructively question and challenge leaders.

Ans:
Page: 308
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the implicit leadership theories and implicit followership theories.
Section Reference: Implicit Followership Theories

59. Transactional leaders are those leaders who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers.

Ans:
Page: 309
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Charismatic Leadership

60. Conger and Kanungo developed a five-stage charismatic leadership model.

Ans:
Page: 310
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Charismatic Leadership

61. Transformational leadership involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance agreed upon between leaders and followers.

Ans:
Page: 310
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

62. Transactional leadership includes the four dimensions of charisma, inspiration, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration.

Ans:
Page: 310
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

63. Dark-side charismatic can have negative effects on followers.

Ans:
Page: 313
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

Multiple Choice

64. The role of __________ is to promote adaptive or useful change.
a) directing
b) management
c) leadership
d) administration
e) supervision

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

65. __________ is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.
a) Supervision
b) Directing
c) Management
d) Administration
e) Leadership

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

66. Leadership appears in two forms, which are __________.
a) formal leadership and informal leadership
b) explicit leadership and implicit leadership
c) administrative leadership and supervisory leadership
d) behavioral leadership and mechanistic leadership
e) organic leadership and mechanistic leadership

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

67. __________ is exerted by persons appointed to or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations.
a) Informal leadership
b) Administrative leadership
c) Bureaucratic leadership
d) Formal leadership
e) Authoritative leadership

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

68. The __________ to studying leadership sought to identify important differences between leaders and non-leaders.
a) behavioral approach
b) methodical approach
c) contingency approach
d) scientific approach
e) great person-trait approach

Ans:
Page: 293
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

69. The __________ assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes.
a) behavioral perspective
b) trait perspective
c) contingency perspective
d) contemporary perspective
e) psychological perspective

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

70. Which of the following is NOT a trait with positive implications for successful leadership?
a) Prosocial power motivation
b) Emotional maturity
c) Perseverance
d) Flexibility
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 293
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

71. Leadership studies at the University of Michigan developed which two basic forms of leader behavior?
a) Consideration and initiating structure
b) Implicit and explicit
c) Proactive and reactive
d) Employee centered and production centered
e) In-groups and out-groups

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

72. According to the Michigan leadership studies, __________ supervisors are those who place strong emphasis on their subordinates’ welfare.
a) production-centered
b) administration-centered
c) employee-centered
d) task-centered
e) process-centered

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

73. According to the Michigan leadership studies, __________ supervisors are primarily concerned with getting the work done.
a) process-centered
b) production-centered
c) employee-centered
d) administration-centered
e) task-centered.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

74. Leadership studies conducted at Ohio State University derived which two basic forms of leader behavior?
a) Consideration and initiating structure
b) Implicit and explicit
c) Proactive and reactive
d) Employee centered and production centered
e) In-groups and out-groups

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

75. According to the Ohio State leadership studies, a leader high in __________ is sensitive to people’s feelings and tries to make things pleasant for the followers.
a) initiating structure
b) attention to detail
c) task orientation
d) consideration
e) human relations orientation

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

76. According to the Ohio State leadership studies, a leader high in __________ is concerned with spelling out the task requirements and clarifying other aspects of the work agenda.
a) consideration
b) initiating structure
c) attention to detail
d) production orientation
e) employee orientation

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

77. Consideration is sometimes called __________ leadership and initiating structure is sometimes called __________ leadership.
a) socioemotional; task
b) task; socioemotional
c) socioemotional; 9/9
d) production-centered; task-oriented
e) human relations oriented; employee-centered

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

78. Despite earlier beliefs, the Ohio State leadership studies concluded that leaders should be __________ on consideration and __________ on initiating structure.
a) low; low
b) low; high
c) moderate; moderate
d) high; low
e) high; high

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

79. When using the leadership grid, results are plotted on a nine-position grid that places concern for __________ on the vertical axis and concern for __________ on the horizontal axis.
a) structure; performance
b) people; production
c) task orientation;human relations
d) initiating structure; consideration
e) financial performance; people

Ans:
Page: 294-295
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

80. Which of the following does NOT provide an accurate description of leadership styles in the Blake and Mouton leadership grid?
a) A 1/1 manager is termed team management.
b) A 1/9 manager has minimum concern for production and maximum concern for people.
c) A 5/5 manager is a middle of the road manager.
d) A 9/1 manager has maximum concern for production and minimum concern for people.
e) A 9/9 manager has a maximum concern for both people and production.

Ans:
Page: 295
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

81. Leaders with a 1/9 leadership style possess which of the following?
a) Low concern for production and high concern for people
b) Low concern for people and high concern for production
c) Low concern for both people and production
d) High concern for both people and production
e) None of the above

Ans:
Page: 295
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

82. According to Blake and Mouton, the “country club management” term refers to leaders with:
a) Low concern for production and high concern for people
b) Low concern for people and high concern for production
c) Low concern for both people and production
d) High concern for both people and production
e) None of the above

Ans:
Page: 295
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

83. According to the leadership grid, a 9/1 leader has a(n) _________________ style.
a) country club management
b) impoverished
c) task management
d) team management
e) middle of the road

Ans:
Page: 295-296
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

84. Research conducted in the United States, Britain, Hong Kong and Japan show that leadership behaviors _________________.
a) are the same in all four countries
b) are not important
c) must be carried out in different ways in alternative cultures
d) must be carried out the same way in different cultures
e) change consistently by country

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

85. Leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with __________ to predict leader or organizational outcomes.
a) industry experience
b) educational background
c) leadership experience
d) age
e) situational contingencies

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Situational Contingency Leadership

86. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT with regard to situational leadership theories?
a) Leader flexibility should be the most predictive in stable environments or when leaders lead the same people over time.
b) Prosocial power motivation is likely to be most important in complex organizations where decision implementation requires lots of persuasion and social influence.
c) An example of a strong situation is a highly formal organization with lots of rules and procedures.
d) Leader traits and behaviors will have less impact in a strong situation than in a weak, unstructured situation.
e) The effects of traits are enhanced by their relevance to the leader’s situational contingencies.

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Situational Contingency Leadership

87. In Fiedler’s leadership contingency theory, a leader’s style is essentially a(n) ________.
a) power
b) strength
c) trait measure
d) personality
e) ego

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

88. Fiedler argues that high LPC leaders have a(n) __________ style, whereas low LPC leaders have a(n) __________ style.
a) consideration; initiating structure
b) employee-centered; production-centered
c) task-oriented; human-relations oriented
d) relationship-motivated; task-motivated
e) consideration; mechanistic

Ans:
Page: 297
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

89. Which of the following statements is NOT correct with regard to Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership?
a) Situational control is the extent to which leaders can determine what their group is going to do and what the outcomes of their actions and decisions are going to be.
b) The least preferred co-worker scale is a measure of a person’s leadership style based on a description of the person with whom the respondent has been able to work least well.
c) Fiedler argues that high LPC leaders have a relationship-motivated style.
d) Fiedler argues that relationship-oriented leaders have greater group effectiveness under high and low situational control, whereas task-oriented leaders have more effective group effectiveness under moderate situational control.
e) Fiedler argues that low LPC leaders have a task-motivated style.

Ans:
Page: 297
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

90. In his contingency theory of leadership, Fiedler measures high, moderate, and low situational control with which of the following three variables?
a) human relations orientation, task identity, and personal power
b) leader-member relations, task structure, and position power
c) position power, human relations orientation, and environmental complexity
d) human relations orientation, task variety, and environmental complexity
e) personal power, task variety, and leader-member relations

Ans:
Page: 297
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

91. According to Fiedler, the extent to which a position enables a leader to use his or her task expertise and authority to reward or punish subordinates is called __________.
a) leader-member relations
b) position power
c) leadership style
d) task structure
e) situational control

Ans:
Page: 297
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

92. Assume you are the supervisor of a group of bank tellers. Your subordinates are highly supportive, their jobs are well defined, and you have clear authority to evaluate and reward their performance. Which of the following leadership styles would be most recommended based upon Fiedler’s theory?
a) task-motivated
b) relationship- motivated
c) human relations
d) team- motivated
e) achievement- motivated

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

93. Suppose that the following features characterize the leadership situation in a specific work team: (a) The skills required in each team member’s job, the order in which tasks are to be performed, and the interdependencies among the various jobs are all clearly defined. (b) The supervisor frequently criticizes team members and readily punishes them because he has the power to do so. (c) Because the supervisor is punitive, the team members try to undermine his authority and sabotage his leadership. Which leadership style likely would be most effective in this situation?
a) task- motivated
b) relationship-motivated
c) human relations
d) team- motivated
e) achievement- motivated

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

94. According to Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory, whether a leader should use directive or nondirective behavior depends on all of the following factors EXCEPT:
a) the leader’s or subordinate group members’ ability or competency.
b) stress.
c) experience.
d) industry.
e) group support of the leader.

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

95. The biggest controversy about Fiedler’s contingency theory concerns __________.
a) the three variables that Fiedler chose to measure –– high, moderate, and low control
b) what Fiedler’s LPC instrument measures
c) Fiedler’s notion of situational control
d) Fiedler’s definition of position power
e) Fielder’s behavioral interpretation

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

96. In __________, leaders are trained to diagnose the situation to match their high or low LPC scores with situational control.
a) diagnostic development
b) situational control analysis
c) leader match training
d) situational diagnostics
e) leader analysis profiling

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

97. Which of the following leadership theories has it roots in the expectancy model of motivation?
a) Attribution theory
b) Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory
c) House’s path-goal theory
d) Graen’s Leader-Member Exchange Theory
e) Fiedler’s contingency theory

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

98. In House’s leadership theory, __________ refers to how a leader influences subordinates’ perceptions of both work goals and personal goals and the links found between these two sets of goals.
a) goal-linkage
b) goal-congruence
c) path-congruence
d) path-goal
e) linking-pin

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

99. House’s path-goal theory of leadership assumes that a leader’s key function is to _________ in the work setting.
a) maintain his or her work behaviors
b) keep changing his or her behaviors
c) reinforce his or her typical behaviors
d) adjust his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies
e) teach employees his or her normal behaviors

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

100. According to House’s path-goal leadership model, which of the following behaviors is part of a directive leadership style?
a) showing concern for the status and needs of subordinates
b) soliciting the suggestions of subordinates
c) displaying confidence that subordinates are able to meet high performance standards
d) treating subordinates as equals
e) spelling out the what and how of subordinates’ tasks

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

101. According to House’s path-goal model, which of the following behaviors is part of achievement-oriented leadership?
a) showing concern for the status and needs of subordinates
b) soliciting the suggestions of subordinates
c) emphasizing challenging goals, stressing performance excellence, and displaying confidence that subordinates are able to meet high standards of performance
d) using suggestions of subordinates when making decisions
e) spelling out the what and how of subordinates’ tasks

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

102. According to the path-goal leadership theory, a manager is showing a participative leadership style when he/she __________.
a) lets subordinates know what performance is expected
b) expects the highest levels of performance
c) consults with subordinates and takes their suggestions into account before making decisions
d) treats subordinates as equals during decision making
e) acts friendly to subordinates

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

103. Len and John are managers. Len spends a lot of time scheduling work to be done and providing guidance on its accomplishment. John takes great care to listen to his subordinates’ concerns and act friendly toward them. In the terminology of House’s path-goal theory, Len is acting as a(n) __________ leader, while John is acting as a(n) __________ leader.
a) directive; achievement-oriented
b) directive; supportive
c) achievement-oriented; participative
d) achievement-oriented; supportive
e) autocratic; democratic

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

104. The path-goal theory predicts that ___________ leadership is called for when ambiguous tasks are performed by highly authoritarian and close-minded subordinates.
a) directive
b) supportive
c) achievement-oriented
d) authoritarian
e) participative

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

105. The path-goal theory predicts that a(n) __________ supervisor would help traditional assembly-line auto worker jobs, which are typically repetitive, more pleasant.
a) directive
b) supportive
c) achievement-oriented
d) authoritarian
e) participative

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

106. Which of the following statements about House’s path-goal theory is true?
a) Current assessments of path-goal theory by well-known scholars have pointed out that many aspects have not been tested adequately.
b) Training could be used to change leadership behavior to fit the situational contingencies.
c) The leader could be taught to diagnose the situation and learn how to try to change the contingency.
d) There is very little recent research concerning the theory.
e) The path-goal theory is the most highly regarded leadership theory.

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

107. The __________ model focuses on the situational contingency of maturity or “readiness” of followers.
a) romance of leadership
b) situational leadership
c) supportive leadership
d) transformational
e) passive followership

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

108. Hersey and Blanchard argue that situational leadership requires adjusting the leader’s emphasis on task behaviors and relationship behaviors according to the __________.
a) readiness of followers to perform their tasks
b) readiness of leaders to empower their followers
c) willingness of leaders to interact with their followers
d) willingness of followers to embrace a broad zone of indifference
e) leader’s position power

Ans:
Page: 302
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

109. Which of the following is NOT one of the four styles of leadership identified by Hersey and Blanchard?
a) Delegating
b) Participating
c) Selling
d) Telling
e) Motivating

Ans:
Page: 303
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

110. According to Hersey and Blanchard, a telling style of leadership is best for __________.
a) low follower readiness
b) low to moderate follower readiness
c) moderate to high follower readiness
d) high follower readiness
e) veteran employees who are highly prepared for a particular job

Ans:
Page: 302
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

111. According to Hersey and Blanchard, a __________ style of leadership is best for high follower readiness.
a) delegating
b) directing
c) participating
d) selling
e) telling

Ans:
Page: 303
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

112. Use of __________ theory requires the leader to develop the capability to diagnose the demands of situations in terms of follower readiness and then to choose and implement the appropriate leadership response.
a) Attribution
b) Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership
c) House’s path-goal
d) Graen’s Leader-Member Exchange
e) Fiedler’s contingency

Ans:
Pages: 303-304
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

113. All of the following are substitutes for leadership EXCEPT:
a) individuals’ experience, ability and training.
b) highly structured/routine jobs.
c) intrinsically satisfying jobs.
d) cohesive work groups.
e) high leader position power.

Ans:
Page: 304
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Substitutes for Leadership

114. __________ make(s) a leader’s influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader’s influence.
a) Diverse team membership
b) Ethical team values
c) Substitutes for leadership
d) Substitutes for followership
e) Substitutes for technology

Ans:
Page: 304
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Substitutes for Leadership

115. Meindl referred to the phenomenon whereby people attribute almost magical qualities to leadership as _____________.
a) the romance of leadership
b) a leadership prototype
c) leadership as attribution
d) inference-based attrition
e) transactional leadership

Ans:
Page: 305
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Substitutes for Leadership

116. According to __________ approaches, individual behavior is constructed in context, as people act and interact in situations.
a) supportive leadership
b) social construction
c) situational leadership
d) trait perspectives
e) leader match training

Ans:
Page: 308
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Compare the implicit leadership theories and implicit followership theories.
Section Reference: Implicit Followership Theories

117. Research suggests that high-quality LMX is associated with all of the following outcomes EXCEPT:
a) increased follower satisfaction.
b) increased follower productivity.
c) decreased turnover.
d) increased salaries.
e) slower promotion rates.

Ans:
Page: 313
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Leader-Member Exchange Theory

118. The __________ of charismatic leadership emphasizes personalized power, whereas the __________ of charismatic leadership emphasizes empowerment of followers.
f) bright side; dark side
g) selfish side; unselfish side
h) sustainable side; unsustainable side
i) dark side; bright side
j) strong side; weak side

Ans:
Page: 310
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Charismatic Leadership

119. Conger and Kanungo have argued that if leaders rely on vision articulation, environmental sensitivity, and unconventional behavior, rather than on maintaining the status quo, followers will tend to attribute __________ leadership to them.
k) traditional
l) charismatic
m) transactional
n) transformational
o) managerial

Ans:
Page: 310
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Charismatic Leadership

120. The four dimensions of transactional leadership include all of the following EXCEPT:
p) contingent rewards.
q) active management by exception.
r) passive management by exception.
s) management by example.
t) laissez-faire.

Ans:
Page: 310
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

121. Which of the following is NOT one of the four dimensions of transformational leadership?
u) Charisma
v) Physical stamina
w) Inspiration
x) Intellectual stimulation
y) Individualized consideration

Ans:
Page: 310
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

122. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
z) Transformational leadership is likely to be strongest at the top-management level.
aa) Transformational leadership is found throughout the organization.
bb) Transformational leadership operates in combination with transactional leadership.
cc) Transformational leadership is similar to most of the traditional leadership approaches.
dd) Leaders need both transactional and transformational leadership to be successful.

Ans:
Page: 311
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

Fill in the blank

123. The role of __________ is to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly, whereas the role of __________ is to promote adaptive or useful changes.

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

124. __________ leadership is exerted by persons who become influential because they have special skills that meet the resource needs of others.

Ans:
Page: 292
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

125. __________ perspectives assume that traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and non-leaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes.

Ans:
Page: 293
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives

126. In the Michigan leadership studies, __________-centered supervisors were found to have more productive work groups than did __________-centered supervisors.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

127. __________ leadership is a more general term for employee-centered supervision.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

128. __________ leadership is a more general term for production-centered supervision.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

129. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed the __________, based on extensions of the Ohio State leadership dimensions.

Ans:
Page: 294
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives

130. __________ theory holds that group effectiveness depends on an appropriate match between a leader’s style and the demands of the situation.

Ans:
Page: 296
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

131. Fielder used the __________ to measure a person’s leadership style based on a description of the person with whom the respondent has been able to work least well.

Ans:
Page: 297
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

132. Fiedler recently moved beyond his contingency theory of leadership by developing the__________ theory.

Ans:
Page: 298
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

133. __________ theory assumes that a leader’s key function is to adjust his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies that influence the accomplishment of personal goals and organizational goals.

Ans:
Page: 300
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

134. The path-goal theory predicts that __________ leadership is expected to have a positive impact on subordinates when the task is ambiguous.

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

135. The path-goal theory predicts that __________ leadership will promote satisfaction on non-repetitive tasks that allow for the ego involvement of subordinates.

Ans:
Page: 301
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Path-Goal View of Leadership

136. _________ theory focuses on the situational contingency of maturity, or “readiness,” of followers.

Ans:
Page: 302
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

137. According to the Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership model, _________ is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.

Ans:
Page: 302
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

138. In contrast to other approaches to studying leadership, the __________ approach argues that sometimes hierarchical leadership makes essentially no difference.

Ans:
Page: 304
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Substitutes for Leadership

139. People attributing romantic, almost magical qualities to leadership is known as the __________.

Ans:
Page: 305
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Substitutes for Leadership

140. A(n) __________ is an image that people have in their minds regarding what a model leader should look like.

Ans:
Page: 306
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the implicit leadership theories and implicit followership theories.
Section Reference: Implicit Leadership Theories

141. __________ are preconceived notions about the attributes associated with leaders that reflect the structure and content of “cognitive categories” used to distinguish leaders from nonleaders.

Ans:
Page: 306
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the implicit leadership theories and implicit followership theories.
Section Reference: Implicit Leadership Theories

142. __________ are beliefs that followers should be passive, deferent, and obedient to authority.

Ans:
Page: 308
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Compare the implicit leadership theories and implicit followership theories.
Section Reference: Implicit Followership Theories

143. __________ are those who, by force of their personal abilities, are capable of having a profound and extraordinary impact on followers.

Ans:
Page: 309
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Charismatic Leadership

144. __________ leadership involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance agreed upon between leaders and followers.

Ans:
Page: 310
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

145. __________ leadership occurs when leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s purpose and mission, and when they stir followers to look beyond their own interests for the good of others.

Ans:
Page: 310
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

146. The __________ dimension of transformational leadership provides vision and a sense of mission, and it instills pride, along with follower respect and trust.

Ans:
Page: 311
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

Essay

147. What is leadership and how does it differ from management?

Page: 292-293
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Managers versus Leaders

148. Briefly describe the differing emphases of the trait perspectives of leadership, the behavioral perspectives of leadership, and situational contingency theories of leadership.

Page: 293-296
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Discuss managers versus leaders, trait leadership perspectives, and behavioral leadership perspectives.
Section Reference: Trait Leadership Perspectives
Section Reference: Behavioral Leadership Perspectives
Section Reference: Situational Contingency Leadership

149. Discuss Fiedler’s leadership contingency view.

Page: 296-297
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View

150. What is meant by the concept of substitutes for leadership?
Page: 304
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Outline the situational contingency approaches to leadership.
Section Reference: Substitutes for Leadership

151. What is the difference between transactional and transformational leadership?
Page: 310-311
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss the inspirational and relational perspectives of leadership.
Section Reference: Transactional and Transformational Leadership

File: ch14, Chapter 14: Leadership Challenges and Organizational Change

True/False

1. Servant leadership involves both owning one’s personal experiences and acting in accordance with one’s true self.

Ans:
Page: 322
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Servant Leadership

2. Self-efficacy is a person’s belief that he or she can perform adequately in a situation.

Ans:
Page: 320
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Authentic Leadership

3. Spiritual leadership has a strong research base in organizational behavior.

Ans:
Page: 321
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Spiritual Leadership

4. Greenleaf argued that the primary purpose of business should be to create a positive impact on both its employees and community.

Ans:
Page: 322
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Servant Leadership

5. Spiritual leadership is viewed as a field of inquiry within the broader setting of workplace spirituality.

Ans:
Page: 320
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Spiritual Leadership

6. Servant leadership is rooted in organizational behavior research.

Ans:
Page: 323
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Servant Leadership

7. Authentic leadership is similar to ethical leadership in that both types of leadership express a concern for others, integrity, and role modeling.

Ans:
Page: 323
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Ethical Leadership

8. Transformational leaders stress authenticity and self-awareness and tend to be more transactional than other leadership aspects.

Ans:
Page: 323
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Ethical Leadership

9. Ethical leaders emphasize values, vision and intellectual stimulation.

Ans:
Page: 323
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Ethical Leadership

10. Research indicates that leadership is restricted to the vertical influence of a single individual in an organization.

Ans:
Page: 324
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Shared Leadership in Work Teams

11. Leadership is not restricted simply to the vertical influence of a single individual but extends to other people as well.

Ans:
Page: 325
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Shared Leadership in Work Teams

12. Within a team, leadership can be assigned to one person, rotated across team members or even shared simultaneously as different needs arise across time.

Ans:
Page: 325
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Locations of Shared Leadership

13. A productive, supportive climate and commitment to continuous improvement and adaptation are unnecessary for creating and maintaining team performance.

Ans:
Page: 325
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Desired Shared Conditions

14. Shared and vertical self-directing team activities tend to encourage self-leadership activities which in turn can help individuals and the team.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Shared Leadership and Self- Leadership

15. Often self-leadership activities are divided into three broad categories: behavior-focused, personal-focused and organizational-focused.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Shared Leadership and Self- Leadership

16. Behavior-focused strategies of self leadership include: self observation, self goal achievement, self congratulations, and self maintenance.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Behavior- Focused Strategies

17. Self observation involves examining your own behavior to increase awareness of when and why you engage in certain behaviors.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Behavior- Focused Strategies

18. Heightened self awareness is a first step in behavior change.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Behavior- Focused Strategies

19. Self-rewards, in conjunction with self observation, can be very useful in moving behaviors toward goal attainment only when they are real and not imaginary.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Self- Rewards

20. Rehearsal of desired behaviors before actual performance can be useful in moving behaviors toward goal attainment.

Ans:
Pages: 326-327
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Self- Rewards

21. Constructive thought patterns focus on the development of reinforcement strategies for behavioral change.

Ans:
Page: 327
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Constructive Thought Patterns

22. Self-analysis and improvement of belief systems, mental imagery of successful performance outcomes and positive self-talk can influence a team member’s thoughts and positively affect performance.

Ans:
Page: 327
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Constructive Thought Patterns

23. Self analysis and improvement of belief systems, mental imagery of successful performance outcomes and positive self-talk tend to serve as partial substitutes for ethical leadership.

Ans:
Page: 327
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Constructive Thought Patterns

24. Shared leadership is the only way to lead in business today.

Ans:
Page: 327
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Constructive Thought Patterns

25. Often shared leadership is used in combination with vertical leadership.

Ans:
Page: 327
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Constructive Thought Patterns

26. Project GLOBE is built around the assumption that leadership variables and cultural variables can be meaningfully applied at societal and organizational levels.

Ans:
Page: 328
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: The GLOBE Perspective

27. The central assumption behind the GLOBE theoretical model is that similar attributes and entities across cultures are most effective in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 328
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: The GLOBE Perspective

28. According to the GLOBE theoretical model, over time, founders and subsequent organizational leaders respond to organizational culture and alter their behavior/leadership styles.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: The GLOBE Perspective

29. According to the GLOBE theoretical model, acceptance of the leader by followers does NOT facilitate leader effectiveness.

Ans:
Page: 328
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: The GLOBE Perspective

30. The cultural dimension “uncertainty avoidance” within the GLOBE theoretical model refers to reliance on social norms, rules, etc., to alleviate future unpredictability.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

31. The cultural dimension “in-group collectivism” refers to the rewarding of collective actions.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

32. The cultural dimension of institutional collectivism refers to the rewarding of collective actions versus individual rewards.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

33. Performance orientation, a cultural dimension within the GLOBE theoretical model, refers to the collective encouraging and rewarding of a group for performance improvement versus rewarding for membership.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

34. The GLOBE’s theoretical model has three broad-based leadership dimensions encompassing ten primarily leadership dimensions and a small number of leadership items and attributes.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

35. The six broad-based leadership dimensions of the GLOBE theoretical model are: charismatic/value based, team-oriented, participative, humane-oriented, autonomous and self-protective.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

36. The autonomous leadership dimension of the GLOBE theoretical model refers to ensuring safety and security of the individual, self-centered and face saving.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

37. The humane-oriented dimensions of the GLOBE theoretical model refer to the degree to which the leader stresses support, consideration, compassion, and generosity.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

38. Cultural implicit leadership dimensions (CLT’s) within the GLOBE theoretical model, are similar to the term “prototypes.”

Ans:
Page: 328
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: The GLOBE Perspective

39. The GLOBE theoretical model presents summary comparisons among culture clusters to indicate which clusters are most likely to endorse or refute the importance of six CLT leadership prototype dimensions.

Ans:
Page: 330
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

40. Summary comparisons on the GLOBE study among culture clusters indicate a sharp similarity between the study’s Anglo cluster and the Middle East cluster.

Ans:
Page: 330
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

41. The GLOBE study sought only to understand the attributes of leadership universally endorsed as relating to either effective or ineffective leadership across sampled countries.

Ans:
Page: 331
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Universally Endorsed Aspects of Leadership

42. An important point to remember from the GLOBE study is that there are dramatically different expectations for leaders in different cultures.

Ans:
Page: 332
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Universally Endorsed Aspects of Leadership

43. In addition to the traditional challenges of management, the forces of globalization as well as the state of the current economic environment provide a number of problems and opportunities to even the most experienced organizational executives.

Ans:
Page: 332
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Universally Endorsed Aspects of Leadership

44. The four leadership contexts consist of stability, crisis, dynamic equilibrium, and near the edge of chaos.

Ans:
Page: 333
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Four Leadership Contexts

45. Radical change, or transformational change, results in a major overhaul of the organization or its component systems.

Ans:
Pages: 335-336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

46. The success of both radical and incremental change in organizations depends in part on change agents who lead and support the change processes.

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

47. Unplanned change may be disruptive, such as a wildcat strike that ends in a plant closure, or beneficial, such as an interpersonal conflict that results in a new procedure designed to smooth the flow of work between two departments.

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

48. Most unplanned changes may be regarded as efforts intended to deal with performance gaps in ways that benefit an organization and its members.

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

49. The driving forces for change in organizations of all types and sizes can be found in the organization-environment relationship, the organizational life cycle, and the political nature of organizations.

Ans:
Page: 337
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Forces and Targets for Change

50. When considering the targets of change, it must be recognized that changes in any one target are likely to require or involve changes in the other targets.

Ans:
Page: 338
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Forces and Targets for Change

51. The planned change model suggests that a change effort be viewed as a process with three distinct phases: listening, doing, and evaluating.

Ans:
Page: 338
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned Change Strategies

52. Through a force-coercion change strategy, a change agent acts unilaterally to “command” change through the formal authority of his or her position, to induce change via an offer of special rewards, or to bring about change via threats of punishment.

Ans:
Page: 338
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned Change Strategies

53. When successful, a force-coercion change strategy results in a longer lasting, more internalized change than does a rational persuasion strategy.

Ans:
Pages: 338-339
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned Change Strategies

54. Sometimes called a normative-reeducative approach, a rational persuasion strategy tries to develop direction and support for change through involvement and empowerment.

Ans:
Page: 339
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned Change Strategies

55. Resistance to change is any attitude or behavior that shows unwillingness to make or support a change.

Ans:
Page: 339
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned Change Strategies

56. A helpful view of resistance to change is that it represents feedback that the change agent can use to facilitate achieving change objectives.

Ans:
Pages: 339-340
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Resistance to Change

57. People may believe that a change is not worth their time, effort, or attention, but they seldom reject a change for these reasons.

Ans:
Page: 340
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Resistance to the Change Itself

58. Resistance to the change agent is directed at the person implementing the change and often involves personality and other differences.

Ans:
Page: 340
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Resistance to the Change Agent

59. The education and communication approach for dealing with resistance to change is intended to educate people about a change before it is implemented and to help them understand the logic of the change.

Ans:
Page: 341
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: How to Deal with Resistance

60. The facilitation and support approach for dealing with resistance to change seems to work best when people are frustrated by work constraints and difficulties encountered in the change process.

Ans:
Page: 341
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: How to Deal with Resistance

Multiple Choice

61. “Know thyself” is the essential argument of __________ leadership.
a) ethical
b) authentic
c) servant
d) spiritual
e) transformational

Ans:
Page: 320
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Authentic Leadership

62. Which of the following is NOT a core quality of a spiritual leader?
a) Vision
b) Altruistic love
c) Hope
d) Faith
e) Obedience

Ans:
Page: 322
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Spiritual Leadership

63. Which of the following, refers to altruistic love?
a) Defining the destination and journey
b) Forgiveness, acceptance, and honesty
c) Endurance and perseverance
d) Having stretch goals
e) Reflecting high ideals

Ans:
Page: 322
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Spiritual Leadership

64. According to Robert Greenleaf, all of the following statements about servant leadership are correct EXCEPT:
a) the primary purpose of business should be to create a positive impact on both its employees and community.
b) the leader is attended to basic spiritual values and in serving these, serves others such as colleagues, the organization and society.
c) servant leadership is not a special case of leadership but instead is a special kind of service.
d) servant leadership helps others discover their outer spirit.
e) servant leadership is best demonstrated by those with a vision and a desire to serve others first, rather than by those seeking leadership roles.

Ans:
Page: 322
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Servant Leadership

65. All of the following statements about spiritual leadership are correct EXCEPT:
a) spiritual leadership can be viewed as field of inquiry within the broader setting of moral leadership.
b) spiritual leadership does not yet have a strong research base in organizational behavior.
c) spiritual leadership theory is a causal leadership approach for organizational transformation designed to create an intrinsically motivated, learning organization.
d) spiritual leadership includes values, attitudes and behaviors required to intrinsically motivate self and others to have a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership.
e) spiritual leadership intrinsically motivates the self and others to experience meaning in their lives, believe they make a difference and feel understood and appreciated.

Ans:
Page: 320
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Spiritual Leadership

66. Key similarities between authentic theories of leadership and ethical theories of leadership include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) concern for others.
b) ethical decision-making.
c) integrity.
d) honesty.
e) role modeling.

Ans:
Page: 323
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Ethical Leadership

67. Key similarities between transformational theories of leadership and ethical theories leadership include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) ethical decision-making.
b) integrity.
c) role modeling.
d) concern for others.
e) future-orientation.

Ans:
Page: 323
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Ethical Leadership

68. A key similarity shared by ethical, authentic, spiritual and transformational leadership is __________.
a) role modeling
b) honesty
c) inspiration
d) encouragement
e) fortitude

Ans:
Page: 323
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Ethical Leadership

69. Key similarities between authentic theories of leadership and ethical theories leadership include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) a concern for others.
b) ethical decision making.
c) an emphasis on moral management.
d) integrity.
e) role modeling.

Ans:
Page: 323
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Ethical Leadership

70. According to the text, which of the following five characteristics have been identified across projects as elements to successful team performance?
a) Perseverance; one-way communication; competent, motivated performance; efficient, goal-directed effort; and optimism
b) Resilience; hope; one-way communication; adequate resources; and a productive, supportive climate
c) Efficient, goal-directed effort; adequate resources; competent, motivated performance; a productive, supportive climate; and a commitment to continuous improvement
d) Unplanned change; resilience; faith; adequate resource; and a pattern of attention
e) Shared leadership; resistance to change; one-way communication; unplanned change; and competent, motivated performance

Ans:
Page: 325
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Desired Shared Conditions

71. All of the following statements about shared leaderships are correct EXCEPT:
a) leadership today is not restricted simply to the vertical influence of a single individual but to other people as well.
b) the influence process often involves upward or downward hierarchical influence.
c) the influence process often involves peer or lateral influence.
d) leadership is restricted among a set of individuals who act in the role of a superior.
e) the key distinction between shared leadership and traditional models of leadership is that the influence process involves more than just downward influence on subordinates by an appointed or elective e leader.

Ans:
Pages: 324-326
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Shared Leadership

72. Self-leadership activities are often divided into these three broad categories:
a) behavior focused, self reward and constructive thought pattern strategies.
b) cognitive, behavior and emotional strategies.
c) focus, ambiguous and unfocused strategies.
d) bottom-up, top-down and middle strategies.
e) group, individual and team strategies.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Shared Leadership and Self- Leadership

73. Behavior-focused strategies include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) self observation.
b) goal setting.
c) self accomplishment.
d) reward.
e) self correcting feedback.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Behavior- Focused Strategies

74. Which of the following statements about self-rewards is inaccurate?
a) Self-rewards can be useful in moving behaviors toward goal attainment.
b) Self-rewards can be real such as a steak dinner.
c) Imagery, such as imagining the receipt of a bonus, is a self-reward.
d) Rehearsal of desired behaviors before actual performance can prove quite useful.
e) Most people do not like to often reward themselves for their activities.

Ans:
Pages: 326-327
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Self- Rewards

75. __________ focus on the creation or alteration of cognitive thought processes.
a) Creative solutions
b) Constructive thought patterns
c) Developmental idea concepts
d) Innovative approaches
e) Novel-mapping

Ans:
Page: 327
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Constructive Thought Patterns

76. __________ is often used in combination with vertical leadership.
a) Power negotiation
b) Organizational goal setting
c) Shared leadership
d) Teamwork
e) Individual leadership

Ans:
Page: 327
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Constructive Thought Patterns

77. All of the following pertain to the GLOBE theoretical model EXCEPT:
a) the study used a multiple measure approach with a strong emphasis on questionnaires built around the assumption that leadership variables and cultural variables can be meaningfully applied at societal and organizational levels.
b) the key assumption behind the model is that the attributes and entities that differentiate a specified culture predict organizational practices and leader attributes and behaviors that are most often carried out and most effective in that culture.
c) the study sample was comprised of middle managers in the telecommunication, food and banking industries.
d) the GLOBE project is headed by Robert House.
e) the GLOBE project involves countries in Asia and North America only.

Ans:
Page: 328
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: The GLOBE Perspective

78. The original GLOBE theoretical model includes all of the following aspects EXCEPT:
a) over time, founders and subsequent organizational leaders respond to organizational culture and alter their behaviors/leaderships styles.
b) leader acceptance is a function of the interaction between CLT’s and leader attributes and behaviors.
c) leader strength is based on strong relationships inside and outside the groups.
d) acceptance of the leader by followers facilitates leader effectiveness.
e) leader effectiveness, over time, will increase leader acceptance.

Ans:
Pages: 328-329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: The GLOBE Perspective

79. Which of the following is NOT a cultural dimension within the GLOBE theoretical model?
a) Assertiveness
b) Ethical proactivity
c) Future orientation
d) Gender egalitarianism
e) Power distance

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

80. All of the following are leadership dimensions of the GLOBE theoretical model EXCEPT:
a) charismatic/value based.
b) team-oriented.
c) fortitude.
d) self-protective.
e) autonomous.

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

81. Which of the following sets represent CLT leadership dimensions?
a) self-protective, autonomous, humane-oriented, team-oriented
b) autonomous, participative, driven, focus-oriented
c) charismatic/value based, systematic, future orientation, performance driven
d) implicit, explicit, specific, detailed
e) top-level, bottom-up, middle, secular

Ans:
Page: 329
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Leadership Aspects and Culture

82. All of the following leadership dimensions were related to ineffective leaders, according to the GLOBE theoretical model EXCEPT:
a) irritability.
b) egocentricity.
c) non-cooperativeness.
d) dictatorial.
e) strong-minded.

Ans:
Page: 331
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Universally Endorsed Aspects of Leadership

83. Culturally contingent endorsement of leader characteristics, according to the GLOBE theoretical model involved all of the following EXCEPT:
a) individualistic.
b) status conscious.
c) risk taking.
d) emotional.
e) self sacrificing.

Ans:
Page: 331
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: Universally Endorsed Aspects of Leadership

84. Which of the following does NOT reflect one of the four contexts for leadership action?
a) Stability
b) Crisis
c) Retrenchment
d) Dynamic equilibrium
e) Near the edge of chaos

Ans:
Page: 333
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Four Leadership Contexts

85. The leadership context of __________ refers to a dramatic departure from prior practice and sudden threats to high-priority goals with little or no response time.
a) stability
b) crisis
c) retrenchment
d) dynamic equilibrium
e) near the edge of chaos

Ans:
Page: 333
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Four Leadership Contexts

86. How might a leader measure success in regard to the leadership context of dynamic equilibrium?
a) By performance on assigned goals
b) Adjustment to crisis; return to normalcy
c) Movement toward successful implementation of proposed change programs
d) Balance of stability and dynamic adaptation to increase fitness
e) None of the above

Ans:
Page: 333
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Four Leadership Contexts

87. Context 4, __________, is a transition zone poised between order and chaos. Here, the system must rapidly adjust while maintaining sufficient stability to learn.
a) near the edge of chaos
b) middle of the road
c) on the fence
d) the performance gap
e) None of the above

Ans:
Page: 334
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Four Leadership Contexts

88. When establishing giving circles, a manager ought to do which of the following?
a) Find out who is interested in participating
b) Provide a schedule of meeting times and locations
c) Assign an appropriate number of people
d) Educate members in a variety of activities
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 335
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Four Leadership Contexts

89. Another name for incremental change is __________.
a) subtle change
b) original change
c) frame-bending change
d) basic change
e) temporal change

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

90. The success of both radical and incremental change in organizations depends in part on __________ who lead and support the change processes.
a) change agents
b) transition agents
c) variation agents
d) alteration agents
e) transformation agents

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

91. All of the following can increase transformational change effort success EXCEPT:
a) developing a sense of urgency.
b) have a compelling vision.
c) empower others to act.
d) when the team is succeeding, keep going. Don’t stop to celebrate short-term wins or you will stop the forward moving momentum.
e) build on accomplishments.

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

92. Suppose unexpected conflicts occur among numerous people in several different departments of an organization, and that these conflicts ultimately result in a new policy on interdepartmental relations. This situation and its outcome could be called __________.
a) unplanned change
b) unexpected trouble
c) crisis management.
d) organizational upheaval
e) human resource conflict

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned and Unplanned Change

93. __________ may be disruptive, such as a wildcat strike that ends in a plant closure, or beneficial, such as an interpersonal conflict that results in a new procedure designed to smooth the flow of work between two departments.
a) Casual change
b) Involuntary change
c) Unplanned change
d) Fortuitous change
e) Contingent change

Ans:.
Page: 336
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned and Unplanned Change

94. __________ is intentional and occurs as a result of specific efforts by a change agent.
a) Charted change
b) Programmed change
c) Outlined change
d) Arranged change
e) Planned change

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned and Unplanned Change

95. The decision to construct a new overseas plant can be considered to be a(n) __________.
a) performance gap
b) planned change
c) unplanned change
d) structural change
e) refreezing phase

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned and Unplanned Change

96. __________ is a direct response to someone’s perception of a performance gap –– a discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs.
a) Unplanned change
b) Arranged change
c) Contingency change
d) Statutory change
e) Planned change

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned and Unplanned Change

97. Most planned changes may be regarded as efforts intended to deal with __________ gaps in ways that benefit an organization and its members.
a) realization
b) performance
c) attainment
d) accomplishment
e) completion

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Planned and Unplanned Change

98. The __________ that are driving organizations of all types and sizes can be found in organization-environment relationships, the organizational life cycle, and the political nature of organizations.
a) forces for change
b) change agents
c) targets of change
d) instruments of change
e) techniques of change

Ans:
Page: 337
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Forces and Targets for Change

99. __________ represent(s) forces for change that deal with mergers, strategic alliances, and divestitures as ways of redefining organizational relationships with challenging social and political environments.
a) Organization-environment relationships
b) The organizational life cycle
c) The political nature of organizations
d) The technological nature of organizations
e) The structural nature of organizations

Ans:
Page: 337
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Forces and Targets for Change

100. __________ represent(s) forces for change that deal with adapting the organization’s culture and structure as it grows toward maturity.
a) Organization-environment relationships
b) The organizational life cycle
c) The political nature of organizations
d) The technological nature of organizations
e) The structural nature of organizations

Ans:
Page: 337
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Forces and Targets for Change

101. When considering the __________, it must be recognized that changes in any one are likely to require or involve changes in the others.
a) forces for change
b) change agents
c) targets of change
d) instruments of change
e) techniques of change

Ans:
Page: 338
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Forces and Targets for Change

102. Which of the following statements about targets of planned change is NOT correct?
a) The culture target is intended to clarify or create core beliefs and values.
b) The tasks target is intended to update job designs for individuals and groups.
c) The objectives target focuses on setting or modifying specific performance targets.
d) The purpose target is intended to clarify or create mission and objectives.
e) The structure target focuses on clarifying or creating strategic and operational plans.

Ans:
Page: 337
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Forces and Targets for Change

103. People respond to a(n) __________ change strategy mainly out of the fear of being punished if they do not comply with a change directive or out of the desire to gain a reward if they do.
a) unilateral effort
b) force-coercion
c) rational persuasion
d) shared-power
e) hierarchical control

Ans:
Page: 338
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Force- Coercion

104. When change is accomplished through __________, compliance is usually only temporary and continues only as long as the change agent and his or her legitimate authority are visible, or as long as the opportunities for rewards and punishments remain obvious.
a) hierarchical control
b) shared-power
c) rational persuasion
d) force-coercion
e) unilateral effort

Ans:
Page: 338
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Force- Coercion

105. When successful, the __________ results in a longer lasting, more internalized change than does force-coercion.
a) inside-outside strategy
b) rational persuasion strategy
c) top-down change strategy
d) community involvement strategy
e) hierarchical control strategy

Ans:
Page: 339
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Rational Persuasion

106. A __________ actively and sincerely involves the people who will be affected by a change in planning and making key decisions relating to this change.
a) shared-power strategy
b) collaborative effort strategy
c) lateral control strategy
d) force-coercion strategy
e) rational persuasion strategy

Ans:
Page: 339
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Shared Power

107. Which strategy for planned change is sometimes called a normative-reeducative approach?
a) shared-power strategy
b) collaborative effort strategy
c) lateral control strategy
d) force-coercion strategy
e) rational persuasion strategy

Ans:
Page: 339
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Shared Power

108. __________ is often viewed as something that must be overcome in order for change to be successful.
a) Political maneuvering
b) Power sharing
c) Forced coercion
d) Resistance to change
e) Rational persuasion

Ans:
Page: 339
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Resistance to Change

109. Which of the following is NOT a reason why people resist planned change?
a) fear of the unknown
b) lack of a felt need to change
c) lack of resources
d) selflessness
e) insecurity

Ans:
Page: 340
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Why people Resist to Change

110. In order to minimize resistance to change, the people affected by the change should know how the change meets the benefit criterion, which means that the change should __________.
a) have a clear relative advantage for the people being asked to change
b) be as compatible as possible with the existing values and experiences of the people being asked to change
c) capitalize on the relative power positions of those affected by the change and those implementing the change
d) be no more complex than necessary; it must be as easy as possible for people to understand and use
e) be something that people can attempt on a step-by-step basis and make adjustments as things progress

Ans:
Page: 340
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Resistance to Change Strategy

111. Which of the following statements regarding resistance to the change strategy is NOT accurate?
a) People may resist a force-coercion strategy because they resent management by command or the use of threatened punishment.
b) People may resist a rational persuasion strategy in which the data are suspect or the expertise of advocates is not clear.
c) People may resist a shared-power strategy that appears manipulative and insincere.
d) Change agents never have to deal with resistance to a change strategy.
e) When a change strategy is implemented people generally “buy-into” the strategy immediately.

Ans:
Page: 340
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Resistance to Change Strategy

112. In dealing with resistance to change, the method of __________ seems to work best when people lack information or have inaccurate information.
a) facilitation and support
b) negotiation and agreement
c) education and communication
d) explicit or implicit coercion
e) participation and involvement

Ans:
Page: 341
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: How to Deal with Resistance

113. In dealing with resistance to change, the approach of __________ seems to work best when other people have important information.
a) explicit or implicit coercion
b) education and support
c) manipulation and cooptation
d) facilitation and support
e) participation and involvement

Ans:
Page: 341
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: How to Deal with Resistance

114. In dealing with resistance to change, the method of __________ seems to work best when people are frustrated by work constraints and difficulties encountered in the change process.
a) facilitation and support
b) negotiation and agreement
c) manipulation and cooptation
d) explicit or implicit coercion
e) participation and involvement

Ans:
Page: 341
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: How to Deal with Resistance

Fill in the blank

115. __________ essentially involves both owning one’s personal experiences and acting in accordance with one’s true self.

Ans:
Page: 320
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Authentic Leadership

116. Those high in __________are argued to have optimal self-esteem, or genuine, true, stable and congruent self-esteem as opposed to fragile self-esteem based heavily on outside responses.

Ans:
Page: 320
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Authentic Leadership

117. SLT stands for __________.

Ans:
Page: 321
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Define authentic, spiritual, servant, and ethical leadership.
Section Reference: Spiritual Leadership

118. __________is defined as a dynamic, interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational goals or both.

Ans:
Page: 324
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Shared Leadership

119. Shared and vertical self-directing team activities tend to encourage __________ activities which in turn can help individuals and the team.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Shared Leadership and Self- Leadership

120. __________ strategies, of self-leadership activities, tend to increase self-awareness leading to the handling of behaviors involving necessary but not always pleasant tasks.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Behavior-Focused Strategies

121. __________is the first step toward behavioral change.

Ans:
Page: 326
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Behavior- Focused Strategies

122. __________ is a major project outlining the common dimensions of leadership that are important, as well as the significant differences in how effective managers lead in different cultures.

Ans:
Page: 328
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Describe the GLOBE perspective, leadership aspects and culture, culturally endorsed leadership matches, and universally endorsed aspects of leadership.
Section Reference: The GLOBE Perspective

123. Another name for radical change is __________.

Ans:
Pages: 335-336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

124. The term __________is used to stress the establishment of a norm where the leader is expected to ask questions, raise issues, and help gather information for unit members.

Ans:
Page: 335
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Four Leadership Contexts

125. Change that results in a major overhaul of the organization or its component systems is called __________.

Ans:
Pages: 335-336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

126. __________ is part of an organization’s natural evolution that builds on existing ways of operating to enhance or extend them in new directions.

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

127. __________ are individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns of another person or social system.

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

128. __________ occur spontaneously or randomly and without a change agent’s direction.

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

129. A(n) __________ is a discrepancy between the desired and the actual conditions.

Ans:
Page: 336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

130. Through a(n) __________ change strategy, a change agent acts unilaterally to “command” change through the formal authority of his or her position, to induce change via an offer of special rewards, or to bring about change via threats of punishment.

Ans :
Page: 338
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Force- Coercion

131. A(n) __________ change strategy assumes that people will be guided by reason and self-interest in deciding whether or not to support a change.

Ans:
Page: 339
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Rational Persuasion

132. The __________ strategy is likely to result in long-term and internalized change.

Ans:
Page: 339
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Shared Power

133. __________ can be viewed as feedback that a change agent can use to facilitate achieving change objectives.

Ans:
Pages: 339-340
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Resistance to Change

Essay

134. Define shared leadership. Define the key distinction between shared leadership and traditional models of leadership.

Page: 324
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Discuss shared leadership in work teams and self-leadership.
Section Reference: Shared Leadership

135. Define transformational change and incremental change. Discuss the role of change agents.

Pages: 335-336
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

136. What is the difference between unplanned change and planned change? Describe the nature of each type of change.

Page: 336
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: Leaders as Change Agents

137. Identify six methods for dealing with resistance to change. Indicate when each method should be used and describe the potential advantages and disadvantages that are associated with using each method.

Pages: 341-342
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Discuss how to lead organizational change.
Section Reference: How to Deal with Resistance

File: ch.15, Chapter 15: Organizational Culture and Innovation

True/False

1. Communications by Wall Street firms and employees are restricted by intensely detailed regulatory guidelines that present a challenge for individual employees who wish to promote themselves using social media tools.

Ans:
Page: 346
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Reference: Social Media and Corporations: Don’t Cross the Line When You Go Online
Section Reference: Social Media and Corporations

2. Organizational culture is the system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Organizational Culture

3. In the business setting, organizational culture is called corporate culture.

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Organizational Culture

4. Most organizational cultures are similar if not identical to one another.

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Organizational Culture

5. Cultural differences can have a major impact on the performance of organizations and the quality of work life experienced by their members.

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Organizational Culture

6. Through their collective experience, members of an organization can solve two extremely important survival issues: 1) internal adaptation, and 2) competition integration.

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

7. The external adaptation function of organizational culture concerns issues regarding tasks to be accomplished, methods used to achieve the goals, and methods of coping with success and failure.

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

8. Three important aspects of external adaptation are: (a) separating more important from less important external forces, (b) developing ways to measure accomplishments, and (c) creating explanations for why goals are not always met.

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

9. Some of the key questions regarding external adaptation are: How do we allocate power, status, and authority? How do we communicate? What is the basis for friendship?

Ans:
Page: 349
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

10. Internal integration deals with the creation of a collective identity and with finding ways of matching methods of working and living together.

Ans:
Page: 349
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

11. The process of external adaptation often begins with the establishment of a unique identity; that is, each collection of individuals and each subculture within the organization develops some type of unique definition of itself.

Ans:
Page: 349
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

12. In the context of internal integration, three important aspects of working together are: (a) deciding who is a member and who is not; (b) developing a formal agreement that specifies acceptable and unacceptable behavior; and (c) getting friends and enemies to collaborate with one another.

Ans:
Page: 349
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

13. Some of the key questions regarding internal integration are: What do we do if specific targets are not met? How do we tell others how good we are? When do we quit?

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

14. Smaller firms often have a single dominant culture with a universal set of shared actions, values, and beliefs.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

15. Most larger organizations contain several subcultures as well as one or more countercultures.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

16. Strong subcultures are seldom found in high-performance task forces, teams, and special project groups in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

17. A subculture has a pattern of values and philosophy that outwardly rejects the surrounding culture of the larger organization or social system.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

18. Every large organization imports potentially important subcultural groupings when it hires employees from the larger society.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

19. In North American companies, subcultures and countercultures may naturally form on the basis of ethnic, racial, gender, generational, or locational similarities.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

20. In Japanese organizations, subcultures often form based on the date of graduation from a university, gender, or geographic location.

Ans:
Pages: 350-351
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

21. In European firms, subcultures may form on the basis of ethnicity, language, or gender.

Ans:
Page: 351
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

22. A counterculture is a group of individuals with a unique pattern of values and philosophy that is consistent with the organization’s dominant values and philosophy.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

23. Research shows that most organizations originate in several national cultures and incorporate very little features from these host cultures even when they expand internationally.

Ans:
Page: 351
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Cultures and Corporate

24. One of the difficulties associated with organizations importing and accepting subcultural groupings from the larger society is that the firm may encounter extreme difficulty in coping with broader cultural changes.

Ans:
Page: 351
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Culture and Corporate Culture

25. One of the difficulties associated with organizations importing and accepting subcultural groupings from the larger society is that firms that accept and build on natural divisions from the large culture may find it extremely difficult to develop sound international operations. This may help to explain why many Japanese firms have had difficulty adjusting to the equal treatment of women in their US operations.

Ans:
Page: 351
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Culture and Corporate Culture

26. The multicultural organization is a firm that values diversity but systematically works to block the transfer of societally based subcultures into the fabric of the organization.

Ans:
Page: 352
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Culture and Corporate Culture

27. The Wall Street Journal reports that older workers are at greater risk of layoffs because many employers use a “first in/first out” rule when cutting back staff.

Ans:
Page: 352
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Ethics In OB

28. In step one of Taylor Cox’s five-step program for developing the multicultural organization, the organization should develop pluralism with the objective of multi-based socialization.

Ans:
Page: 352
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Culture and Corporate Culture

29. Observable culture that is the first level of cultural analysis, refers to the way things are done in a particular organization.

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

30. Three important levels of cultural analysis in organizations are: observable culture, implicit culture, and uncommon cultural assumptions.

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

31. Three important levels of cultural analysis in organizations are: observable culture, shared values, and common cultural assumptions.

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

32. The observable culture includes the unique stories, ceremonies, and corporate rituals that make up the history of the firm or a group within the firm.

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

33. The second level of cultural analysis focuses on common cultural assumptions that are the taken-for-granted truths that collections of corporate members share as a result of their joint experiences.

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

34. Many consultants suggest that organizations should develop a dominant and coherent set of shared values.

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

35. The term shared in cultural analysis implies that the group is a whole.

Ans:
Pages: 353-354
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

36. The deepest level of cultural analysis focuses on shared values that can play a critical role in linking people together and can provide a powerful motivational mechanism for members of the culture.

Ans:
Page: 354
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

37. Isolating common cultural assumptions is accomplished very easily that explains why culture is a relatively superficial aspect of organizational life.

Ans:
Page: 354
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

38. Rituals are embellished heroic accounts of the story of the founding of an organization.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

39. Sagas are important because they are used to tell new members the real mission of the organization, how the organization operates, and how individuals can fit into the company.

Ans:
Page: 354
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

40. Rites are standardized and recurring activities used at special times to influence the behaviors and understanding of organizational members; rituals are systems of rites.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

41. Subcultures often arise from the type of technology deployed by the units, the specific function being performed, and the specific collection of specialists in the unit.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

42. Often, the language of a subculture, and its rituals and rites, emerge from the group as a form of jargon.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

43. A cultural artifact is any object, act, or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

44. A cultural symbol is any object, act, or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

45. The corporate uniforms worn by UPS and Federal Express delivery personnel are examples of cultural symbols.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

46. Organizational culture often specifies when various types of actions are appropriate and where individual members stand in the social system.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Cultural Rules and Roles

47. Cultural rules and roles are part of the operational controls of the organization and emerge from its strategic planning.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Cultural Rules and Roles

48. To many researchers and managers, shared common values lie at the heart of organizational culture.

Ans:
Page: 356
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

49. Shared values help turn routine activities into valuable and important actions.

Ans:
Page: 356
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Cultural Rules and Roles
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

50. Shared values tie the corporation to the important values of society.

Ans:
Page: 356
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

51. By linking values and actions, the organization taps into some of the strongest and deepest realms of the individual.

Ans:
Page: 356
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

52. An organization with a “strong culture” possesses a broadly and deeply shared value system that can provide a strong corporate identity, enhance collective commitment, provide a stable social system, and reduce the need for formal and bureaucratic controls.

Ans:
Pages: 356-357
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

53. A strong culture can be detrimental if it reinforces a broad and pluralistic view of the organization and its environment.

Ans:
Page: 357
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

54. In many firms, the management philosophy is supported by a series of organizational myths.

Ans:
Page: 358
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

55. A common myth in organizations is the presumption of administrative competence.

Ans:
Page: 358
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

56. A common myth in organizations is the denial of trade-offs.

Ans:
Page: 358
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

57. The best organizations don’t stagnate; they innovate; they value and expect innovation, and it becomes a normal part of everyday operations.

Ans:
Page: 360
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Innovation in Organizations

58. Creativity is the process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice.

Ans:
Page: 360
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Innovation in Organizations

59. Idea creation, initial experimentation, feasibility determination, and final application are the basic steps in a typical process of organizational innovation.

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

60. Generating an idea through spontaneous creativity, ingenuity, and information processing is the feasibility determination step of the innovation process.

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

61. Innovative organizations benefit from and require top management support.

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

62. A number of studies suggest that the key difficulty with product development is the integration across all of the units needed to move from the idea stage to final implementation.

Ans:
Page: 362
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Product and Process Innovations

63. Process innovations introduce new and better work methods and operations.

Ans:
Page: 363
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Product and Process Innovations

64. According to a meta-analysis of 100 published statistical studies over the past 30 years, six team processes are particularly important for innovative success: 1) vision, 2) support for innovation, 3) task orientation, 4) cohesion, 5) internal communications, and 6) external communications.

Ans:
Page: 363
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Product and Process Innovations

65. Refining an existing product to make it more saleable in a new market is an example of exploration.

Ans:
Page: 364
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Balancing Exploration and Exploitation

66. Managers cannot modify the visible aspects of culture, such as the language, stories, rites, rituals, and sagas.

Ans:
Page: 366
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Building, Reinforcing, and Changing Culture

Multiple Choice

67. A firm’s __________ is the system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that develops within the organization and guides the behavior of its members.
a) organizational structure
b) control philosophy
c) organizational persona
d) organizational climate
e) organizational culture

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Organizational Culture

68. In a business setting, a firm’s system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that develops within the company and guides the behavior of its members is called its __________.
a) institutional culture
b) corporate culture
c) indigenous culture
d) bureaucratic culture
e) domestic culture

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Organizational Culture

69. “What precisely needs to be accomplished, and how can it be done?” is a cultural question pertaining to the survival issue of __________.
a) external adaptation
b) internal integration
c) institutional adaptation
d) systematic integration
e) structural adaptation

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

70. “How do members resolve the daily problems associated with living and working together?” is a cultural question pertaining to the survival issue of __________.
a) institutional adaptation
b) structural adaptation
c) internal integration
d) external adaptation
e) systematic integration

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

71. __________ involves reaching goals and dealing with outsiders.
a) Institutional adaptation
b) Internal integration
c) External adaptation
d) Systematic integration
e) Structural adaptation

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

72. The issues concerned with __________ are tasks to be accomplished, methods used to achieve the goals, and methods of coping with success and failure.
a) structural adaptation
b) strategic adaptation
c) internal integration
d) institutional integration
e) external adaptation

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

73. __________ deals with questions such as: What is the real mission? How do we contribute? What are our goals? How do we reach our goals? What external forces are important? How do we measure results? What do we do if specific targets are not met? How do we tell others how good we are? When do we quit?
a) Institutional adaptation
b) Internal integration
c) External adaptation
d) Systematic integration
e) Structural adaptation

Ans:
Page: 349
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

74. __________ deals with the creation of a collective identity and with finding ways of working and living together.
a) Institutional integration
b) Internal integration
c) Structural adaptation
d) External adaptation
e) Bureaucratic integration

Ans:
Page: 349
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

75. The process of __________ often begins with the establishment of a unique identity; that is, each collection of individuals and each subculture within the organization develops some type of unique definition of itself.
a) institutional adaptation
b) structural adaptation
c) internal integration
d) external adaptation
e) systematic integration

Ans:
Page: 349
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

76. __________ deals with questions such as: What is our unique identity? How do we view the world? Who is a member? How do we allocate power, status, and authority? How do we communicate? What is the basis for friendship?
a) Institutional adaptation
b) Internal integration
c) External adaptation
d) Systematic integration
e) Structural adaptation

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

77. Resolving the issues of __________ helps individuals develop a shared identity and a collective commitment.
a) shared meanings
b) internal integration
c) external adaptation
d) cultural diversity
e) management philosophy

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

78. To work together effectively, individuals need to do which of the following?
a) decide collectively how to allocate power, status, and authority
b) establish a shared understanding of who will gets rewards and sanctions for specific types of actions
c) work out acceptable ways to communicate
d) develop guidelines for friendships
e) all of the above.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

79. __________ are groups of individuals with a unique pattern of values and philosophy that is NOT inconsistent with the organization’s dominant values and philosophy.
a) Subcultures
b) Countercultures
c) Subordinate cultures
d) Collateral cultures
e) Tributary cultures

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

80. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding subcultures?
a) Strong subcultures are often found in high-performance task forces.
b) Strong subcultures are often found in high-performance special project groups.
c) Subcultures reflect groups with a unique pattern of values and philosophy that are inconsistent with the dominant culture of the larger organization or social system.
d) Subcultures emerge to bind individuals working intensely together to accomplish a specific task.
e) Strong subcultures are often found in high-performance teams.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

81. The __________ is a firm that values diversity but systematically works to block the transfer of societal based subcultures into the fabric of the organization.
a) counterculture organization
b) subculture dominated organization
c) subordinate culture organization
d) multicultural organization
e) homogeneous organization

Ans:
Page: 352
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Culture and Corporate Culture

82. Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Taylor Cox’s five-step program for developing the multicultural organization?
a) The organization should develop pluralism with the objective of multibased socialization.
b) The firm should disentangle its culture so that there are direct relationships between naturally occurring groups and particular jobs.
c) The firm must integrate the informal networks by eliminating barriers and increasing participation.
d) The organization should break the linkage between naturally occurring group identity and the identity of the firm.
e) The organization must actively work to eliminate interpersonal conflict based on either the group identity or the natural backlash of the largest societally based grouping.

Ans:
Pages: 352-353
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Culture and Corporate Culture

83. The five-step program for developing the multicultural organization was developed by __________.
a) Taylor Cox
b) Geert Hofstede
c) Daimler Benz and Chrysler
d) Jack Welch
e) Richard Branson

Ans:
Page: 352
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Culture and Corporate Culture

84. Three important levels of cultural analysis in organizations are __________.
a) unobservable culture, role models, and shared mission
b) implicit culture, shared values, and common experiences
c) shared objectives, shared values, and shared mission
d) observable culture, shared values, and common assumptions
e) explicit culture, implicit culture, and common assumptions

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

85. Which is NOT one of the levels of analysis in studying organizational culture?
a) Observable culture
b) Shared values
c) Inter-organizational conflict
d) Common assumptions
e) Taken-for-granted truths

Ans:
Pages: 353-354
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

86. In the context of the three important levels of cultural analysis in organizations, the first level concerns __________, or “the way we do things around here.”
a) shared values
b) common assumptions
c) implicit culture
d) observable culture
e) shared mission

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

87. The __________ culture includes the unique stories, ceremonies, and corporate rituals that make up the history of the firm or a group within it.
a) latent
b) shared
c) common
d) observable
e) implicit

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

88. In the context of the three important levels of cultural analysis in organizations, the level referred to as __________ can play a critical part in linking people together and can provide a powerful motivational mechanism for members of the culture.
a) shared values
b) observable culture
c) implicit culture
d) common culture
e) common assumptions

Ans:
Page: 356
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

89. Organizations are encouraged to develop a dominant and coherent set of __________. Although every member may not agree with them, all members will know they are important.
a) observable attitudes
b) implicit needs
c) common perceptions
d) shared values
e) common assumptions

Ans:
Page: 353-354
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

90. At the deepest level of cultural analysis are __________, or the taken-for-granted truths that collections of corporate members share as a result of their joint experience.
a) shared values
b) common assumptions
c) shared premises
d) mutual promises
e) collective conjectures

Ans:
Page: 354
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

91. Isolating __________ is often extremely difficult, but doing so helps explain why culture invades every aspect of organizational life.
a) observable attitudes
b) implicit needs
c) common perceptions
d) shared values
e) common cultural assumptions

Ans:
Page: 354
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Culture Analysis

92. To begin understanding an organization’s culture, it is often easiest to start with __________.
a) observations of employee actions
b) stories about the organization
c) work group norms
d) the employee handbook.
e) the organization’s code of ethics

Ans:
Page: 354
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

93. __________ are embellished heroic accounts of accomplishments, especially regarding the founding of an organization.
a) Artifacts
b) Sagas
c) Legends
d) Rites
e) Rituals

Ans:
Page: 354
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

94. __________ are important because they are used to tell new members the real mission of the organization, how the organization operates, and how individuals can fit into the company.
a) Legends
b) Epics
c) Rituals
d) Rites
e) Sagas

Ans:
Page: 354
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

95. Systems of rites are called __________.
a) rules
b) artifacts
c) routines
d) sagas
e) rituals

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

96. It is common for Japanese workers and managers to start their workdays together with group exercises and singing of the “company song.” Together, the exercises and songs form a __________.
a) rite
b) ritual
c) cultural symbol
d) saga
e) routine

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

97. Often, the language of a subculture, and its rituals and rites, emerge from the group as a form of __________.
a) terminology
b) jargon
c) patter
d) lingo
e) phrasing

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

98. The corporate uniforms worn by UPS and Federal Express delivery personnel are examples of __________.
a) cultural symbols
b) cultural artifacts
c) cultural tokens
d) cultural attributes
e) cultural proxies

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

99. Organizational __________ often specify/ies when various types of actions are appropriate and where individual members stand in the social system.
a) vision and mission
b) culture
c) strategy
d) design
e) communication

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

100. __________ are parts of the normative controls of the organization and emerge from its daily routines.
a) Organizational strategies
b) Organizational goals
c) Cultural vision and mission
d) Cultural rules and roles
e) Cultural symbols

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

101. To many researchers and managers, shared common values lie at the heart of organizational __________.
a) planning
b) leadership
c) design
d) culture
e) structure

Ans:
Page: 356
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section reference: Share Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

102. Organizations with __________ possess a broadly and deeply shared value system that can provide a strong corporate identity, enhance collective commitment, provide a stable social system, and reduce the need for formal and bureaucratic controls.
a) strong structures
b) strong designs
c) strong cultures
d) strong artifacts
e) strong top managers

Ans:
Pages: 356-357
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

103. Which of the following statements about shared meanings in organizations is NOT correct?
a) What you see as an outside observer may or may not be what organizational members see.
b) Through interaction with one another, and as reinforced by the rest of the organization, workers may infuse a larger shared meaning ⎯ or sense of broader purpose ⎯ into their tasks.
c) Organizational members refrain from linking their actions to values and unstated assumptions.
d) Organizational culture is a “shared” set of meanings and perceptions.
e) In most firms employees create and learn a deeper aspect of their culture.

Ans:
Page: 357
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

104. In the aftermath of 9/11, many casual observers saw crane operators moving wreckage from an 18-acre pile of rubble that was once the Twin Towers at the World Trade Center. However, those actually doing the work were not just hauling away the remnants of the Twin Towers. They were rebuilding America. This is an example of which of the following?
a) Shared meanings
b) Organizational myths
c) Shared values
d) Rite
e) Ritual

Ans:
Page: 357
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

105. Organizational __________ are unproven and often unstated beliefs that are accepted uncritically.
a) rites
b) routines
c) sagas
d) myths
e) rituals

Ans:
Page: 358
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

106. Which of the following statements is NOT accurate with respect to organizational myths?
a) Myths allow managers to govern.
b) Organizations should discourage the use of managerial myths.
c) Myths allow executives to redefine impossible problems into more manageable components.
d) Myths can facilitate experimentation and creativity.
e) In many firms, the management philosophy is supported by a series of organizational myths.

Ans:
Page: 358
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

107. The means by which creative ideas find their way into everyday practice is called __________.
a) reengineering
b) development
c) innovation
d) modernization
e) integration

Ans:
Page: 360
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section reference: Innovation in Organizations

108. The innovation process is not complete until __________.
a) an idea has been created
b) an estimate of the idea’s anticipated costs and benefits has been completed
c) the test-retest procedures have been completed
d) final application has been achieved
e) an estimate of the idea’s value and potential has been completed

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

109. The basic steps in the innovation process include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) idea creation.
b) initial experimentation.
c) test and retest.
d) feasibility determination.
e) final application.

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

110. Which step in the innovation process focuses on creating an idea through spontaneous creativity, ingenuity, and information processing?
a) Idea creation
b) Initial experimentation
c) Test and retest
d) Feasibility determination
e) Final application

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

111. Which step in the innovation process focuses on establishing an idea’s potential value and application?
a) Idea creation
b) Initial experimentation
c) Test and retest
d) Feasibility determination
e) Final application

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

112. Which step in the innovation process focuses on identifying an idea’s anticipated costs and benefits?
a) Idea creation
b) Initial experimentation
c) Test and retest
d) Feasibility determination
e) Final application

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

113. Which step in the innovation process focuses on producing and marketing a new product or service, or on implementing a new approach to operations?
a) Idea creation
b) Initial experimentation
c) Test and retest
d) Feasibility determination
e) Final application

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

114. Highly innovative organizations share all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
a) look to the future.
b) have a low tolerance for risk.
c) prize creativity.
d) reward idea generators.
e) are willing to cannibalize existing products in their development of new ones.

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

115. The introduction of new and better work methods and operations are the result of __________.
a) creativity
b) product innovations
c) process innovations
d) exploitation
e) exploration

Ans:
Page: 363
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Product and Process Innovations

116. __________ calls for the organization and its managers to stress freedom and radical thinking and therefore opens the firm to big changes-or what some call radical innovations.
a) Exploitation
b) Exploration
c) Management philosophy
d) Process innovation
e) Internal integration

Ans:
Page: 364
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Balancing Exploration and Exploitation

117. Managers should consider doing all of the following to develop a strong culture for a unit EXCEPT:
a) emphasize a shared understanding of what the unit stands for.
b) stress a concern for the management over rules and procedures.
c) talk about heroes of the past and their contributions, develop rituals and ceremonies for the members.
d) reinforce informal rules and expectations consistent with shared values.
e) promote the sharing of ideas of information.

Ans:
Page: 365
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Management Philosophy and Strategy

118. A __________ links key goal-related issues with key collaboration issues and comes up with a series of general ways by which the firm will manage its affairs.
a) mission statement
b) planning philosophy
c) management philosophy
d) supervisory philosophy
e) control system

Ans:
Page: 365
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section reference: Management Philosophy and Strategy

119. A management philosophy does all of the following EXCEPT:
a) establishes generally understood boundaries for all members of a firm.
b) provides a consistent way of approaching new and novel situations.
c) helps hold individuals together by assuring them of a known path toward success.
d) the way in which top management addresses the questions of external adaptation.
e) addresses the issues associated with internal adaptation.

Ans:
Page: 365
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Management Philosophy and Strategy

120. One of the key ways management influences the organizational culture is via the __________.
a) the leaders assigned to top management
b) the people it fires
c) the people it hires
d) performance system is administers
e) reward systems it establishes

Ans:
Page: 366
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Building, Reinforcing, and Changing Culture

121. In many larger U.S. based firms the __________ matches the overall strategy of the firm and reinforces the __________ emerging from day-to-day activities.
a) retention practices; termination practices
b) orientation practices; development system
c) hiring practices; promotional system
d) performance program; reward system
e) reward system; culture

Ans:
Page: 366
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Building, Reinforcing, and Changing Culture

122. Managers can modify the __________ of culture, such as the language, stories, rites, rituals, and sagas.
a) vocal aspects
b) visible aspects
c) verbal aspects
d) oral aspects
e) written aspects

Ans:
Page: 366
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Building, Reinforcing, and Changing Culture

123. __________ set the tone for a culture and for cultural change.
a) Production employees
b) Service workers
c) First-line supervisors
d) Middle level managers
e) Top managers

Ans:
Page: 366
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Building, Reinforcing, and Changing Culture

124. __________ is a condition where dominant cultural patterns are inconsistent with new emerging innovations.
a) Exploitation
b) Organizational cultural lag
c) Exploration
d) Subcultures
e) Process innovation

Ans:
Page: 367
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Tensions Between Cultural Stability and Innovation

125. If rule changing and rule following are not properly balanced, there is a danger of reinforcing __________.
a) innovation
b) creativity
c) cultural lag
d) common assumptions
e) shared values

Ans:
Pages: 367-368
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Tensions Between Cultural Stability and Innovation

Fill in the blank

126. The system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members is known as __________.

Ans:
Page: 348
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

127. When employees at 3M talk about the quality of their products and the useful products they have brought to market, they are addressing the __________ aspect of organizational culture.

Ans:
Page: 349
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

128. __________ deals with the creation of a collective identity and with finding ways of working and living together.

Ans:
Page: 349
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

129. __________ are groups of individuals with a unique pattern of values and a philosophy that is not consistent with the organization’s dominant values and philosophy.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

130. __________ are groups of individuals with a pattern of values and philosophy that outwardly reject those of the larger organization or social system.

Ans:
Page: 350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

131. Managers of an acquired firm may hold values and assumptions that are quite inconsistent with those of the acquiring firm – thereby creating a(n) __________.

Ans:
Page: 351
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

132. Societal cultures may actually be __________ into organizations.

Ans:
Page: 351
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Culture and Corporate Culture

133. A firm that values diversity but systematically works to block the transfer of societal-based subcultures into the fabric of the organization is known as a(n) _________ organization.

Ans:
Page: 352
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: National Culture and Corporate Culture

134. The three layers of cultural analysis are __________, __________, and __________.

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Cultural Analysis

135. The __________ aspect of culture includes the unique stories, ceremonies, and corporate rituals that make up the history of the firm or a group within the firm.

Ans:
Page: 353
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Layers of Cultural Analysis

136. __________ are embellished heroic accounts of the story of the founding of an organization that are found at the deepest layer of cultural analysis.

Ans:
Page: 354
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

137. __________ serve to transmit cultural meaning.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

138. The “Miss America” type ceremonies of Mary Kay used to spotlight positive work achievements are examples of __________.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

139. __________ are standardized and recurring activities that are used at special times to influence the behaviors and understandings of organizational members.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

140. A(n) __________ is any object, act, or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

141. The corporate uniform worn by UPS delivery people is an example of a(n) __________.

Ans:
Page: 355
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols

142. A(n) __________ is a commonly held cause-effect relationship or assertion that cannot be supported empirically.

Ans:
Page: 358
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe the layers of cultural analysis, cultural rules and roles.
Section Reference: Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational Myths

143. The first step in the typical process of organizational innovation is __________.

Ans:
Page: 361
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: The Process of Innovation

144. A new study has indicated that __________ rather than national policy makes the biggest difference with radical product innovation.

Ans:
Page: 362
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Product and Process Innovations

145. __________ innovation is the introduction of new goods or services to better meet customer needs, whereas __________ innovation is the introduction into operations of new and better ways of doing things.

Ans:
Page: 362-363
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Product and Process Innovations

146. Refining an existing product to make it more saleable in a new market is an example of __________.

Ans:
Page: 364
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Balancing Exploration and Exploitation

147. A(n) __________ links key goal-related strategic issues with key collaboration issues and comes up with a series of general ways by which the firm will manage its affairs.

Ans:
Page: 365
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Management Philosophy and Strategy

148. A well-developed __________ is important because it links strategy to a more basic understanding of how a firm is to operate.

Ans:
Page: 365
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Management Philosophy and Strategy

149. One of the key ways management influences the organizational culture is through the __________ it establishes.

Ans:
Page: 366
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Building, Reinforcing, and Changing Culture

150. __________ is a condition where dominant cultural patterns are inconsistent with new emerging innovations.

Ans:
Page: 367
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Tensions Between Cultural Stability and Innovation

Essay

151. What is organizational culture? What is corporate culture? Is a firm’s culture important? Why or why not?

Page: 348
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Organizational Culture

152. Describe the cultural functions of external adaptation and internal integration.

Page: 348-350
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Functions of Organizational Culture

153. What is a subculture? Where are strong subcultures found? How is a subculture different from a counterculture?

Page: 350-351
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Describe the functions of organizational behavior, subcultures and countercultures, and national and corporate culture.
Section Reference: Subcultures and Countercultures

154. What is innovation in organizations? List and briefly describe the four steps of the innovation process.

Page: 360-361
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 3: Discuss the process of innovation, product and process innovations, and balancing exploration and exploitation.
Section Reference: Innovation in Organizations

155. Briefly discuss how managers build, reinforce, and change culture.

Page: 366-367
Level: Difficult
Learning Objective 4: Explain how to manage organizational culture and innovation.
Section Reference: Building, Reinforcing, and Changing Culture

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File: ch01, Chapter 1: Introducing Organizational Behavior

True/False

1. Organizational behavior is the study of human behavior in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

2. Learning about organizational behavior can help you expand your potential for career success in the dynamic, shifting, and complex workplaces of today.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

3. The early focus of the systematic study of management was on physical working conditions, principles of administration, and principles of industrial engineering.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

4. Organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary body of knowledge with strong ties to psychology, sociology, criminal justice, and anthropology.

Ans:
Page: 4-5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

5. Financial capital is the building block of organizational success.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

6. Organizational behavior is an academic discipline devoted only to understanding group behavior.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Response: See page 4
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

7. Organizational behavior seldom uses scientific methods to develop generalizations about behavior in organizations.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

8. Research in organizational behavior is based on scientific thinking, which means the proposed explanations are carefully tested and the explanations that can be scientifically verified are the only ones that are accepted.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

9. As job satisfaction increases, absenteeism tends to go down; as job satisfaction decreases, absenteeism often goes up.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

10. Scientific methods models in OB are not able to link causes with outcomes due to the human element.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

11. Commonly used organizational behavior research methods include case studies, survey studies, meta analyses, field studies, and laboratory studies.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

12. When organizational behavior researchers collect data in real-life organizational settings, the research method of case studies is being used.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

13. Laboratory studies are being used when organizational behavior researchers collect data in simulated and controlled settings.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

14. When organizational behavior researchers collect data by using questionnaires and interviews in sample populations, the research method of meta analysis is being used.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

15. Organizational behavior scholars believe that there is one “best” or universal way to manage people and organizations.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

16. An essential responsibility of the science of organizational behavior is to create and test models that offer evidence-based foundations for decision making and action.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

17. Evidence-based management uses hard facts and empirical evidence to make decisions.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

18. Organizational behavior research is now rich with empirically based insights into cross-cultural issues.

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

19. Progressive workplaces today look and act very similar to those of the past.

Ans:
Page: 7
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

20. Eagley and colleagues conclude that followers are more accepting of a transformational style of leadership when the leader is male.

Ans:
Page: 7
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

21. Important trends in the contemporary business world include the demise of “command-and-control” of organizational structures and a commitment to ethical behavior.

Ans:
Page: 7-8
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

22. An organization is defined as a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose.

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

23. Organizations that obtain resource inputs from the environment and transform them into outputs that are returned to the environment in the form of finished goods or services are viewed as open systems.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

24. In organizational cultures that are more authoritarian and hierarchical, people are hesitant to make decisions and take action on their own, so they tend to show little initiative and wait for approval.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

25. Customers, owners, employees, suppliers, regulators, and local communities are among the key stakeholders of most business organizations.

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

26. Fortunately, organizational stakeholders typically have the same business interests and objectives.

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

27. Some organizational climates are relaxed and informal, while others are more structured.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

28. The value chain begins when customers and clients are well served.

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

29. Workforce diversity involves differences based on gender, race and ethnicity, age, able-bodiedness, and sexual orientation.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

30. Today’s labor force is composed of fewer women than in prior years.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

31. The proportion of African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asians in the labor force is increasing.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

32. Demographic trends indicate that, in the future, people of color will constitute the majority of the U.S. population.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

33. A key element in any organization that embraces multiculturalism is inclusion.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

34. An effective manager is one whose organizational unit, group, or team consistently achieves its goals despite the fact that its members are uncommitted and unenthusiastic.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

35. Task performance is defined as the quality and quantity of the work produced or the services provided by a work unit as a whole.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.

Reference: Management and Leadership

36. Organizational behavior clearly indicates that managers should be held accountable for task performance results, but not job satisfaction results.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

37. In the new workplace, management is most effectively accomplished through “directing” and “controlling” rather than “supporting.”

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

38. The word “manager” is increasingly being replaced in conversations by such terms as “coordinator,” “coach,” or “team leader.”

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

39. The four basic functions of management are delegating, leading, controlling, and decision making.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

40. Controlling is the process of creating work structures and systems, and arranging resources to accomplish goals and objectives.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

41. When managers are instilling enthusiasm by communicating with others, motivating them to work hard, and maintaining good interpersonal skills, they are engaged in the managerial function of leading.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

42. Henry Mintzberg identified a set of roles that managers perform. These roles are: interpersonal, informational, and decisional.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

43. Henry Mintzberg identified the set of roles that managers perform as technical, human, and conceptual.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

44. According to Henry Mintzberg, managerial roles that involve working directly with other people are called human roles.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

45. A manager’s informational roles include being a figurehead, leader, and liaison.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

46. According to Henry Mintzberg, when a manager acts as a disturbance handler, this is an interpersonal role.

Ans:
Page: 12-13
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

47. According to Henry Mintzberg, managerial roles involving decision-making that affects other people are called technical roles.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

48. Decisional roles include seeking out problems to solve and opportunities to explore, helping to resolve conflict, allocating resources, and negotiating with other parties.

Ans:
Page: 12-13
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

49. According to Robert Katz, the essential skills of management can be grouped into three categories. These categories are: interpersonal, informational, and decisional.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

50. According to Robert Katz, the relative importance of technical, human, and conceptual skills varies across the different levels of management.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

51. According to Katz, proficiency in database management is considered a technical skill in today’s workplace.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

52. Emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and deal with emotions, falls into the category of conceptual skills according to Robert Katz.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

53. Emotional intelligence includes the human skills of self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill.

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

54. Leaders succeed when people follow them not because they have to, but because they want to.

Ans:
Page: 15
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

55. According to Archie Carroll, an immoral manager does not subscribe to ethical principles, but instead makes decisions and acts to take best personal advantage of a situation.

Ans:
Page: 16
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

56. According to Archie Carroll, the manager who unintentionally acts unethically is considered amoral.

Ans:
Page: 17
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

57. Ethics mindfulness is an “enriched awareness” that causes a manager to behave with an ethical consciousness from one decision or behavioral event to another.

Ans:
Page: 17
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

58. Learning is an enduring change of behavior that results from experience.

Ans:
Page: 18
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize how we learn about organizational behavior.
Reference: Learning about Organizational Behavior

59. Life-long learning refers to the need to learn from day-to-day work experiences, conversations with colleagues and friends, counseling and advice from mentors, success models, training seminars and workshops, and other daily opportunities.

Ans:
Page: 18
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize how we learn about organizational behavior.
Reference: Learning about Organizational Behavior

60. The learning sequence begins with initial experience and subsequent reflection.

Ans:
Page: 18
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 4: Recognize how we learn about organizational behavior.
Reference: Learning about Organizational Behavior

Multiple Choice

61. __________ is a multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding individual and group behavior, interpersonal processes, and organizational dynamics.
a) Organizational behavior
b) Motivation
c) Performance management
d) Workgroup analysis
e) Accounting

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

62. The following statements are accurate descriptions of the evolution of the scientific study of organizations EXCEPT:
a) the early focus of the systematic study of management was on physical working conditions, principles of administration, and principles of industrial engineering.
b) as management research progressed, emphasis was placed on the human factor with respect to individual attitudes, group dynamics, and relationships between managers and workers.
c) organization behavior continues to evolve as a discipline devoted to understanding individuals and groups in organizations.
d) organization behavior continues to evolve as a discipline devoted to understanding the performance implications of organizational processes, systems, and structures.
e) the primary focus on the human factor began in the 18th century.

Ans:
Page: 4
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

63. From its scientific heritage, organizational behavior has developed all of the following EXCEPT:
a) an emphasis on finding the “one best way” to complete a task.
b) an interdisciplinary body of knowledge.
c) use of scientific methods.
d) a focus on application.
e) contingency thinking.

Ans:
Page: 4-6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

64. Organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary body of knowledge with strong ties to all of the following disciplines EXCEPT:
a) psychology.
b) physics.
c) sociology.
d) anthropology.
e) economics.

Ans:
Page: 4-5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

65. Which of the following statements about organizational behavior is NOT accurate?
a) Organizational behavior has strong ties to the behavioral sciences and allied social sciences.
b) Organizational behavior seeks to integrate the diverse insights of the behavioral sciences and allied social sciences.
c) Organizational behavior is divorced from the disciplines of political science and economics.
d) Organizational behavior seeks to improve the quality of work life.
e) Organizational behavior seeks to improve the performance of people, groups, and organizations.

Ans:
Page: 4-5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

66. Organizational behavior goals include all of the following EXCEPT improving the:
a) performance of people.
b) performance of groups.
c) performance of organizations.
d) quality of overall work life.
e) level of organizational profits.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

67. Scientific methods models link __________ with __________.
a) independent variables; dependent variables
b) specific variables; contingency variables
c) proven variables; non-proven variables
d) discovered variables; undisclosed variables
e) highly publicized variables; undisclosed variables

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

68. Scientific thinking is important to organizational behavior researchers and scholars for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a) the process of data collection is controlled.
b) the process of data collection is systematic.
c) proposed explanations are carefully tested.
d) only explanations that can be scientifically verified are accepted.
e) the process of data collection is discretionary.

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

69. Which of the following is NOT an important research question addressing applications within the field of organizational behavior?
a) What creates job satisfaction for people at work?
b) How can ethical and socially responsible behavior in and by organizations be assured?
c) Should decisions be made by individual, consultative, or group methods?
d) What are the ingredients for marketing promotions within organizations?
e) How can organizational cultures be changed?

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

70. __________ are simplified views of reality that attempt to explain real-world phenomena.
a. Models
b. Incubators
c. Theories
d. Scientific methods
e. Reproductions

Ans:
Page: 5
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

71. When OB researchers use statistics to pool the results of different studies, which research method are they using?
a) Survey studies
b) Case studies
c) Meta-analysis
d) Field studies
e) Laboratory studies

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

72. Which of the following was NOT cited as a possible leadership strength of women in the research by Eagley?
a) Good at mentoring
b) More transformational
c) Encourage creativity
d) Very inspiring
e) Fairness in punishing

Ans:
Page: 7
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

73. Rather than assuming that there is one “best” or universal way to manage people in organizations, which approach do researchers use to try to identify how different situations can be best understood and handled?
a) Scientific
b) Industrial engineering
c) Contingency
d) Emotional intelligence
e) Laboratory study

Ans:
Page: 5-6
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

74. When OB researchers look in depth at single situations, which research method are they using?
a) Survey studies
b) Case studies
c) Meta-analysis
d) Field studies
e) Laboratory studies

Ans:
Page: 6
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

75. The realities of the contemporary business world include all of the following trends EXCEPT:
a) the demise of “command-and-control” organizational structures.
b) the importance of human capital.
c) a commitment to ethical behavior.
d) an emphasis on individuals working independently of one another.
e) a changing definition of jobs and career.

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

76. Which of the following is NOT a trend in the contemporary business world?
a) Pervasive influence of information technology.
b) Respect for new workforce expectations.
c) Emphasis on teamwork.
d) Increase in “command-and-control” leadership.
e) Changing careers

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

77. All of the following are characteristic of Generation F at work EXCEPT:
a) no one kills an idea.
b) credentials overrule contributions.
c) people choose tasks that interest them.
d) wisdom lies within the crowd.
e) resources flow toward good ideas and projects.

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

78. Which of the following reflects the expectations of the new generation of workers?
a) Less tolerant of hierarchy
b) Less high tech
c) More concerned about status
d) Less focus on work/life balance
e) More focus on structure

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

79. The increase in teamwork today is a function of all of the following EXCEPT:
a) management’s dislike for individual contributors.
b) organizations can no longer rely on just managers for leadership.
c) leadership is valued by all members.
d) people are valuable human assets.
e) work is increasingly focused on peer contributions.

Page: 8
Ans:
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

80. Data show that women earn only __________ cents per dollar earned by men.
a) 50
b) 68
c) 75
d) 90
e) 95

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 1: Explain what organizational behavior is and why it is important.
Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior

81. A collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose refers to a(n):
a) club.
b) labor union.
c) organization.
d) mission.
e) team.

Ans:
Page: 8
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

82. All of the following are examples of organizations EXCEPT:
a) small and large businesses.
b) religious bodies.
c) voluntary organizations.
d) a government representative.
e) hospitals.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

83. The match of organizational culture and individual characteristics is called a(n):
a) fit.
b) agreement.
c) union.
d) harmony.
e) accord.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

84. Since organizations obtain resource inputs from the environment and transform them into outputs that are returned to the environment in the form of finished goods or services, they may be viewed as:
a) stakeholders.
b) suppliers.
c) open systems.
d) transformational systems.
e) resource allocators.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

85. Which of the following is a sequence of activities that creates valued goods and services for customers?
a) Assembly line
b) Value chain
c) Output process
d) Evidence-based management
e) None of the above

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

86. Among the following, who are considered to be stakeholders?
a) Customers
b) Owners
c) Employees
d) Local communities
e) All of the above

Ans:
Page: 10
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

87. The shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational members refers to organizational:
a) mission.
b) purpose.
c) strategy.
d) culture.
e) stakeholders.

Ans:
Page: 9
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

88. As used in OB, the term multiculturalism refers to:
a) hiring people from different cultures to work in one company.
b) pluralism, and respect for diversity and individual differences.
c) developing employees to better understand people from non-United States cultures.
d) a job rotation system whereby employees move from country to country.
e) a job design system whereby managers are required to oversee people from different countries.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

89. Demographic trends driving workforce diversity in American society today include:
a) fewer number of women in the labor force.
b) fewer African-Americans in the labor force.
c) fewer Hispanics in the labor force.
d) an increasing percentage of people of color in the labor force.
e) more white males in the labor force.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

90. The degree to which the culture respects and values diversity and is open to anyone who can perform a job, regardless of their diversity attributes, is known as:
a) workforce diversity.
b) inclusion.
c) multiculturalism.
d) cultural sensitivity.
e) constructive culture.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 2: Describe organizational behavior in context, organizational environments and shareholders, and diversity and multiculturalism.
Reference: Organizations as Work Settings

91. An individual who helps others achieve high levels of both performance and satisfaction is a(n):
a) executive.
b) effective manager.
c) director.
d) supervisor.
e) team follower.

Ans:
Page: 11
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

92. Which of the following is NOT one of the four basic functions of management?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Directing
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

93. When managers define goals, set performance objectives, and identify action steps for accomplishing them, they are engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Directing
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

94. Suppose that the company’s president decides to develop a policy to increase the company’s commitment to its employees and then develops a set of procedures to implement this policy. The president is engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Directing
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

95. Suppose that a manager sets up a committee to develop procedures for dealing with company wide training needs and then assigns people to conduct specific training programs. This manager is engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Motivating
d) Leading
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

96. Suppose a manager starts an affirmative action program to increase opportunities for minority advancement and then clearly and convincingly communicates the objectives of the program to all employees. By doing this the manager gains their support and participation. This manager is engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Motivating
e) Controlling

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

97. When a manager monitors the progress of an affirmative action program to advance minorities within the corporation, reviews progress on changes in employee attitudes, calls a special meeting to discuss problems, and makes appropriate adjustments in the program, the manager is engaged in which management function?
a) Planning
b) Organizing
c) Leading
d) Controlling
e) Delegating

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

98. Henry Mintzberg identified a set of roles that managers perform. These roles are grouped into which of the following three categories?
a) Interpersonal, strategic, and decisional
b) Strategic, informational, and political
c) Interpersonal, informational, and decisional
d) Supervisory, authoritarian, and decisional
e) Supervisory, informational, and strategic

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Easy
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

99. Which of the following represent informational roles as identified by Henry Mintzberg?
a) Figurehead, leader, and spokesperson
b) Monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson
c) Negotiator, entrepreneur, and resource allocator
d) Leader, disseminator, and entrepreneur
e) Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, and resource allocator

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

100. Which of the following descriptions of Mintzberg’s managerial roles is correct?
a) Interpersonal roles include the monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson.
b) Informational roles include the figurehead, leader, and liaison.
c) Decisional roles include the entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
d) Decisional roles include the leader, disturbance handler and spokesperson.
e) Informational roles include the figurehead, monitor, leader and spokesperson.

Ans:
Page: 12
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

101. According to Robert Katz, the essential skills of management can be grouped into which of the following three categories?
a) Technical, interpersonal, and informational
b) Technical, human, and conceptual
c) Interpersonal, decisional, and informational
d) Organizing, planning, and leading
e) Leading, decisional, and human

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

102. According to Robert Katz, all of the following statements are correct EXCEPT that the:
a) technical skills are considered important for supervisors and team leaders who must deal with job-specific problems.
b) conceptual skills are important for senior executives who deal with organizational purpose, mission and strategy issues.
c) technical skills are equally important for both entry and senior level management positions.
d) conceptual skills are important for senior executives who must deal with broad, ambiguous and long-term decisions.
e) human skills are consistently important across all managerial levels.

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

103. A manager who is using spreadsheet software to prepare a departmental budget is using which managerial skill according to Katz?
a) Supervisory
b) Conceptual
c) Creative
d) Technical
e) Human

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

104. In trying to work out an acceptable solution to a problem, managers who rely on their understanding of other people and who empathize with others’ feelings are using which managerial skill according to Katz?
a) Supervisory
b) Conceptual
c) Creative
d) Technical
e) Human

Ans:
Page: 13
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

105. Important dimensions of emotional intelligence include all of the following human skills EXCEPT:
a) self-awareness.
b) self-regulation.
c) technical skill.
d) empathy.
e) social skill.

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

106. Which managerial skill involves the capacity to analyze and solve complex and interrelated problems?
a) Supervisory
b) Conceptual
c) Creative
d) Technical
e) Human

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

107. A manager who thinks critically and analytically when developing an organizational strategy for dealing with a highly competitive global environment is using which managerial skill?
a) Supervisory
b) Conceptual
c) Creative
d) Technical
e) Human

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

108. Of the following, which refers to a capacity to get things done due to relationships with other people?
a) Social capital
b) Value chain
c) Task performance
d) Workforce diversity
e) Open systems

Ans:
Page: 14
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

109. According to Archie Carroll, if a manager doesn’t subscribe to any ethical decision-making principles and acts in any situation to simply take personal advantage, he or she would be classified as a(n):
a) moral manager.
b) amoral manager.
c) immoral manager.
d) ombudsman manager.
e) opportunistic manager.

Ans:
Page: 16
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

110. The ethics center of gravity can be moved positively in a virtuous shift with:
a) emotionally intelligent leadership.
b) immoral leadership.
c) amoral leadership.
d) moral leadership.
e) philanthropic leadership.

Ans:
Page: 17
Level: Hard
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

111. According to Archie B. Carroll, the majority of managers are:
a) immoral.
b) amoral.
c) moral.
d) mindful.
e) none of the above.

Ans:
Page: 17
Level: Medium
Learning Objective 3: Define managerial activities, leadership in organizations, and ethical leadership.
Reference: Management and Leadership

112. Which of the following is an enduring change of behavior that results from experience?
a) Learning
b) Managerial sense-making
c) Organizational tracking
d) Lifelong careers
e) Managerial scholarship

Ans:
P