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FIN 350 Week 11 Quiz

FIN 350 Week 11 Quiz – Strayer

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Quiz 10 Chapter 22 and 23

Finance Company Operations

1. ____ finance companies concentrate on purchasing credit contracts from retailers and dealers.
a. Consumer
b. Sales
c. Commercial
d. None of the above

2. Which of the following is not a source of finance company funds to support operations?
a. loans from banks
b. commercial paper
c. federal funds
d. bonds

3. When a finance company’s assets are ____ interest rate sensitive than its liabilities and when interest rates are expected to ____, bonds can provide long-term financing at a rate that is completely insulated from rising market rates.
a. less; increase
b. less; decrease
c. more; increase
d. more; decrease

4. Finance companies differ from commercial banks, savings institutions, and credit unions in that they
a. normally do not obtain funds from deposits.
b. focus on financing acquisitions by companies.
c. focus on providing residential mortgages.
d. use most of their funds to purchase stocks.

5. Which of the following is not a main source of funds for finance companies?
a. bank loans
b. commercial paper issues
c. bonds
d. capital

6. Finance companies are more likely to issue bonds when their assets are presently ____ interest-rate sensitive than their liabilities, and when interest rates are expected to ____.
a. more; decrease
b. less; increase
c. more; increase
d. less; decrease

7. If finance companies were confident about projections of ____ interest rates, they may consider using the funds obtained from issuing bonds to offer loans with ____ rates.
a. declining; variable
b. rising; fixed
c. rising; variable
d. A and B

8. Finance companies would prefer to increase their long-term debt most once interest rates
a. have declined.
b. have increased.
c. were stable for several years.
d. were projected to decline.

9. The main competition for finance companies in the consumer loan market comes from
a. pension funds.
b. life insurance companies and property and casualty insurance companies.
c. commercial banks and savings and institutions.
d. mutual funds.

10. When finance companies purchase a firm’s receivables at a discount, and are responsible for processing and collecting the balances of these accounts, they act as a
a. leasing agent.
b. lessor.
c. lessee.
d. factor.

11. When a finance company purchases equipment for use by another business, the finance company provides financing in the form of
a. factoring.
b. leasing.
c. a banker’s acceptance.
d. a letter of credit.

12. Finance companies are exempt from state regulations.
a. True
b. False

13. Finance companies are not subject to state regulations on intrastate business.
a. True
b. False

14. Finance companies are subject to
a. a maximum limit on loan size.
b. ceiling interest rates on loans provided.
c. a maximum length on loan maturity.
d. regulations on intra-state banking.
e. all of the above

15. If finance companies with a greater rate-sensitivity of liabilities than assets wanted to reduce interest-rate risk, they could
a. shorten their average asset life.
b. lengthen their average asset life.
c. shorten the maturity of debt that they issue.
d. make greater use of fixed-rate loans.

16. Overall, the liquidity risk of finance companies is higher than that of other financial institutions.
a. True
b. False

17. Compared to other lending financial institutions, finance companies have a ____ loan delinquency rate, and the average rate charged on loans is ____ on average.
a. lower; lower
b. lower; higher
c. higher; higher
d. higher; lower

18. A wholly owned subsidiary whose primary purpose is to finance sales of the parent company’s products and services, provide wholesale financing to distributors of the parent company’s products, and purchase receivables of the parent company is a
a. captive finance subsidiary.
b. factor.
c. leasing agent.
d. captive factoring agent.

19. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. A captive finance subsidiary’s purpose is to finance sales of the parent company’s products and services.
b. An operating agreement between the parent and the captive specifies the type of receivables that qualify for same and specific services provided by the parent.
c. A captive can be used to finance distributor or dealer inventories until a sale occurs.
d. A captive is rarely used to finance products leased to others.

20. ____ provide loans to firms that cannot obtain financing from commercial banks.
a. Consumer finance companies
b. Sales finance companies
c. Commercial finance companies
d. None of the above

21. Which of the following is not a use of finance company funds?
a. consumer loans
b. business loans
c. commercial paper
d. real estate loans
e. All of the above are uses of finance company funds.

22. Finance companies commonly act as ____ for accounts receivable; that is, they purchase a firm’s receivables at a discount and are responsible for processing and collecting the balances of these accounts.
a. brokers
b. dealers
c. market makers
d. factors
e. none of the above

23. Most finance companies are commonly exposed to all forms of risk below except ____ risk.
a. exchange rate
b. interest rate
c. liquidity
d. credit

24. Changes in economic growth are ____ related to a finance company’s cash flows, and changes in the risk-free rate are ____ related to a finance company’s cash flows.
a. positively; negatively
b. negatively; positively
c. negatively; negatively
d. positively; positively

25. Finance companies participate in the ____ market to reduce interest rate risk.
a. money
b. bond
c. options
d. swap

26. Many consumer finance companies also provide personal loans, directly to individuals to finance purchases of large household items.
a. True
b. False

27. Business finance companies focus on loans to very large businesses.
a. True
b. False

28. Consumer finance companies sometimes provide Business finance companies to individuals.
a. True
b. False

29. Although commercial paper is available only for short-term financing, finance companies can continually roll over their issues to create a permanent source of funds.
a. True
b. False

30. After interest rates increase, finance companies tend to use more long-term debt to lock in the cost of funds over an extended period of time.
a. True
b. False

31. Some finance companies offer credit card loans through a particular retailer.
a. True
b. False

32. The main competition for finance companies in the consumer loan market comes from pension funds and insurance companies.
a. True
b. False

33. The value of a finance company can be modeled as the present value of its future cash flows.
a. True
b. False

34. The most important risk for finance companies is ____ risk.
a. settlement
b. accounting
c. credit
d. exchange rate

35. Finance companies can accumulate capital by doing all of the following except
a. retaining earnings.
b. issuing stock.
c. issuing commercial paper.
d. Finance companies can build their capital base by doing all of the above.

36. Consumer finance companies primarily focus on for
a. consumer loans.
b. consumer advising.
c. consumer regulation.
d. none of the above

37. Finance companies are regulated by the states but are not subject to regulation by an agency of the federal government.
a. True
b. False

38. Historically, captive finance subsidiaries were associated with:
a. the automobile industry.
b. the oil and gas industry.
c. the textile industry.
d. department stores.

Chapter 23—Mutual Fund Operations

1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Mutual funds serve as a key financial intermediary.
b. Managers of mutual funds do not analyze economic and industry trends.
c. Because of their diversification, management expertise, and liquidity, mutual funds have grown at a rapid pace.
d. Some mutual funds offer check-writing privileges.

2. No-load mutual funds are normally promoted by ____. Load funds are promoted by ____.
a. registered representatives of a brokerage firm; registered representatives of a brokerage firm
b. registered representatives of a brokerage firm; the mutual fund of concern
c. the mutual fund of concern; registered representatives of a brokerage firm
d. the mutual fund of concern; the mutual fund of concern

3. To cover managerial expenses, mutual funds typically charge
a. management fees of less than 2 percent of total assets per year.
b. commissions of typically 8 to 10 percent of transaction market value per year.
c. management fees of typically more than 10 percent of total assets per year.
d. commissions of typically 3 to 5 percent of the transaction market value per year.

4. Mutual funds that are willing to repurchase their shares from investors at any time are referred to as
a. closed-end funds.
b. load mutual funds.
c. no-load mutual funds.
d. open-end mutual funds.

5. ____ funds do not normally repurchase their shares from investors.
a. Closed-end
b. Load mutual
c. No-load mutual
d. Open-end mutual

6. Most closed-end funds invest in
a. stock and bonds.
b. money market securities.
c. gold.
d. derivatives.

7. Exchange-traded funds are like open-end funds in the sense that
a. their shares are traded on an exchange, and their share price changes throughout the day.
b. they have a fixed number of shares.
c. they are not actively managed.
d. none of the above

8. Hedge funds differ from open-end mutual funds in the sense that
a. they require a much smaller initial investment.
b. they are open to additional investments at any time.
c. their investors cannot sell shares back to the fund at any time they desire.
d. they invest in very limited set of securities.

9. Shares of open-end mutual funds are purchased and sold on exchanges.
a. True
b. False

10. Mutual funds
a. are unregulated.
b. are required to disclose the names of their portfolio managers in the prospectus.
c. are not required to disclose any information about their past performance.
d. are exempt from all taxes.

11. Which of the following is not disclosed in the prospectus?
a. the minimum amount of investment required
b. the investment objective of the funds
c. the fees incurred by the mutual fund
d. all of the above are disclosed

12. The net asset value of a mutual fund is estimated once every week.
a. True
b. False

13. Mutual funds with ____ expense ratios tend to ____ others that have a similar investment objective.
a. lower; underperform
b. higher; outperform
c. lower; outperform
d. A and B

14. A front-end load is a withdrawal fee assessed when you withdraw money from the mutual fund.
a. True
b. False

15. Money market funds invest mostly in
a. stocks.
b. long-term bonds.
c. real estate.
d. short-term securities.

16. If investors sell their mutual fund shares after the net asset value of the fund increases, the return is called
a. share price appreciation.
b. capital gains distribution.
c. dividends.
d. split net asset value.

17. Mutual funds composed of stocks that have potential for very high growth, but may also be unproven, are called
a. income funds.
b. capital appreciation funds.
c. specialty funds.
d. dividend funds.

18. Mutual funds composed of bonds that offer periodic coupon payments are
a. income funds.
b. specialty funds.
c. dividend funds.
d. growth funds.

19. Mutual funds whose bonds have a ____ average time to maturity are ____ sensitive to interest rate fluctuations.
a. longer; less
b. shorter; less
c. shorter; more
d. A and C

20. The net asset value of international stock mutual funds ____ as the dollar strengthens against foreign currencies. (Assume no change in the prices of foreign stocks.)
a. increases
b. decreases
c. is unaffected
d. can increase or decrease depending on the dollar’s degree of strength

21. Mutual funds that include some non-U.S. stocks and U.S. stocks are called ____ funds.
a. global
b. foreign
c. combined
d. mixed

22. A mutual fund consisting only of stocks of firms that are in a specific industry is an example of a ____ fund.
a. specialty
b. growth
c. capital appreciation
d. growth and income

23. The majority of mutual fund assets are in the form of
a. common stocks.
b. preferred stocks.
c. U.S. government bonds.
d. municipal bonds.

24. If a mutual fund distributes at least ____ percent of its taxable income to shareholders, the fund is exempt from taxes on dividends, interest, and capital gains distributed to shareholders.
a. 25
b. 50
c. 75
d. 90

25. When the redemptions of money market mutual fund shares exceeds sales of shares, the fund accommodates the amount of excessive redemptions by
a. selling some of the assets contained in the portfolio.
b. issuing stock.
c. issuing bonds.
d. borrowing from banks.

26. Money market fund assets include all of the following, except
a. stocks.
b. repurchase agreements.
c. Treasury bills.
d. CDs.

27. If money market funds definitely expect interest rates to increase, they will ____ their average asset maturity.
a. not adjust
b. shorten
c. lengthen
d. shorten (if the expected change is small) or lengthen (if the expected change is large)

28. Money market funds are normally perceived to have ____ interest rate risk, and ____ default risk.
a. low; high
b. high; high
c. high; low
d. low; low

29. Equity real estate investment trusts invest
a. in mortgage and construction loans.
b. directly in properties.
c. in common stocks issued by construction companies.
d. in common stocks issued by real estate brokerage firms.

30. Because ____ real estate investment trusts essentially represent a fixed income portfolio, their market value will ____ as interest rates increase.
a. equity; increase
b. equity; decrease
c. mortgage; increase
d. mortgage; decrease

31. When interest rates decline, investors who want to earn a high return may tend to ____ in stock mutual funds, and ____ deposits in depository institutions.
a. reduce; reduce
b. reduce; increase
c. increase; reduce
d. increase; increase

32. The composition of asset allocation funds
a. is focused completely on one type of security as specified by the particular mutual fund.
b. is fixed and not altered by the mutual fund managers.
c. A and B
d. none of the above

33. A mutual fund prospectus does not contain
a. minimum amount of investment required.
b. return on the fund since its inception.
c. investment objective of the mutual fund.
d. exposure of the mutual fund to various types of risk.
e. fees incurred by the mutual fund.

34. The ____ of a mutual fund indicates the value per share.
a. net asset value
b. gross asset value
c. net stock value
d. net bond value
e. none of the above

35. Mutual funds whose funds are promoted strictly by the mutual fund of concern are called
a. closed-end funds.
b. load mutual funds.
c. no-load mutual funds.
d. open-end mutual funds.

36. Mutual funds that are composed of bonds that offer periodic coupon payments are called ____ mutual funds.
a. tax-free
b. income
c. high-yield
d. growth
e. none of the above

37. ____ are most likely to invest in mortgages.
a. Stock mutual funds
b. Bond mutual funds
c. Load funds
d. Closed-end funds

38. Hedge funds that exceed a specified size must register with the
a. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
b. Federal Reserve.
c. Office of Thrift Supervision.
d. Federal Mutual Fund Board.

39. According to SEC regulations, the majority of the members on a mutual fund’s board of directors must be
a. employed by the fund.
b. outsiders (not employed by the fund).
c. certified public accountants.
d. certified financial analysts.

40. An expense ratio represents ____ divided by the fund’s ____.
a. annual fees charged to investors; 12b-1 fees
b. annual fees charged to investors; net asset value
c. initial sales charge (load); 12b-1 fees
d. initial sales charge (load); net asset value

41. The most common investment by closed-end funds is in
a. derivatives.
b. bonds.
c. money market securities.
d. international equity securities.

42. ____ are beneficial for investors who want to invest in tax-exempt securities.
a. Municipal bond funds
b. Growth and income funds
c. International and global funds
d. Money market funds

43. When the demand for a particular closed-end fund is ____, the fund is likely priced at a ____.
a. high; discount
b. low; discount
c. high; premium
d. B and C are correct

44. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Commercial paper is commonly purchased by money market funds.
b. From an investor’s perspective, money market funds usually have a low level of credit risk.
c. Money market funds tend to have low interest rate risk compared to bond funds.
d. If mutual fund managers expect interest rates to decrease in the future, they should use funds generated from maturing securities today to purchase new securities with shorter maturities.

45. The number of exchange-traded funds has declined over the last several years because the cost of managing them was excessive.
a. True
b. False

46. Exchange-traded funds can be purchased on margin.
a. True
b. False

47. Investors can sell exchange-traded funds short.
a. True
b. False

48. Mutual fund managers seek securities that have much liquidity so that they could easily sell them in the secondary market at any time.
a. True
b. False

49. Closed-end funds are closed to new investment but allow redemptions by shareholders.
a. True
b. False

50. Closed-end fund managers must hold more cash than mutual fund managers.
a. True
b. False

51. Index mutual funds are not traded throughout the day, while exchange-traded funds are.
a. True
b. False

52. Venture capital funds typically invest in stocks of publicly-traded companies.
a. True
b. False

53. Many businesses that go public are partially backed by venture capital before the IPO.
a. True
b. False

54. Private equity funds use most of their money to invest in stocks of publicly-traded companies.
a. True
b. False

55. Vulture funds are a type of private equity fund that purchase distressed assets of a firm that is in or near bankruptcy.
a. True
b. False

56. Hedge funds commonly engage in short selling.
a. True
b. False

57. ____ are not exchange-traded funds.
a. Spiders
b. Growth mutual funds
c. Diamonds
d. Sector Spiders

58. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. ETFs are like index mutual funds because the share price adjusts over time in response to the change in the index level.
b. Both ETFs and index mutual funds pay dividends in the form of additional shares to investors.
c. The portfolio management of both ETFs and index mutual funds is very complex.
d. ETFs can be traded throughout the day.

59. Funds that are designed to mimic particular stock indexes and are traded on a stock exchange are known as
a. index mutual funds.
b. exchange-traded funds.
c. money market funds.
d. none of the above

60. Exchange traded funds can be
a. traded throughout the day.
b. purchased on margin.
c. sold short.
d. all of the above

61. ____ trade at one-tenth of the S&P 500 value.
a. Spiders
b. Cubes
c. Diamonds
d. World Equity Benchmark Shares

62. Mutual funds must register with the U.S. Treasury and provide to interested investors a prospectus that discloses details about the components of the funds and risks involved.
a. True
b. False

63. The net asset value (NAV) is estimated each day by first determining the market value of all securities comprising the mutual fund.
a. True
b. False

64. Portfolio managers are hired by the mutual fund to invest in a portfolio of securities that satisfies the desires of investors.
a. True
b. False

65. The expenses incurred by a mutual fund are billed separately to investors, and are not included in the fund’s net asset value (NAV).
a. True
b. False

66. A front-end load is a withdrawal fee assessed when you withdraw money from the mutual fund.
a. True
b. False

67. Large mutual funds can exert some control over the management of firms because they commonly represent the largest shareholders.
a. True
b. False

68. Investors who feel capable of making their own investment decisions often prefer to invest in load funds.
a. True
b. False

69. The term “mutual funds” is normally used to represent closed-end funds, and does not include open-end funds.
a. True
b. False

70. Exchange-traded funds differ from open-end funds in that their share price is adjusted only at the end of every day.
a. True
b. False

71. Capital appreciation funds are suited for investors who are more willing to risk a possible loss in value.
a. True
b. False

72. The returns on international stock mutual funds are affected only by foreign companies’ stock prices, and are independent of currency movements.
a. True
b. False

73. Index funds are becoming increasingly unpopular because most mutual fund managers consistently outperform indexes.
a. True
b. False

74. A mutual fund’s performance is usually unrelated to market conditions.
a. True
b. False

75. The SEC requires that a majority of the directors of a mutual fund board be independent (not employed by the fund).
a. True
b. False

76. Diversification among types of mutual funds usually does little to reduce the volatility of returns on the overall investment.
a. True
b. False

77. Closed-end funds may sometimes engage in a stock repurchase, in which they purchase shares on the exchange where the shares are listed.
a. True
b. False

78. Because money market funds contain instruments with short-term maturities, their market values are not very sensitive to movements in market interest rates.
a. True
b. False

79. Equity REITs are sometimes purchased to hedge against inflation, as rents and property values tend to rise with inflation.
a. True
b. False

80. Equity REITs essentially represent fixed-income portfolios. Thus, their market values will be influenced by interest rate movements.
a. True
b. False

81. Hedge funds are more heavily regulated than mutual funds.
a. True
b. False

82. Which of the following is not true regarding mutual funds?
a. They are a key financial intermediary.
b. They provide an important service to individual investors seeking to invest funds.
c. Most mutual funds use experienced portfolio managers, so investors do not have to manage the portfolio themselves.
d. They provide a way for individual investors to diversify, but most individual investors are unable to afford the purchase of mutual fund shares.

83. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are designed to mimic particular stock indexes and are traded on a stock exchange.
b. Unlike a closed-end fund, an ETF has a fixed number of shares.
c. ETFs differ from most open-end and closed-end funds in that they are not actively managed.
d. One disadvantage of ETFs is that each purchase of additional shares must be done through the exchange where they are traded.

84. A mutual fund prospectus does not contain the
a. minimum amount of investment required.
b. investment objective of the mutual fund.
c. exposure of the mutual fund to various types of risk.
d. return on the fund since its inception.
e. fees incurred by the mutual fund.

85. The ____ of a mutual fund represents the price at which shares can be purchased from a mutual fund.
a. gross asset value
b. net asset value
c. net stock value
d. net bond value

86. Which of the following is incorrect about money market funds (MMFs)?
a. The credit risk of MMFs is normally perceived to be lower than that of corporate bonds.
b. MMFs have higher interest rate risk than bond funds.
c. MMFs normally generate positive returns over time
d. All of the above are correct.

87. ____ are most likely to invest in mortgages.
a. Stock mutual funds
b. Real estate investment trusts (REITs)
c. Load funds
d. Closed-end funds
e. None of the above

88. Mutual funds are not required to disclose which of the following in the prospectus?
a. the names of the portfolio managers
b. the length of time that the portfolio managers have been employed by the fund in that position
c. the performance record in recent years
d. the number of investors currently investing in the mutual fund
e. Mutual funds are required to disclose all of the above in a prospectus

89. Which of the following is not a way in which mutual funds generate returns for their shareholders?
a. They can pass on any earned income as dividend payments to shareholders.
b. They distribute the capital gains resulting from the sale of securities within the fund.
c. The mutual fund price appreciates.
d. All of the above are ways in which a mutual fund generates returns to its shareholders.

90. A(n) ____ fund contains a sales charge.
a. load
b. no-load
c. closed-end
d. open-end
e. none of the above

91. ____ funds are open to investment from investors at any time.
a. Load
b. No-load
c. Open-end
d. Closed-end
e. None of the above

92. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Investors can purchase shares directly from an open-end fund at any time.
b. The number of shares of an open-end fund is always changing.
c. Open-end funds typically maintain some cash on hand in case investments exceed redemptions.
d. There are many different categories of open-end mutual funds.

93. ____ funds focus on a group of companies sharing a particular characteristic.
a. Specialty
b. Growth and income
c. Closed-end
d. Capital appreciation
e. None of the above

94. Bond portfolios with some bonds rated below Baa by Moody’s or BBB by Standard and Poor’s, available for investors desiring high return and willing to incur high risk, are called ____ funds.
a. growth
b. capital appreciation
c. junk bond
d. bond
e. none of the above

95. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. A mutual fund is usually run by an investment company.
b. Although many mutual funds have grown substantially over time, their expense ratios have generally increased over time.
c. For each mutual fund, all expenses charged and reflected in the expense ratio are always valid.
d. The SEC requires that a majority of the directors of a mutual fund board be independent.

96. Money market funds commonly invest in
a. stocks.
b. real estate.
c. commercial paper.
d. U.S. Treasury bonds.
e. none of the above

97. Which of the following is not true with respect to venture capital funds?
a. They typically invest in young, growing firms that need equity funding but are not ready or willing to go public.
b. More than half of all VC investing is in businesses that are being created.
c. Venture capital funds tend to focus on technology firms, which have the potential for high returns but also exhibit a high level of risk.
d. Because VC funds invest in fairly safe ventures, a low percentage of their ventures fail.
e. All of the above are correct with respect to venture capital funds.

98. ____ funds sell shares to wealthy individuals and financial institutions and use the proceeds to invest in securities.
a. Growth
b. Open-end
c. Capital appreciation
d. Hedge
e. Specialty

99. Exchange-traded funds distribute their capital gains to their shareholders, who must pay tax on the gains.
a. True
b. False

100. Shares of exchange-traded funds can be sold _________, and shares of open-end mutual funds can be sold _________.
a. at any time during trading hours; at any time via private trading networks
b. only at the end of the day; at any time during trading hours
c. at any time via private trading networks; at any time during trading hours
d. at any time during trading hours; only at the end of the day

101. The average annual fee on actively managed exchange-traded funds is ________, which is _________.
a. zero.
b. lower than the typical annual fee on open-end mutual funds.
c. higher than the typical annual fee on open-end mutual funds.
d. the same as the typical annual fee on open-end mutual funds.

102. An investor who believes that technology stocks will perform well but does not want to select individual technology stocks might invest in:
a. Spiders.
b. WEBs.
c. Cubes.
d. Diamonds.

103. If interest rates are expected to ________, mortgage real investment trusts (REITs) ___________.
a. decline; become less attractive
b. rise; become less attractive
c. rise; are not affected
d. decline; are not affected

104. Investors who invest in a hedge fund of funds essentially pay two layers of management fees.
a. True
b. False

105. Hedge funds commonly use financial leverage, which can:
a. magnify their returns and magnify their losses.
b. magnify their returns and limit their losses.
c. reduce their risk and limit their losses.
d. magnify their returns and not affect their risk.

FIN 350 Week 11 Quiz – Strayer University New

FIN/350 Week 11 Quiz – Strayer

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Quiz 10 Chapter 22 and 23

Finance Company Operations

1. ____ finance companies concentrate on purchasing credit contracts from retailers and dealers.
a. Consumer
b. Sales
c. Commercial
d. None of the above

2. Which of the following is not a source of finance company funds to support operations?
a. loans from banks
b. commercial paper
c. federal funds
d. bonds

3. When a finance company’s assets are ____ interest rate sensitive than its liabilities and when interest rates are expected to ____, bonds can provide long-term financing at a rate that is completely insulated from rising market rates.
a. less; increase
b. less; decrease
c. more; increase
d. more; decrease

4. Finance companies differ from commercial banks, savings institutions, and credit unions in that they
a. normally do not obtain funds from deposits.
b. focus on financing acquisitions by companies.
c. focus on providing residential mortgages.
d. use most of their funds to purchase stocks.

5. Which of the following is not a main source of funds for finance companies?
a. bank loans
b. commercial paper issues
c. bonds
d. capital

6. Finance companies are more likely to issue bonds when their assets are presently ____ interest-rate sensitive than their liabilities, and when interest rates are expected to ____.
a. more; decrease
b. less; increase
c. more; increase
d. less; decrease

7. If finance companies were confident about projections of ____ interest rates, they may consider using the funds obtained from issuing bonds to offer loans with ____ rates.
a. declining; variable
b. rising; fixed
c. rising; variable
d. A and B

8. Finance companies would prefer to increase their long-term debt most once interest rates
a. have declined.
b. have increased.
c. were stable for several years.
d. were projected to decline.

9. The main competition for finance companies in the consumer loan market comes from
a. pension funds.
b. life insurance companies and property and casualty insurance companies.
c. commercial banks and savings and institutions.
d. mutual funds.

10. When finance companies purchase a firm’s receivables at a discount, and are responsible for processing and collecting the balances of these accounts, they act as a
a. leasing agent.
b. lessor.
c. lessee.
d. factor.

11. When a finance company purchases equipment for use by another business, the finance company provides financing in the form of
a. factoring.
b. leasing.
c. a banker’s acceptance.
d. a letter of credit.

12. Finance companies are exempt from state regulations.
a. True
b. False

13. Finance companies are not subject to state regulations on intrastate business.
a. True
b. False

14. Finance companies are subject to
a. a maximum limit on loan size.
b. ceiling interest rates on loans provided.
c. a maximum length on loan maturity.
d. regulations on intra-state banking.
e. all of the above

15. If finance companies with a greater rate-sensitivity of liabilities than assets wanted to reduce interest-rate risk, they could
a. shorten their average asset life.
b. lengthen their average asset life.
c. shorten the maturity of debt that they issue.
d. make greater use of fixed-rate loans.

16. Overall, the liquidity risk of finance companies is higher than that of other financial institutions.
a. True
b. False

17. Compared to other lending financial institutions, finance companies have a ____ loan delinquency rate, and the average rate charged on loans is ____ on average.
a. lower; lower
b. lower; higher
c. higher; higher
d. higher; lower

18. A wholly owned subsidiary whose primary purpose is to finance sales of the parent company’s products and services, provide wholesale financing to distributors of the parent company’s products, and purchase receivables of the parent company is a
a. captive finance subsidiary.
b. factor.
c. leasing agent.
d. captive factoring agent.

19. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. A captive finance subsidiary’s purpose is to finance sales of the parent company’s products and services.
b. An operating agreement between the parent and the captive specifies the type of receivables that qualify for same and specific services provided by the parent.
c. A captive can be used to finance distributor or dealer inventories until a sale occurs.
d. A captive is rarely used to finance products leased to others.

20. ____ provide loans to firms that cannot obtain financing from commercial banks.
a. Consumer finance companies
b. Sales finance companies
c. Commercial finance companies
d. None of the above

21. Which of the following is not a use of finance company funds?
a. consumer loans
b. business loans
c. commercial paper
d. real estate loans
e. All of the above are uses of finance company funds.

22. Finance companies commonly act as ____ for accounts receivable; that is, they purchase a firm’s receivables at a discount and are responsible for processing and collecting the balances of these accounts.
a. brokers
b. dealers
c. market makers
d. factors
e. none of the above

23. Most finance companies are commonly exposed to all forms of risk below except ____ risk.
a. exchange rate
b. interest rate
c. liquidity
d. credit

24. Changes in economic growth are ____ related to a finance company’s cash flows, and changes in the risk-free rate are ____ related to a finance company’s cash flows.
a. positively; negatively
b. negatively; positively
c. negatively; negatively
d. positively; positively

25. Finance companies participate in the ____ market to reduce interest rate risk.
a. money
b. bond
c. options
d. swap

26. Many consumer finance companies also provide personal loans, directly to individuals to finance purchases of large household items.
a. True
b. False

27. Business finance companies focus on loans to very large businesses.
a. True
b. False

28. Consumer finance companies sometimes provide Business finance companies to individuals.
a. True
b. False

29. Although commercial paper is available only for short-term financing, finance companies can continually roll over their issues to create a permanent source of funds.
a. True
b. False

30. After interest rates increase, finance companies tend to use more long-term debt to lock in the cost of funds over an extended period of time.
a. True
b. False

31. Some finance companies offer credit card loans through a particular retailer.
a. True
b. False

32. The main competition for finance companies in the consumer loan market comes from pension funds and insurance companies.
a. True
b. False

33. The value of a finance company can be modeled as the present value of its future cash flows.
a. True
b. False

34. The most important risk for finance companies is ____ risk.
a. settlement
b. accounting
c. credit
d. exchange rate

35. Finance companies can accumulate capital by doing all of the following except
a. retaining earnings.
b. issuing stock.
c. issuing commercial paper.
d. Finance companies can build their capital base by doing all of the above.

36. Consumer finance companies primarily focus on for
a. consumer loans.
b. consumer advising.
c. consumer regulation.
d. none of the above

37. Finance companies are regulated by the states but are not subject to regulation by an agency of the federal government.
a. True
b. False

38. Historically, captive finance subsidiaries were associated with:
a. the automobile industry.
b. the oil and gas industry.
c. the textile industry.
d. department stores.

Chapter 23—Mutual Fund Operations

1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Mutual funds serve as a key financial intermediary.
b. Managers of mutual funds do not analyze economic and industry trends.
c. Because of their diversification, management expertise, and liquidity, mutual funds have grown at a rapid pace.
d. Some mutual funds offer check-writing privileges.

2. No-load mutual funds are normally promoted by ____. Load funds are promoted by ____.
a. registered representatives of a brokerage firm; registered representatives of a brokerage firm
b. registered representatives of a brokerage firm; the mutual fund of concern
c. the mutual fund of concern; registered representatives of a brokerage firm
d. the mutual fund of concern; the mutual fund of concern

3. To cover managerial expenses, mutual funds typically charge
a. management fees of less than 2 percent of total assets per year.
b. commissions of typically 8 to 10 percent of transaction market value per year.
c. management fees of typically more than 10 percent of total assets per year.
d. commissions of typically 3 to 5 percent of the transaction market value per year.

4. Mutual funds that are willing to repurchase their shares from investors at any time are referred to as
a. closed-end funds.
b. load mutual funds.
c. no-load mutual funds.
d. open-end mutual funds.

5. ____ funds do not normally repurchase their shares from investors.
a. Closed-end
b. Load mutual
c. No-load mutual
d. Open-end mutual

6. Most closed-end funds invest in
a. stock and bonds.
b. money market securities.
c. gold.
d. derivatives.

7. Exchange-traded funds are like open-end funds in the sense that
a. their shares are traded on an exchange, and their share price changes throughout the day.
b. they have a fixed number of shares.
c. they are not actively managed.
d. none of the above

8. Hedge funds differ from open-end mutual funds in the sense that
a. they require a much smaller initial investment.
b. they are open to additional investments at any time.
c. their investors cannot sell shares back to the fund at any time they desire.
d. they invest in very limited set of securities.

9. Shares of open-end mutual funds are purchased and sold on exchanges.
a. True
b. False

10. Mutual funds
a. are unregulated.
b. are required to disclose the names of their portfolio managers in the prospectus.
c. are not required to disclose any information about their past performance.
d. are exempt from all taxes.

11. Which of the following is not disclosed in the prospectus?
a. the minimum amount of investment required
b. the investment objective of the funds
c. the fees incurred by the mutual fund
d. all of the above are disclosed

12. The net asset value of a mutual fund is estimated once every week.
a. True
b. False

13. Mutual funds with ____ expense ratios tend to ____ others that have a similar investment objective.
a. lower; underperform
b. higher; outperform
c. lower; outperform
d. A and B

14. A front-end load is a withdrawal fee assessed when you withdraw money from the mutual fund.
a. True
b. False

15. Money market funds invest mostly in
a. stocks.
b. long-term bonds.
c. real estate.
d. short-term securities.

16. If investors sell their mutual fund shares after the net asset value of the fund increases, the return is called
a. share price appreciation.
b. capital gains distribution.
c. dividends.
d. split net asset value.

17. Mutual funds composed of stocks that have potential for very high growth, but may also be unproven, are called
a. income funds.
b. capital appreciation funds.
c. specialty funds.
d. dividend funds.

18. Mutual funds composed of bonds that offer periodic coupon payments are
a. income funds.
b. specialty funds.
c. dividend funds.
d. growth funds.

19. Mutual funds whose bonds have a ____ average time to maturity are ____ sensitive to interest rate fluctuations.
a. longer; less
b. shorter; less
c. shorter; more
d. A and C

20. The net asset value of international stock mutual funds ____ as the dollar strengthens against foreign currencies. (Assume no change in the prices of foreign stocks.)
a. increases
b. decreases
c. is unaffected
d. can increase or decrease depending on the dollar’s degree of strength

21. Mutual funds that include some non-U.S. stocks and U.S. stocks are called ____ funds.
a. global
b. foreign
c. combined
d. mixed

22. A mutual fund consisting only of stocks of firms that are in a specific industry is an example of a ____ fund.
a. specialty
b. growth
c. capital appreciation
d. growth and income

23. The majority of mutual fund assets are in the form of
a. common stocks.
b. preferred stocks.
c. U.S. government bonds.
d. municipal bonds.

24. If a mutual fund distributes at least ____ percent of its taxable income to shareholders, the fund is exempt from taxes on dividends, interest, and capital gains distributed to shareholders.
a. 25
b. 50
c. 75
d. 90

25. When the redemptions of money market mutual fund shares exceeds sales of shares, the fund accommodates the amount of excessive redemptions by
a. selling some of the assets contained in the portfolio.
b. issuing stock.
c. issuing bonds.
d. borrowing from banks.

26. Money market fund assets include all of the following, except
a. stocks.
b. repurchase agreements.
c. Treasury bills.
d. CDs.

27. If money market funds definitely expect interest rates to increase, they will ____ their average asset maturity.
a. not adjust
b. shorten
c. lengthen
d. shorten (if the expected change is small) or lengthen (if the expected change is large)

28. Money market funds are normally perceived to have ____ interest rate risk, and ____ default risk.
a. low; high
b. high; high
c. high; low
d. low; low

29. Equity real estate investment trusts invest
a. in mortgage and construction loans.
b. directly in properties.
c. in common stocks issued by construction companies.
d. in common stocks issued by real estate brokerage firms.

30. Because ____ real estate investment trusts essentially represent a fixed income portfolio, their market value will ____ as interest rates increase.
a. equity; increase
b. equity; decrease
c. mortgage; increase
d. mortgage; decrease

31. When interest rates decline, investors who want to earn a high return may tend to ____ in stock mutual funds, and ____ deposits in depository institutions.
a. reduce; reduce
b. reduce; increase
c. increase; reduce
d. increase; increase

32. The composition of asset allocation funds
a. is focused completely on one type of security as specified by the particular mutual fund.
b. is fixed and not altered by the mutual fund managers.
c. A and B
d. none of the above

33. A mutual fund prospectus does not contain
a. minimum amount of investment required.
b. return on the fund since its inception.
c. investment objective of the mutual fund.
d. exposure of the mutual fund to various types of risk.
e. fees incurred by the mutual fund.

34. The ____ of a mutual fund indicates the value per share.
a. net asset value
b. gross asset value
c. net stock value
d. net bond value
e. none of the above

35. Mutual funds whose funds are promoted strictly by the mutual fund of concern are called
a. closed-end funds.
b. load mutual funds.
c. no-load mutual funds.
d. open-end mutual funds.

36. Mutual funds that are composed of bonds that offer periodic coupon payments are called ____ mutual funds.
a. tax-free
b. income
c. high-yield
d. growth
e. none of the above

37. ____ are most likely to invest in mortgages.
a. Stock mutual funds
b. Bond mutual funds
c. Load funds
d. Closed-end funds

38. Hedge funds that exceed a specified size must register with the
a. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
b. Federal Reserve.
c. Office of Thrift Supervision.
d. Federal Mutual Fund Board.

39. According to SEC regulations, the majority of the members on a mutual fund’s board of directors must be
a. employed by the fund.
b. outsiders (not employed by the fund).
c. certified public accountants.
d. certified financial analysts.

40. An expense ratio represents ____ divided by the fund’s ____.
a. annual fees charged to investors; 12b-1 fees
b. annual fees charged to investors; net asset value
c. initial sales charge (load); 12b-1 fees
d. initial sales charge (load); net asset value

41. The most common investment by closed-end funds is in
a. derivatives.
b. bonds.
c. money market securities.
d. international equity securities.

42. ____ are beneficial for investors who want to invest in tax-exempt securities.
a. Municipal bond funds
b. Growth and income funds
c. International and global funds
d. Money market funds

43. When the demand for a particular closed-end fund is ____, the fund is likely priced at a ____.
a. high; discount
b. low; discount
c. high; premium
d. B and C are correct

44. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Commercial paper is commonly purchased by money market funds.
b. From an investor’s perspective, money market funds usually have a low level of credit risk.
c. Money market funds tend to have low interest rate risk compared to bond funds.
d. If mutual fund managers expect interest rates to decrease in the future, they should use funds generated from maturing securities today to purchase new securities with shorter maturities.

45. The number of exchange-traded funds has declined over the last several years because the cost of managing them was excessive.
a. True
b. False

46. Exchange-traded funds can be purchased on margin.
a. True
b. False

47. Investors can sell exchange-traded funds short.
a. True
b. False

48. Mutual fund managers seek securities that have much liquidity so that they could easily sell them in the secondary market at any time.
a. True
b. False

49. Closed-end funds are closed to new investment but allow redemptions by shareholders.
a. True
b. False

50. Closed-end fund managers must hold more cash than mutual fund managers.
a. True
b. False

51. Index mutual funds are not traded throughout the day, while exchange-traded funds are.
a. True
b. False

52. Venture capital funds typically invest in stocks of publicly-traded companies.
a. True
b. False

53. Many businesses that go public are partially backed by venture capital before the IPO.
a. True
b. False

54. Private equity funds use most of their money to invest in stocks of publicly-traded companies.
a. True
b. False

55. Vulture funds are a type of private equity fund that purchase distressed assets of a firm that is in or near bankruptcy.
a. True
b. False

56. Hedge funds commonly engage in short selling.
a. True
b. False

57. ____ are not exchange-traded funds.
a. Spiders
b. Growth mutual funds
c. Diamonds
d. Sector Spiders

58. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. ETFs are like index mutual funds because the share price adjusts over time in response to the change in the index level.
b. Both ETFs and index mutual funds pay dividends in the form of additional shares to investors.
c. The portfolio management of both ETFs and index mutual funds is very complex.
d. ETFs can be traded throughout the day.

59. Funds that are designed to mimic particular stock indexes and are traded on a stock exchange are known as
a. index mutual funds.
b. exchange-traded funds.
c. money market funds.
d. none of the above

60. Exchange traded funds can be
a. traded throughout the day.
b. purchased on margin.
c. sold short.
d. all of the above

61. ____ trade at one-tenth of the S&P 500 value.
a. Spiders
b. Cubes
c. Diamonds
d. World Equity Benchmark Shares

62. Mutual funds must register with the U.S. Treasury and provide to interested investors a prospectus that discloses details about the components of the funds and risks involved.
a. True
b. False

63. The net asset value (NAV) is estimated each day by first determining the market value of all securities comprising the mutual fund.
a. True
b. False

64. Portfolio managers are hired by the mutual fund to invest in a portfolio of securities that satisfies the desires of investors.
a. True
b. False

65. The expenses incurred by a mutual fund are billed separately to investors, and are not included in the fund’s net asset value (NAV).
a. True
b. False

66. A front-end load is a withdrawal fee assessed when you withdraw money from the mutual fund.
a. True
b. False

67. Large mutual funds can exert some control over the management of firms because they commonly represent the largest shareholders.
a. True
b. False

68. Investors who feel capable of making their own investment decisions often prefer to invest in load funds.
a. True
b. False

69. The term “mutual funds” is normally used to represent closed-end funds, and does not include open-end funds.
a. True
b. False

70. Exchange-traded funds differ from open-end funds in that their share price is adjusted only at the end of every day.
a. True
b. False

71. Capital appreciation funds are suited for investors who are more willing to risk a possible loss in value.
a. True
b. False

72. The returns on international stock mutual funds are affected only by foreign companies’ stock prices, and are independent of currency movements.
a. True
b. False

73. Index funds are becoming increasingly unpopular because most mutual fund managers consistently outperform indexes.
a. True
b. False

74. A mutual fund’s performance is usually unrelated to market conditions.
a. True
b. False

75. The SEC requires that a majority of the directors of a mutual fund board be independent (not employed by the fund).
a. True
b. False

76. Diversification among types of mutual funds usually does little to reduce the volatility of returns on the overall investment.
a. True
b. False

77. Closed-end funds may sometimes engage in a stock repurchase, in which they purchase shares on the exchange where the shares are listed.
a. True
b. False

78. Because money market funds contain instruments with short-term maturities, their market values are not very sensitive to movements in market interest rates.
a. True
b. False

79. Equity REITs are sometimes purchased to hedge against inflation, as rents and property values tend to rise with inflation.
a. True
b. False

80. Equity REITs essentially represent fixed-income portfolios. Thus, their market values will be influenced by interest rate movements.
a. True
b. False

81. Hedge funds are more heavily regulated than mutual funds.
a. True
b. False

82. Which of the following is not true regarding mutual funds?
a. They are a key financial intermediary.
b. They provide an important service to individual investors seeking to invest funds.
c. Most mutual funds use experienced portfolio managers, so investors do not have to manage the portfolio themselves.
d. They provide a way for individual investors to diversify, but most individual investors are unable to afford the purchase of mutual fund shares.

83. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are designed to mimic particular stock indexes and are traded on a stock exchange.
b. Unlike a closed-end fund, an ETF has a fixed number of shares.
c. ETFs differ from most open-end and closed-end funds in that they are not actively managed.
d. One disadvantage of ETFs is that each purchase of additional shares must be done through the exchange where they are traded.

84. A mutual fund prospectus does not contain the
a. minimum amount of investment required.
b. investment objective of the mutual fund.
c. exposure of the mutual fund to various types of risk.
d. return on the fund since its inception.
e. fees incurred by the mutual fund.

85. The ____ of a mutual fund represents the price at which shares can be purchased from a mutual fund.
a. gross asset value
b. net asset value
c. net stock value
d. net bond value

86. Which of the following is incorrect about money market funds (MMFs)?
a. The credit risk of MMFs is normally perceived to be lower than that of corporate bonds.
b. MMFs have higher interest rate risk than bond funds.
c. MMFs normally generate positive returns over time
d. All of the above are correct.

87. ____ are most likely to invest in mortgages.
a. Stock mutual funds
b. Real estate investment trusts (REITs)
c. Load funds
d. Closed-end funds
e. None of the above

88. Mutual funds are not required to disclose which of the following in the prospectus?
a. the names of the portfolio managers
b. the length of time that the portfolio managers have been employed by the fund in that position
c. the performance record in recent years
d. the number of investors currently investing in the mutual fund
e. Mutual funds are required to disclose all of the above in a prospectus

89. Which of the following is not a way in which mutual funds generate returns for their shareholders?
a. They can pass on any earned income as dividend payments to shareholders.
b. They distribute the capital gains resulting from the sale of securities within the fund.
c. The mutual fund price appreciates.
d. All of the above are ways in which a mutual fund generates returns to its shareholders.

90. A(n) ____ fund contains a sales charge.
a. load
b. no-load
c. closed-end
d. open-end
e. none of the above

91. ____ funds are open to investment from investors at any time.
a. Load
b. No-load
c. Open-end
d. Closed-end
e. None of the above

92. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Investors can purchase shares directly from an open-end fund at any time.
b. The number of shares of an open-end fund is always changing.
c. Open-end funds typically maintain some cash on hand in case investments exceed redemptions.
d. There are many different categories of open-end mutual funds.

93. ____ funds focus on a group of companies sharing a particular characteristic.
a. Specialty
b. Growth and income
c. Closed-end
d. Capital appreciation
e. None of the above

94. Bond portfolios with some bonds rated below Baa by Moody’s or BBB by Standard and Poor’s, available for investors desiring high return and willing to incur high risk, are called ____ funds.
a. growth
b. capital appreciation
c. junk bond
d. bond
e. none of the above

95. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. A mutual fund is usually run by an investment company.
b. Although many mutual funds have grown substantially over time, their expense ratios have generally increased over time.
c. For each mutual fund, all expenses charged and reflected in the expense ratio are always valid.
d. The SEC requires that a majority of the directors of a mutual fund board be independent.

96. Money market funds commonly invest in
a. stocks.
b. real estate.
c. commercial paper.
d. U.S. Treasury bonds.
e. none of the above

97. Which of the following is not true with respect to venture capital funds?
a. They typically invest in young, growing firms that need equity funding but are not ready or willing to go public.
b. More than half of all VC investing is in businesses that are being created.
c. Venture capital funds tend to focus on technology firms, which have the potential for high returns but also exhibit a high level of risk.
d. Because VC funds invest in fairly safe ventures, a low percentage of their ventures fail.
e. All of the above are correct with respect to venture capital funds.

98. ____ funds sell shares to wealthy individuals and financial institutions and use the proceeds to invest in securities.
a. Growth
b. Open-end
c. Capital appreciation
d. Hedge
e. Specialty

99. Exchange-traded funds distribute their capital gains to their shareholders, who must pay tax on the gains.
a. True
b. False

100. Shares of exchange-traded funds can be sold _________, and shares of open-end mutual funds can be sold _________.
a. at any time during trading hours; at any time via private trading networks
b. only at the end of the day; at any time during trading hours
c. at any time via private trading networks; at any time during trading hours
d. at any time during trading hours; only at the end of the day

101. The average annual fee on actively managed exchange-traded funds is ________, which is _________.
a. zero.
b. lower than the typical annual fee on open-end mutual funds.
c. higher than the typical annual fee on open-end mutual funds.
d. the same as the typical annual fee on open-end mutual funds.

102. An investor who believes that technology stocks will perform well but does not want to select individual technology stocks might invest in:
a. Spiders.
b. WEBs.
c. Cubes.
d. Diamonds.

103. If interest rates are expected to ________, mortgage real investment trusts (REITs) ___________.
a. decline; become less attractive
b. rise; become less attractive
c. rise; are not affected
d. decline; are not affected

104. Investors who invest in a hedge fund of funds essentially pay two layers of management fees.
a. True
b. False

105. Hedge funds commonly use financial leverage, which can:
a. magnify their returns and magnify their losses.
b. magnify their returns and limit their losses.
c. reduce their risk and limit their losses.
d. magnify their returns and not affect their risk.

FIN 350 Week 9 Quiz – Strayer University New

FIN 350 Week 9 Quiz – Strayer

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Quiz 8 Chapter 18 and 19

Bank Regulation

1. Deposit insurance has a limit of:
a. $10,000.
b. $25,000.
c. $100,000.
d. $250,000.

2. The opening of a commercial bank in the United States
a. does not require a charter.
b. always requires a charter from a state government.
c. always requires a charter from the federal government.
d. requires a charter from a state or the federal government.
e. requires a charter from both the state and federal government.

3. Commercial banks that are not members of the Federal Reserve System ____ borrow from the Fed, and ____ subject to the Fed’s reserve requirements.
a. may; are
b. may; are not
c. may not; are not
d. may not; are

4. National banks are regulated by ____, and state banks are regulated by ____.
a. the Comptroller of the Currency; their state agency
b. the Comptroller of the Currency; the Comptroller of the Currency
c. their state agency; their state agency
d. their state agency; the Comptroller of the Currency

5. All Fed member banks must hold
a. private insurance on deposits.
b. FDIC insurance on deposits.
c. both FDIC and private insurance on deposits.
d. none of the above

6. Commercial banks ____ restricted to a maximum percentage of their capital to loan to a single customer, and ____ allowed to use borrowed or deposited funds to purchase common stock.
a. are; are
b. are; are not
c. are not; are
d. are not; are not

7. Banks commonly use depositor funds to invest in stocks.
a. True
b. False

8. An “off-balance-sheet commitment” that provides the bank’s guarantee on the financial obligations of a borrower to a specific party is a
a. standby letter of credit.
b. federal funds agreement.
c. repurchase agreement.
d. discount window agreement.

9. The Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 allowed banks to set their own
a. reserve requirements.
b. capital ratios.
c. interest rates on savings deposits.
d. corporate loan interest rates.

10. The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 prevented
a. any firm that accepts deposits from underwriting stocks and bonds of corporations.
b. any firm that accepts deposits from underwriting general obligation bonds of states and municipalities.
c. any firm that accepts deposits from holding any corporate bonds in its asset portfolio.
d. state-chartered banks from offering commercial loans.

11. Which of the following is not a main deregulatory provision of Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980?
a. phase-out of deposit rate ceilings
b. allowance of checkable deposits for all depository institutions
c. new lending flexibility of depository institutions
d. allowance of interstate banking for depository institutions in most states

12. The Financial Reform Act was intended to:
a. prevent another credit crisis.
b. reduce capital ratios.
c. impose interest rate ceilings on deposits.
d. prevent banks from offering securities services.

13. The Garn-St. Germain Act of 1982
a. permitted depository institutions to offer money market deposit accounts.
b. prevented depository institutions from acquiring problem institutions across geographical boundaries.
c. required the Fed to explicitly charge depository institutions for its services.
d. allowed the Fed to provide check clearing to depository institutions at no charge.

14. Which of the following is not a specific criterion the FDIC uses to monitor banks?
a. capital adequacy
b. dollar value of fixed assets
c. asset quality
d. earnings
e. sensitivity to financial market conditions

15. The potential risk that financial problems can spread through financial institutions and the financial system is referred to as:
a. systemic
b. systematic
c. unsystematic
d. market

16. The Basel framework recommends capital requirements in proportion to:
a. mortgages
b. commercial paper
c. liabilities
d. risk-weighted assets

17. The Basel Accord
a. forces banks with greater risk to maintain more deposits.
b. forces banks with greater risk to maintain more capital.
c. forces banks with greater risk to maintain less capital.
d. none of the above

18. In general, a bank defines its value-at-risk as the estimated potential loss from its traditional businesses that could result from adverse movements in market prices.
a. True
b. False

19. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. The validity of a bank’s estimated VAR is assessed with backtests in which the actual daily trading gains or losses are compared to the estimated VAR over a particular period.
b. Some banks supplement the VAR estimate with stress tests.
c. In general, the VAR model does not lend itself to determine capital requirements.
d. All of the statements above are correct.

20. Which of the following is an “off-balance-sheet commitment?”
a. long-term debt
b. additional paid-in capital
c. notes payable
d. guarantees backing commercial paper issued by firms

21. The liquidity component of the CAMELS rating refers to
a. regulators’ concern about how a bank’s earnings would change if economic conditions change.
b. how well the bank’s management would detect its own financial problems.
c. a bank’s sensitivity to financial market conditions.
d. monitoring the type of loans that are given, the bank’s process for deciding whether to provide loans, and the credit rating of debt securities that it purchases.
e. excessive borrowing by banks from outside sources, such as the discount window.

22. Which of the following is not a corrective action taken by regulators when a bank is identified as a problem bank?
a. Regulators may examine such banks frequently and thoroughly.
b. Regulators may request that a bank boost its capital level or delay its plans to expand.
c. Regulators can require that additional financial information be periodically updated to allow continued monitoring.
d. Regulators have the authority to take legal action against a problem bank if the bank does not comply with their suggested remedies.
e. All of the above are possible corrective actions taken by bank regulators.

23. The fee banks pay to the FDIC for deposit insurance is now
a. a fixed dollar amount for all banks.
b. a fixed percentage of the bank’s deposit level for all banks.
c. a fixed percentage of the bank’s loan volume for all banks.
d. based on the risk of the bank.

24. Generally, the failure of small banks
a. causes more widespread concern about the safety of the banking system than the failure of large banks.
b. causes equal concern about the safety of the banking system as the failure of large banks.
c. causes less concern about the safety of the banking system than the failure of large banks.
d. Either A or B can be true, depending on the type of business cycle that exists while the failures occur.

25. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was enacted to make corporate managers, board members, and auditors more accountable for the accuracy of the financial statements that their respective firms provide.
a. True
b. False

26. Bank A has a 10 percent capital ratio and uses a significant proportion of its assets to invest in very highly-rated bonds. Bank B has an 12 percent capital ratio and uses a significant proportion of its assets to invest in highly leveraged transactions. How would Bank A rate versus Bank B using the capital and asset quality criteria?
a. Bank A is perceived as safer by both criteria.
b. Bank B is perceived as safer by both criteria.
c. Bank A is perceived as safer according to capital, but more risky according to asset quality.
d. Bank B is perceived as safer according to capital, but more risky according to asset quality.

27. The key reason for regulatory examinations (such as CAMELS ratings) is to
a. rate past performance.
b. detect problems of a bank in time to correct them.
c. check for embezzlement.
d. monitor reserve requirements.

28. Deposit insurance now covers all bank deposits without imposing any limit.
a. True
b. False

29. Which banking act allowed banks to cross state lines in order to acquire a failing institution?
a. McFadden Act
b. Glass-Steagall Act
c. DIDMCA
d. Garn-St. Germain Act

30. Which banking act allowed for the creation of NOW accounts?
a. McFadden Act
b. Glass-Steagall Act
c. DIDMCA
d. Garn-St. Germain Act

31. Which banking act allowed interstate banking?
a. Reigle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act
b. Glass-Steagall Act
c. DIDMCA
d. Sarbanes-Oxley Act

32. Which banking act permanently increased FDIC insurance up to $250,000?
a. DIDMCA
b. Sarbanes-Oxley Act
c. Financial Reform Act
d. Garn-St. Germain Act

33. Which banking act removed deposit rate ceilings?
a. McFadden Act
b. Glass-Steagall Act
c. DIDMCA
d. Garn-St. Germain Act

34. The argument that interstate banking would allow banks to grow and more fully achieve a reduction in operating costs per unit of output as output increases is based on
a. economies of scale.
b. financial leverage.
c. diseconomies of scale.
d. capital adequacy theory.

35. Federal deposit insurance
a. existed since the 1800s.
b. was created in 1933.
c. was created after World War II.
d. was created in 1960.

36. ____ is not a characteristics used by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to rate banks.
a. Capital adequacy
b. Current stock price
c. Asset quality
d. Management
e. All of the above are used by the FDIC to rate banks.

37. The moral hazard problem is minimized when deposit insurance premiums are
a. zero (not imposed by the FDIC).
b. the same percentage of assets for all banks.
c. set at a fixed percentage of assets for large banks, and is zero for small banks.
d. set at a percentage of assets that is based on the bank’s risk level.

38. Which of the following statements is incorrect with respect to the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999?
a. It complemented the Glass-Steagall Act.
b. It enabled commercial banks to more easily pursue securities and insurance activities.
c. It gave securities firms and insurance companies the right to acquire banks.
d. The Act requires that commercial banks must have a strong rating in community lending in order to pursue additional expansion in securities and other nonbank activities.
e. All of the above are true.

39. The ____ is the fund used to cover insured depositors.
a. Bank Insurance Fund
b. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
c. money market mutual fund
d. growth fund
e. none of the above

40. ____ is not a rating criterion used by the FDIC.
a. Capital adequacy
b. Off-balance sheet financing
c. Asset quality
d. Management
e. Liquidity

41. The uniform global capital requirements mandated a minimum level of Tier 1 capital, which primarily consists of funds obtained from
a. issuing commercial paper and bonds.
b. retaining earnings and issuing commercial paper.
c. retaining earnings and issuing common stock.
d. issuing bonds and common stock.

42. During the 2008-2010 period, the ____ was implemented to alleviate the financial problems experienced by banks and other financial institutions with excessive exposure to mortgages or mortgage-backed securities.
a. Riegle Program
b. Sarbanes-Oxley Program
c. FDIC Program
d. Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP)

43. The act of taking a risk because of protection from adverse consequences due to the risk is referred to as a moral hazard problem.
a. True
b. False

44. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) was enacted in 2002 in order to ensure a more transparent process for reporting on productivity and the financial condition of the firm.
a. True
b. False

45. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) was enacted in response to some banks taking too much risk.
a. True
b. False

46. Publicly-traded banks have incurred larger reporting expenses to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
a. True
b. False

47. The Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999
a. gave banks and other financial service firms less freedom to merge.
b. allowed financial institutions to offer a diversified set of financial services without being subjected to stringent constraints.
c. offers very few benefits to a financial institution’s clients.
d. increased the reliance of financial institutions on the demand for the single service they offer.

48. Which of the following is not true regarding the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999?
a. It provided more momentum for the consolidation of financial services.
b. Financial institutions were finally able to offer a diversified set of financial services without being subjected to stringent constraints on the form or amount of financial services that they could offer.
c. Banks and other financial service firms were given more freedom to merge, but were forced to divest some of the financial services that they acquired.
d. Financial institutions no longer had to search for loopholes or monitor their business to ensure that the degree of financial services offered remained within the regulatory constraints that were previously imposed.
e. all of the above are true

49. All state banks are required to be members of the Federal Reserve System.
a. True
b. False

50. State banks are regulated by the Comptroller of the Currency.
a. True
b. False

51. Banks that are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) are also regulated by the FDIC.
a. True
b. False

52. Commercial banks are allowed to invest in junk bonds.
a. True
b. False

53. In general, banks would prefer to maintain a high amount of capital to boost their return on equity ratio, yet regulators have argued that banks need only a sufficient amount of capital to absorb potential operating losses.
a. True
b. False

54. The provision of a letter of credit by a bank to issue commercial paper issued by a corporation is an example of an off-balance sheet commitment.
a. True
b. False

55. As a result of the Reigle-Neal Act, bank customers have benefited because of lower costs to banks and because of convenience.
a. True
b. False

56. There is much emphasis by regulators on the bank’s sensitivity to interest rate movements, since many banks have liabilities that are repriced more frequently than their assets and are adversely affected by rising interest rates.
a. True
b. False

57. If regulators reduce bank failures by imposing regulations that reduce competition, bank efficiency will be increased.
a. True
b. False

58. An ideal solution to react to a large failing bank would prevent a run on deposits of other large banks, yet not reward a poorly performing bank with a bailout.
a. True
b. False

59. ____ is not a rating criterion used by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
a. Capital adequacy
b. Off-balance sheet financing
c. Asset quality
d. Management
e. Liquidity

60. A federal bank charter is issued by the
a. Comptroller of the Currency.
b. Securities and Exchange Commission.
c. U.S. Treasury.
d. Federal Reserve.
e. none of the above

61. Bank regulations typically:
a. involve a tradeoff between the safety of the banking system and the efficiency of bank operations.
b. impose restrictions on the types of assets in which banks can invest.
c. set requirements for the minimum amount of capital that banks must hold.
d. all of the above

62. When a bank holds a lower level of capital, a given dollar level of profits represents a lower return on equity.
a. True
b. False

63. Shareholders and managers of banks may prefer that banks be required to hold higher levels of capital because this would allow for higher share prices for the banks and larger bonuses for bank managers.
a. True
b. False

64. A bank can increase its capital ratio by:
a. buying back shares of its stock from shareholders.
b. selling assets.
c. increasing its dividend to encourage more investors to purchase its stock.
d. increasing its off-balance sheet activities.

65. The Basel III framework proposes:
a. lower capital requirements for banks to enable them to generate higher earnings to make up for their losses during the credit crisis.
b. relying on the rating agencies to assess the risk of bank assets.
c. increased capital requirements and liquidity requirements for banks.
d. using the gap ratio to set the capital ratio.

66. During the credit crisis, all of the following occurred except:
a. some securities firms were allowed to become bank holding companies.
b. the Federal Reserve rescued American International Group, an insurance company.
c. the Treasury injected funds into financial institutions.
d. the Supreme Court ruled that the Federal Reserve had exceeded its authority by assisting Bear Stearns because Bear was a securities firm and not a commercial bank.

67. The Volcker rule, named for a former Fed chair:
a. is intended to increase the powers of the Fed.
b. states that the U.S. government will rescue certain large banks if necessary to reduce systemic risk in the financial system.
c. sets limits on banks’ proprietary trading.
d. requires all banks to undergo annual stress tests.

68. The Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) of 2010:
a. ended the system of risk-based insurance premiums.
b. set requirements for the Deposit Insurance Fund’s reserves.
c. raised the limit for insured deposits to $750,000 per depositor.
d. allowed large insurance companies such as American International Group to compete with the FDIC to insure bank deposits.

Chapter 19—Bank Management

1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Managers may be tempted to make decisions that are in their own best interests rather than shareholder interests.
b. Directors are responsible for making most of the bank’s decisions regarding loans to customers, which encourages a loan department to extend loans with a very high concern for risk.
c. To prevent agency problems, some banks provide stock as compensation to managers.
d. The underlying goal behind the managerial policies of a bank is to maximize the wealth of the bank’s shareholders.

2. When cash outflows temporarily exceed cash inflows, banks are most likely to experience
a. higher dividend payments.
b. illiquidity.
c. a negative duration on its assets.
d. an excess of capital.

3. Banks can resolve cash deficiencies by
a. creating additional liabilities.
b. selling assets.
c. buying back common stock.
d. increasing dividend payouts.
e. A or B

4. As the secondary market for loans has become active, banks are more able to satisfy their liquidity needs with a ____ proportion of loans while achieving ____ profitability.
a. higher; higher
b. lower; lower
c. higher; lower
d. lower; higher

5. Banks are more liquid as a result of securitization because it allows them to request repayment of the loan principal from the borrower upon demand.
a. True
b. False

6. If a bank that relies heavily on short-term deposits expects interest rates to consistently decrease over time, it would allocate most of its loans with ____ rates if it desires to maximize its expected returns. It could reduce its exposure to interest rate risk by setting ____ rates on its loans.
a. fixed; fixed
b. variable; fixed
c. variable; variable
d. fixed; variable

7. During a period of rising interest rates, a bank’s net interest margin will likely ____ if its liabilities are ____ its assets.
a. increase; more rate-sensitive than
b. decrease; more rate-sensitive than
c. increase; equally rate-sensitive as
d. decrease; equally rate-sensitive as

8. If a bank expected interest rates to consistently ____ over time, it will consider allocating most funds to rate-____ assets.
a. decrease; sensitive
b. decrease; insensitive
c. increase; insensitive
d. none of the above

9. Petri Bank had interest revenues of $70 million last year and $30 million in interest expenses. About $300 million of Petri’s $800 million in assets are rate-sensitive, while $600 million of its liabilities are rate-sensitive. Petri Bank’s net interest margin is ____ percent.
a. 4.0
b. 3.6
c. 6.7
d. 5.0

10. Petri Bank had interest revenues of $70 million last year and $30 million in interest expenses. About $300 million of Petri’s $800 million in assets are rate-sensitive, while $600 million of its liabilities are rate-sensitive. Petri Bank’s gap is $____.
a. −300 million
b. 300 million
c. −500 million
d. 500 million

11. Petri Bank had interest revenues of $70 million last year and $30 million in interest expenses. About $300 million of Petri’s $800 million in assets are rate-sensitive, while $600 million of its liabilities are rate-sensitive. Petri Bank’s gap ratio is ____ percent.
a. 37.5
b. 50.0
c. 100.0
d. 40.0

12. The measure of interest rate risk that uses the difference between rate-sensitive assets and rate-sensitive liabilities is called
a. gap measurement.
b. duration measurement.
c. duration ratio.
d. gap ratio.

13. A gap ratio of less than one suggests that
a. rate-sensitive assets exceed rate-sensitive liabilities.
b. an increase in interest rates would increase the bank’s net interest margin.
c. rate-sensitive liabilities exceed rate-sensitive assets.
d. a decrease in interest rates would decrease the bank’s net interest margin.
e. B and D

14. Each bank may have its own classification system of interest rate sensitivity, because there is no perfect measurement of the gap.
a. True
b. False

15. The duration of zero-coupon bonds will be ____ the duration of coupon bonds with the same maturity.
a. lower than
b. higher than
c. the same as
d. A or B, depending on the size of the coupon payment

16. In general, the duration of zero-coupon securities with short maturities is ____ than the duration of zero-coupon securities with long maturities.
a. higher than
b. lower than
c. equal to
d. A or B, depending on the issuer of the securities

17. Other things equal, assets with shorter maturities have ____ durations. Assets that generate more frequent coupon payments have ____ durations.
a. shorter; longer
b. shorter; shorter
c. longer; shorter
d. longer; longer

18. For most banks, the average duration of assets ____ the average duration of liabilities, so the duration gap is ____.
a. exceeds; zero
b. exceeds; negative
c. exceeds; positive
d. is less than; negative

19. Other things being equal assets with ____ maturities and ____ frequent coupon payments have shorter durations.
a. shorter; more
b. shorter; less
c. longer; more
d. longer; less

20. If a bank attempts to reduce exposure to interest rate risk by replacing long-term marketable securities with more floating-rate commercial loans, it is likely that the bank’s
a. default risk would decrease.
b. default risk would increase.
c. liquidity risk would increase.
d. liquidity risk would decrease.
e. B and C

21. Which of the following is not a likely method used by a bank to reduce interest rate risk?
a. maturity matching
b. using fixed-rate loans
c. using interest rate futures contracts
d. using interest rate caps

22. Floating-rate loans cannot completely eliminate interest rate risk; if the cost of funds is changing more frequently than the rate on assets, the bank’s net interest margin is still affected by interest rate fluctuations.
a. True
b. False

23. The ____ of interest rate futures ____ the potential adverse effect of rising interest rates on a bank’s interest expenses.
a. sale; increases
b. sale; reduces
c. purchase; reduces
d. both A and C are correct

24. Which of the following financial institutions would be most willing to swap variable-rate payments for fixed-rate payments in order to reduce exposure to interest rate risk?
a. one whose assets and liabilities are equally interest-rate sensitive
b. one whose assets are more interest-rate sensitive than its liabilities
c. one whose liabilities are more interest-rate sensitive than its assets
d. one whose gap ratio is equal to 1.0

25. Banks increase their risk by increasing their capital as a percentage of assets.
a. True
b. False

26. Banks generally ____ loans and ____ their purchases of low-risk securities when the economy is weak.
a. increase; increase
b. reduce; reduce
c. increase; reduce
d. reduce; increase

27. Banks tend to focus their loans in one industry so that they can specialize on one industry and reduce the credit risk of their loan portfolio.
a. True
b. False

28. Most loan sales enable the bank originating the loan to continue servicing the loan.
a. True
b. False

29. ROE is defined as
a. .
b. .
c. .
d. .

30. The greater the ____, the greater the amount of assets per dollar’s worth of equity.
a. leverage measure
b. ratio of equity to debt
c. capital ratio
d. proportion of loans to securities in the asset portfolio

31. A bank has a return on assets of 2 percent, $40 million in assets, and $4 million in equity. What is the return on equity?
a. 10 percent
b. .2 percent
c. 2 percent
d. 20 percent
e. none of the above

32. A bank has the following asset and liability portfolios. What is the gap?

Rate-sensitive Amount Rate-sensitive Amount
assets (in millions) liabilities (in millions)
Floating-rate
loans $4,000 NOW accounts $1,750

Floating-rate
mortgages 1,000 MMDAs 4,500

Short-term
Treasury securities 1,500 Short-term CDs 1,000

$6,500 $7,250

a. $750 million
b. −$750 million
c. 1.12
d. .896
e. none of the above

33. A bank has the following asset and liability portfolios. What is the gap ratio?

Rate-sensitive Amount Rate-sensitive Amount
assets (in millions) liabilities (in millions)
Floating-rate
loans $4,000 NOW accounts $1,750

Floating-rate
mortgages 1,000 MMDAs 4,500

Short-term
Treasury securities 1,500 Short-term CDs 1,000

$6,500 $7,250

a. $750 million
b. −$750 million
c. 1.12
d. .896
e. none of the above

34. If Bank A has a negative gap and Bank B has a positive gap. Which of the following is true?
a. Bank A is more favorably affected by rising interest rates.
b. Bank B is more favorably affected by falling interest rates.
c. Bank A is adversely affected by falling interest rates.
d. none of the above

35. Which of the following is a measure for banks to assess their exposure to interest rate risk?
a. capital ratio
b. leverage measure
c. duration measurement
d. gap ratio
e. C and D

36. If a bank sells interest rate futures, it ____ of rising interest rates and ____ of declining interest rates on its interest expenses.
a. reduces the potential adverse effect; reduces the potential favorable effect
b. increases the potential adverse effect; increases the potential favorable effect
c. decreases the potential adverse effect; increases the potential favorable effect
d. increases the potential adverse effect; decreases the potential favorable effect

37. Which of the following loan portfolios are best diversified against default risk?
a. consumer loans to farmers and commercial loans to farm equipment dealers in a local area
b. commercial loans to the same industry
c. commercial loans to various retail stores in the same city
d. consumer and commercial loans to different industries in different cities

38. Banks can increase their liquidity position by restructuring their asset portfolio to contain less ____ and more ____.
a. excess reserves; Treasury bills
b. Treasury bonds; corporate bonds
c. loans; Treasury bills
d. none of the above

39. Banks would reduce their liquidity position by restructuring their asset portfolio to contain less ____ and more ____.
a. Treasury securities; excess reserves
b. loans; Treasury securities
c. corporate bonds; Treasury securities
d. none of the above

40. Banks can reduce their default risk by restructuring their asset portfolio to contain less ____ and more ____.
a. Treasury bonds; corporate bonds
b. Treasury bonds; municipal bonds
c. Treasury bonds; commercial loans
d. none of the above

41. Banks can increase their potential interest revenues by restructuring their asset portfolio to contain less ____ and more ____.
a. Treasury bonds; commercial loans
b. Treasury bonds; excess reserves
c. consumer loans; Treasury bills
d. none of the above

42. If a bank desired to maximize its net interest margin, it would best achieve its goal by attempting to obtain most of its funds through ____ and use most of its funds for ____ (assuming that all loans will be repaid).
a. traditional demand deposits; commercial loans
b. traditional demand deposits; consumer loans
c. NOW accounts; consumer loans
d. NOW accounts; commercial loans

43. A bank that holds a greater percentage of traditional demand deposits and loans will likely incur ____ non-interest expenses and have a ____ net interest margin than other banks of the same size (assuming that its loan losses are no higher than those at other banks).
a. greater; higher
b. greater; lower
c. less; higher
d. less; lower

44. A bank’s net interest margin is commonly defined as
a. interest revenues minus interest expenses.
b. (interest revenues minus interest expenses)/total assets.
c. (interest revenues minus interest expenses)/total liabilities.
d. (interest revenues minus interest expenses)/capital.

45. A common method for banks to reduce their default risk is to
a. specialize in loans to just one or a few particular industries in which they have expertise in assessing creditworthiness.
b. specialize in loans of companies whose earnings patterns are quite similar over time.
c. A and B
d. none of the above

46. International diversification of loans can best reduce the bank’s overall default risk if
a. the countries where loans are given are clustered together in a single continent.
b. the countries where loans are given have economic cycles that do not move together over time.
c. A and B
d. none of the above

47. A bank’s net interest margin will likely decline if it has a large amount of
a. rate-sensitive assets and no rate-sensitive liabilities.
b. rate-sensitive liabilities and no rate-sensitive assets.
c. loans to technology firms.
d. real estate loans.

48. Banks can reduce their required capital levels by
a. increasing their loans.
b. reducing their loans.
c. increasing their dividends.
d. obtaining more deposits.

49. Terp Bank obtains a relatively large portion of its funds from conventional demand deposits as it creates many branches with many employees to attract demand deposits. Its interest expenses should be relatively ____, while its noninterest expenses should be relatively ____.
a. high; low
b. low; high
c. high; high
d. low; low
e. none of the above

50. Bank A has interest revenues of $4 million, interest expenses of $5 million, and assets totaling $20 million. Bank A’s net interest margin is
a. $1 million.
b. −$1 million.
c. −5 percent.
d. 5 percent.

51. ____ is not a method used to assess interest rate risk.
a. Efficiency analysis
b. Gap analysis
c. Duration analysis
d. Regression analysis

52. Durango Bank has $2 million in rate-sensitive liabilities and $3 million in rate sensitive assets. Durango’s gap is ____, and Durango is probably more concerned about a(n) ____ in interest rates.
a. −$1 million; increase
b. −$1 million; decrease
c. $1 million; increase
d. $1 million; decrease
e. none of the above

53. Leskar Bank has $2 million in rate-sensitive liabilities and $3 million in rate sensitive assets. Leskar’s gap ratio is ____.
a. 1.5
b. 0.67
c. $1 million
d. none of the above

54. ____ is (are) least likely to be used as a method of reducing interest rate risk.
a. Maturity matching
b. Using floating-rate loans
c. Stock options
d. Using interest rate swaps
e. Using interest rate caps

55. Ringo Bank has a profit after taxes of $3.0 million, total assets of $300 million, and shareholder’s equity of $30 million. Ringo’s return on equity (ROE) is ____ percent.
a. 1.0
b. 10.0
c. 3.0
d. none of the above

56. For a commercial bank, when the average duration of assets exceeds the average duration of liabilities, the duration gap is
a. zero.
b. positive.
c. negative.
d. B or C

57. Assume a bank accepts deposits on Australian dollars (A$) and makes some fixed-rate loans in British pounds. Which of the following would reduce the bank’s profit margin?
a. the A$ appreciates against the pound
b. the A$ is stable against the pound
c. the A$ depreciates against the pound
d. the British interest rates increase
e. C and D

58. The performance of a bank that continually concentrates in short-term deposits in euros and adjustable-rate dollar loans with equal rate-sensitivity is
a. unaffected if European interest rates increase and U.S. rates decrease.
b. unaffected if U.S. interest rates increase and European interest rates decrease.
c. adversely affected if European interest rates increase and U.S. rates decrease.
d. adversely affected if U.S. interest rates increase and European rates decrease.
e. A and B

59. If a bank has assets and liabilities in dollars and euros, its exposure to interest rate risk can best be minimized if the
a. currency mix of assets is similar to that of liabilities.
b. overall rate-sensitivity of assets and liabilities are similar.
c. rate sensitivity of assets and liabilities is matched for each currency.
d. A and B

60. The risk of a loss due to closing out a transaction is referred to as ____ risk.
a. credit
b. settlement
c. interest rate
d. exchange rate
e. none of the above

61. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act has had little impact on the monitoring conducted by the board members of commercial banks.
a. True
b. False

62. Whether a bank has a temporary or a permanent need for funds, the decision should be to borrow in the federal funds market.
a. True
b. False

63. A positive gap (or gap ratio of more than 1.00) suggests that rate-sensitive liabilities exceed rate-sensitive assets.
a. True
b. False

64. For most banks, the average duration of liabilities exceeds the average duration of assets, so the duration gap is positive.
a. True
b. False

65. Floating-rate loans completely eliminate interest rate risk.
a. True
b. False

66. A bank can usually simultaneously maximize its return on assets and minimize credit risk.
a. True
b. False

67. If the currency mix of a bank’s assets is similar to that of its liabilities and the overall rate sensitivity of its assets and liabilities is similar, interest rate risk is completely nonexistent.
a. True
b. False

68. Macon Bank has interest revenues of $4 million, interest expenses of $5 million, and assets totaling $20 million. Macon Bank’s net interest margin is
a. $1 million.
b. −1 million.
c. 5 percent.
d. −5 percent.

69. ____ is not a method used to assess interest rate risk.
a. Gap analysis
b. Ratio analysis
c. Duration analysis
d. Regression analysis
e. All of the above are methods to assess interest rate risk.

70. ____ is (are) least likely to be used as a method of reducing interest rate risk.
a. Maturity matching
b. Floating-rate loans
c. Stock options
d. Interest rate swaps
e. Interest rate caps

71. Crazer Bank has a profit after taxes of $2 million, total assets of $100 million, and shareholder’s equity of $10 million. Crazer’s return on equity (ROE) is ____ percent.
a. 18
b. 210
c. 15
d. 20
e. none of the above

72. Parsons Bank reported $3 million in interest revenues and $1 million in interest expenses. Parsons has $20 million in assets and $8 million in liabilities. Parsons net interest margin is ____ percent.
a. 10
b. −10
c. 35
d. 25
e. none of the above

73. If a bank expects interest rates to consistently ____ over time, it will consider allocating most of its funds to rate-____ assets.
a. decrease; sensitive
b. increase; insensitive
c. increase; sensitive
d. answers A and B are correct
e. none of the above

74. During a period of ____ interest rates, a bank’s net interest margin will likely ____ if its liabilities are more rate sensitive than its assets.
a. decreasing; decrease
b. increasing; increase
c. decreasing; increase
d. increasing; decrease
e. answers C and D are correct

75. If interest rates ____, banks with ____ duration gaps will be ____ affected.
a. rise; positive; positively
b. rise; positive; adversely
c. decrease; positive; adversely
d. decrease; negative; positively
e. none of the above

76. In a regression of a bank’s stock return on an interest rate proxy and market returns, a ____ coefficient for the interest rate variable suggests that bank performance is ____ affected by ____ interest rates.
a. positive; adversely; rising
b. positive; favorably; declining
c. negative; adversely; rising
d. negative; favorably; rising
e. none of the above

77. If a bank has a ____ duration gap, its average asset duration is probably ____ than its liability duration.
a. negative; smaller
b. positive; larger
c. negative; larger
d. none of the above

78. In an interest rate swap, a bank whose liabilities are ____ rate sensitive than its assets can swap payments with a ____ interest rate in exchange for payments with a ____ interest rate.
a. more; fixed; variable
b. more; variable; fixed
c. less; fixed; variable
d. less; fixed; fixed
e. none of the above

79. Because riskier assets offer ____ returns, a bank’s strategy to increase its return will typically entail a(n) ____ in the overall credit risk of its asset portfolio.
a. lower; increase
b. lower; decrease
c. higher; increase
d. higher; decrease
e. none of the above

80. The risk of a loss due to closing out a transaction is referred to as ____ risk.
a. settlement
b. credit
c. interest rate
d. exchange rate
e. none of the above

81. An effective way to align bank managers’ interests with shareholders’ goal of higher returns is to compensate the managers with fixed salaries without a bonus.
a. True
b. False

82. Which of the following is not a function of a bank’s board of directors?
a. overseeing acquisitions
b. determining a compensation system for the bank’s executives
c. overseeing policies for changing the bank’s capital structure
d. pursuing a proxy contest to change the bank’s dividend policy

83. As part of its liquidity management, a bank might:
a. purchase interest rate swaps.
b. issue commercial paper.
c. purchase long-term Treasury securities.
d. A and C

84. A(n) ____________ is an agreement for a fee to receive payments when the interest rate of a particular security rises above a specified level by a specified date.
a. interest rate cap
b. interest rate futures contract
c. interest rate swap
d. maximum rate contract

85. Which of the following is a method that a bank can use to reduce its credit risk?
a. diversifying its loans across industries
b. focusing on credit card loans
c. focusing on consumer loans
d. selling its holdings of Treasury securities

FIN 350 Week 8 Quiz – Strayer University New

FIN/350 Week 8 Quiz – Strayer

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Quiz 7 Chapter 16 and 17

Chapter 16—Foreign Exchange Derivative Markets

1. At any given point in time, the price at which banks will buy a currency is ____ the price at which they sell it.
a. higher than
b. lower than
c. the same as
d. none of the above

2. Which of the following is most likely to provide currency forward contracts to their customers?
a. commercial banks
b. international mutual funds
c. brokerage firms
d. insurance companies

3. The ____ allowed for the devaluation of the dollar in 1971.
a. Bretton Woods Agreement
b. Louvre Accord
c. Smithsonian Agreement
d. none of the above

4. The Bretton Woods Era was the era
a. of free-floating exchange rates.
b. of floating rates without boundaries, but subject to government intervention.
c. in which governments maintained exchange rates within 1 percent of a specified rate.
d. in which exchange rates were maintained within 10 percent of a specified rate.

5. A system whereby exchange rates are market determined without boundaries but subject to government intervention is called
a. a dirty float.
b. a free float.
c. the gold standard.
d. the Bretton Woods era.

6. A system whereby one currency is maintained within specified boundaries of another currency or unit of account is a
a. pegged system.
b. free float.
c. dirty float.
d. managed float.

7. A country that pegs its currency is still able to maintain complete control over its local interest rates.
a. True
b. False

8. If the demand for British pounds ____, the pound will ____, other things being equal.
a. increases; appreciate
b. decreases; appreciate
c. increases; depreciate
d. B and C

9. A(n) ____ in the supply of euros for sale will cause the euro to ____.
a. increase; appreciate
b. increase; depreciate
c. decrease; depreciate
d. none of the above

10. Beginning with an equilibrium situation, if European inflation suddenly ____ than U.S. inflation, this forced ____ pressure on the value of the euro.
a. becomes much higher; upward
b. becomes much higher; downward
c. becomes much less; upward
d. becomes much less; downward
e. B and C

11. Purchasing Power Parity suggests that the exchange rate will on average change by a percentage that reflects the ____ differential between two countries.
a. income
b. interest rate
c. inflation
d. tax

12. In reality, exchange rates do not always change as suggested by purchasing power parity.
a. True
b. False

13. If U.S. interest rates suddenly become much higher than European interest rates (and if it does not cause concern about higher inflation there), the U.S. demand for euros would ____, and the supply of euros to be exchanged for dollars would ____, other factors held constant.
a. increase; increase
b. increase; decrease
c. decrease; increase
d. decrease; decrease

14. Assume interest rate parity exists. If the spot rate on the British pound is $2 and the 1-year British interest rate is 7 percent, and the 1-year U.S. interest rate is 11 percent, what is the pound’s forward discount or premium?
a. 3.74 percent premium
b. 3.74 percent discount
c. 3.60 percent premium
d. 3.60 percent discount

15. When a government influences factors, such as inflation, interest rates, or income, in order to affect currency’s value, this is an example of
a. direct intervention.
b. indirect intervention.
c. a freely floating system.
d. a pegged system.

16. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Central banks often consider adjusting a currency’s value to influence economic conditions.
b. If the U.S. central bank wishes to stimulate the economy, it could weaken the dollar.
c. A weaker dollar could cause U.S. inflation by reducing foreign competition.
d. Direct intervention occurs when the central bank influences the factors that determine the dollar’s value.

17. Direct intervention is always extremely effective.
a. True
b. False

18. If the U.S. government imposed trade restrictions on U.S. imports, this would ____ the U.S. demand for foreign currencies, and would place ____ pressure on the values of foreign currencies (with respect to the dollar).
a. increase; upward
b. increase, downward
c. limit; upward
d. limit; downward

19. If a commercial bank expects the euro to appreciate against the dollar, it may take a ____ position in euros and a ____ position in dollars.
a. short; short
b. long; short
c. short; long
d. long; long

20. Generally, a ____ home currency can ____ domestic economic growth.
a. weak; dampen
b. strong; stimulate
c. strong; dampen
d. A and B

21. A ____ home currency can ____ domestic inflation.
a. strong; increase
b. weak; decrease
c. strong; decrease
d. A and B

22. If the forward rate of a foreign currency ____ the existing spot rate, the forward rate will exhibit a ____.
a. exceeds; discount
b. is below; premium
c. is below; discount
d. A and B

23. ____ forecasting involves the use of historical exchange rate data to predict future values.
a. Technical
b. Fundamental
c. Market-based
d. Mixed

24. ____ forecasting is usually based on either the spot rate or the forward rate.
a. Technical
b. Fundamental
c. Market-based
d. Mixed

25. Fundamental forecasting has been found to be consistently superior to the other forecasting techniques.
a. True
b. False

26. Which of the following is not a method of forecasting exchange rate volatility?
a. using the volatility of historical exchange rate movements
b. using a time series of volatility patterns in previous periods
c. using the volatility of future exchange rate movements
d. using the exchange rate’s implied standard deviation

27. Assume the following information.

• Interest rate on borrowed euros is 5 percent annualized
• Interest rate on dollars loaned out is 6 percent annualized
• Spot rate for €0.83 per dollar (one € = $1.20)
• Expected spot rate in five days is €0.85 per dollar
• Alonso Bank can borrow €10 million

What is the euro profit to Alonso Bank over the five-day period from shorting euros and going long on dollars?
a. €200,311.11
b. €207,111.11
c. €201,555.56
d. none of the above

28. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Forward contracts are contracts typically negotiated with a commercial bank that allow the purchase or sale of a specified amount of a particular foreign currency at a specified exchange rate on a specified future date.
b. The forward market is located in New York City.
c. Many of the commercial banks that offer foreign exchange on a spot basis also offer forward transactions for the widely traded currencies.
d. Forward contracts can hedge a corporation’s risk that a currency’s value may appreciate over time.

29. If the spot rate of the British pound is $2, and the 180-day forward rate is $2.05, what is the annualized premium or discount?
a. 2.5 percent discount
b. 2.5 percent premium
c. 10 percent premium
d. 5 percent discount
e. 5 percent premium

30. Currency futures contracts differ from forward contracts in that they
a. are an obligation.
b. are not an obligation.
c. are standardized.
d. can specify any amount and maturity date.

31. If the spot rate ____ the exercise price, a currency ____ option would not be exercised.
a. remains below; call
b. remains below; put
c. remains below; put
d. A and B

32. The pegged exchange rate system is no longer used by any countries.
a. True
b. False

33. If a firm planning to hedge receivables is certain of the future direction a spot rate will move, and requires a tailor-made hedge in terms of amount and maturity date, it should use a
a. call options contract traded on an exchange.
b. futures contract traded on an exchange.
c. forward contract.
d. put options contract traded on an exchange.

34. Assume that a British pound put option has a premium of $.03 per unit, and an exercise price of $1.60. The present spot rate is $1.61. The expected future spot rate on the expiration date is $1.52. The option will be exercised on this date if at all. What is the expected per unit net gain (or loss) resulting from purchasing the put option?
a. $.01 loss
b. $.09 loss
c. $.09 gain
d. $.05 gain

35. The speculative risk of purchasing a ____ is that the foreign currency value ____ over time.
a. put option; increases
b. put option; decreases
c. call option; increases
d. futures contract; increases

36. Bank A asks $.555 for Swiss francs and Banks B and C are willing to pay $.557 for francs. An institution could capitalize on these differences by engaging in
a. covered interest arbitrage.
b. triangular arbitrage.
c. locational arbitrage.
d. witching hour arbitrage.

37. According to interest rate parity, if the interest rate in a foreign country is ____ than in the home country, the forward rate of the foreign country will have a ____.
a. higher; discount
b. lower; premium
c. higher; premium
d. A and B

38. ____ serve as financial intermediaries in the foreign exchange market by buying or selling currencies to accommodate customers.
a. Pension funds
b. International mutual funds
c. Insurance companies
d. Commercial banks
e. None of the above

39. In the Wall Street Journal, you observe that the British pound (£) is quoted for $1.65. The Australian dollar (A$) is quoted for $0.60. What is the value of the Australian dollar in British pounds?
a. A$2.75
b. A$0.36
c. £2.75
d. £0.36
e. none of the above

40. If European inflation suddenly becomes much higher than U.S. inflation, the U.S. demand for European goods will ____. In addition, the supply of euros to be sold for dollars will ____; both forces will place ____ pressure on the value of the euro.
a. increase; decline; upward
b. increase; decline; downward
c. decrease; increase; upward
d. decrease; increase; downward
e. none of the above

41. If British interest rates suddenly increase substantially relative to U.S. interest rates, the demand by U.S. investors for British pounds ____, the supply of British pounds to be sold in exchange for dollars ____, and the British pound will ____.
a. increases; decreases; appreciate
b. increases; decreases; depreciate
c. decreases; increases; appreciate
d. decreases; increases; depreciate
e. none of the above

42. Assume the following information.

• Interest rate on borrowed euros is 5 percent annualized.
• Interest rate on dollars loaned out is 6 percent annualized.
• Spot rate is 1.10 euros per dollar (one euro = $0.909).
• Expected spot rate in five days is 1.15 euros per dollar.
• Fabrizio Bank can borrow 10 million euros.

If Fabrizio Bank attempts to capitalize on the above information, its profit over the five-day period is
a. 2,653,597.22 euros.
b. 455,266.81 euros.
c. 452,426.04 euros.
d. none of the above

43. A country that pegs its exchange rate to another exchange rate does not have complete control over its interest rates.
a. True
b. False

44. The euro is presently pegged to the British pound in order to stabilize international payments between European countries.
a. True
b. False

45. Financial institutions rarely use the forward market.
a. True
b. False

46. If the quoted cross rate between two foreign currencies is not aligned with the two corresponding exchange rates, investors can profit from triangular arbitrage.
a. True
b. False

47. The indirect exchange rate specifies the value of the currency in U.S. dollars.
a. True
b. False

48. The forward rate premium is dictated by the national income differential of the two currencies.
a. True
b. False

49. The potential benefits from using foreign exchange derivatives are independent of the expected exchange rate movements.
a. True
b. False

50. The forward rate is the exchange rate for immediate delivery.
a. True
b. False

51. The Smithsonian Agreement allowed for a devaluation of the dollar and for a widening of the boundaries within which currencies were allowed to fluctuate.
a. True
b. False

52. A country that pegs its currency does not have complete control over its local interest rates, as its interest rates must be aligned with the interest rates of the currency to which it is tied.
a. True
b. False

53. Exchange rates usually change precisely as suggested by the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory.
a. True
b. False

54. Central bank intervention can be overwhelmed by market forces and may not always succeed in reversing exchange rate movements.
a. True
b. False

55. When countries experience substantial net outflows of funds, they commonly use indirect intervention by raising interest rates to discourage excessive outflows of funds and therefore limit any downward pressure on the value of their currency.
a. True
b. False

56. The forward rate premium reflects the percentage by which the spot rate exceeds the forward rate on an annualized basis.
a. True
b. False

57. The primary advantage of currency options over forward and futures contracts is that they provide a right rather than an obligation to purchase or sell a particular currency at a specified price within a given period.
a. True
b. False

58. A speculator who expects a foreign currency to appreciate could purchase the currency forward and, when received, sell it in the spot market.
a. True
b. False

59. The following information refers to Fresno Bank and Champaign Bank.

Bid Rate on Euros Ask Rate on Euros
Fresno Bank $1.002 $1.009
Champaign Bank $0.997 $1.000

Based on this information, locational arbitrage would be profitable.
a. True
b. False

60. Purchasing power parity suggests that the forward rate premium (or discount) should be about equal to the differential in interest rates between the countries of concern.
a. True
b. False

61. ____ are not foreign exchange derivatives.
a. Forward contracts
b. Currency futures contracts
c. Currency swaps
d. Currency options
e. All of the above are foreign exchange derivatives.

62. ____ serve as financial intermediaries in the foreign exchange market by buying or selling currencies to accommodate customers.
a. Commercial banks
b. International mutual funds
c. Insurance companies
d. Pension funds
e. All of the above

63. In the Wall Street Journal, you observe that the British pound (£) is quoted for $1.67. The Australian dollar (A$) is quoted for $0.62. What is the value of the Australian dollar in British pounds?
a. A$2.69
b. £0.37
c. £2.69
d. A$0.37
e. none of the above

64. In a(n) ____ exchange rate system, the foreign exchange market is totally free from government intervention.
a. pegged
b. dirty floating
c. freely floating
d. Bretton Woods
e. none of the above

65. The supply and demand for a currency are influenced by all of the following, except
a. differential interest rates.
b. differential inflation rates.
c. direct government intervention.
d. indirect government intervention.
e. The supply and demand for a currency are affected by all of the above.

66. If U.S. inflation suddenly becomes much higher than European inflation, the U.S. demand for European goods will ____. In addition, the supply of euros to be sold for dollars will ____; both forces will place ____ pressure on the value of the euro.
a. increase; decline; upward
b. increase; decline; downward
c. decrease; increase; upward
d. decrease; increase; downward
e. none of the above

67. Assume an equilibrium state in which European inflation and U.S. inflation are both 4 percent. If U.S. inflation suddenly decreased to 2 percent, the euro will ____ against the dollar by approximately ____ percent, according to purchasing power parity.
a. appreciate; 2
b. depreciate; 2
c. appreciate; 4
d. depreciate; 4
e. none of the above

68. Which of the following is the least feasible strategy for a speculator who expects the Australian dollar to depreciate?
a. sell Australian dollars forward and then purchase them in the spot market just before fulfilling the forward obligation
b. sell futures contracts on Australian dollar; purchase Australian dollars in the spot market just before fulfilling the futures obligation
c. purchase put options on Australian dollars, at some point before the expiration date, when the spot rate is less than the exercise price, purchase Australian dollars in the spot market and then exercise the put option
d. purchase call options on Australian dollars; at some point before the expiration date, exercise the call option and then sell the Australian dollars received in the spot market
e. All of the above are possible strategies for a speculator who expects the Australian dollar to depreciate.

69. The act of capitalizing on the discrepancy between the forward rate premium and the interest rate differential is called
a. triangular arbitrage.
b. locational arbitrage.
c. covered interest arbitrage.
d. interest rate parity.

70. The indirect exchange rate is always the reciprocal of the direct exchange rate.
a. True
b. False

71. The exchange rate between two foreign (nondollar) currencies is known as a(n):
a. indirect dollar rate.
b. forward rate.
c. cross-exchange rate.
d. derived exchange rate.

72. The devaluation of a country’s currency:
a. makes foreign products more expensive for consumers in that country.
b. increases foreign demand for that country’s exports.
c. can lead to deflation in that country.
d. A and B

73. Currency futures contracts are standardized, whereas forward contracts are more flexible and can specify whatever amount and maturity date are desired.
a. True
b. False

74. When the Federal Reserve attempt to lower interest rates by increasing the U.S. money supply, it puts upward pressure on the value of the dollar.
a. True
b. False

75. A speculator who expects the euro to depreciate might:
a. sell euros forward and then purchase them in the spot market just before fulfilling the forward obligation.
b. purchase euros forward and, when they are received, sell them in the spot market.
c. purchase futures contracts on euros and, when the euros are received, sell them in the spot market.
d. all of the above

Chapter 17—Commercial Bank Operations

1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Banks have expanded their business across services over time.
b. Acquisitions have been a convenient method for banks to grow quickly and capitalize on economies of scale.
c. The banking industry has become less concentrated in recent years.
d. All of the statements above are correct.

2. Commercial banks have expanded in recent years not only by acquiring other banks but also by acquiring other types of financial service firms.
a. True
b. False

3. Commercial banks can be a lender or a borrower when using repurchase agreements and loans in the federal funds market.
a. True
b. False

4. The operations, management, and regulation of a financial conglomerate are the same irrespective of the types of services offered.
a. True
b. False

5. ____ are offered to bank customers who desire to write checks against their account.
a. Time deposit accounts
b. CDs
c. Demand deposit accounts
d. Money market deposit accounts

6. Which type of savings account transfers funds to a checking account when checks are written?
a. ATS
b. passbook savings
c. CDs
d. MMDAs

7. A(n) ____ account provides checking services as well as interest.
a. demand deposit
b. negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW)
c. passbook savings
d. time deposit

8. Protective covenants impose conditions in which the bank must provide additional loans to a borrower to protect the borrower from going bankrupt.
a. True
b. False

9. A ____ is a time deposit offered by some large banks to corporations, with a specific maturity date, minimum deposit of $100,000 or more, and a secondary market.
a. retail CD
b. negotiable CD
c. market CD
d. protective CD

10. A bank’s sources of funds represent liabilities or equity of the bank.
a. True
b. False

11. Money market deposit accounts differ from conventional time deposits in that they
a. specify a maturity.
b. offer limited check writing privileges.
c. are less liquid.
d. none of the above

12. The intent of federal funds transactions is to
a. correct short-term fund imbalances experienced by banks.
b. correct long-term fund imbalances experienced by banks.
c. serve as a permanent source of bank capital.
d. serve as the primary depository source of funds.

13. For any given bank, federal funds ____ represent a(n) ____.
a. purchased; asset
b. sold; liability
c. purchased; liability
d. A and B

14. The federal funds rate is ____ the yield on a Treasury security with a similar term remaining until maturity.
a. substantially above
b. substantially below
c. close to
d. none of the above; the rate is much higher than the Treasury yield in some periods, and much lower than the Treasury yield in other periods

15. Obtaining funds through ____ is not a common source of funds for banks to satisfy a temporary deficiency of funds?
a. issuing bonds
b. the federal funds market
c. repurchase agreements
d. borrowing from the Federal Reserve

16. Which of the following is true?
a. The primary credit lending rate is set by the president of the United States.
b. The federal funds rate is set by the president of the United States.
c. The primary credit lending rate is set by commercial banks.
d. The primary credit lending rate is now set at a level above the federal funds rate.
e. A and B

17. The Federal Reserve provides loans to banks in order to
a. resolve permanent shortages of funds experienced by banks.
b. resolve temporary shortages of funds experienced by banks.
c. finance the shortages of funds of finance companies.
d. none of the above

18. When a bank in need of funds for a few days sells some of its government securities to a corporation with a temporary excess of funds, then buys them back shortly thereafter, this is a
a. federal funds loan.
b. discount window loan.
c. repurchase agreement.
d. commercial paper transaction.

19. When banks need funding for just a few days, they would most likely
a. issue bonds and then call them.
b. issue stock and then repurchase it.
c. borrow in the federal funds market.
d. issue NCDs.

20. Because U.S. dollars are widely used as an international medium of exchange, the Eurodollar market is very active.
a. True
b. False

21. Subordinated notes and debentures are examples of
a. primary capital.
b. secondary capital.
c. depository sources of funds.
d. repurchase agreements.

22. All other things equal, when banks issue new stock, they
a. increase reported earnings per share.
b. decrease their ability to absorb operating losses.
c. dilute the ownership of the bank.
d. A and B

23. As a source of funds, small banks rely more heavily on ____, and larger banks rely more heavily on ____.
a. time deposits and foreign deposits; savings deposits and short-term borrowings
b. savings deposits and short-term borrowings; foreign deposits and time deposits
c. savings and time deposits; foreign deposits and short-term borrowings
d. foreign deposits and short-term borrowings; savings and time deposits

24. Cash held ____ represents the major portion of a bank’s required reserves.
a. at other commercial banks
b. in a bank’s vault
c. on deposit at the federal funds window
d. on deposit with the Board of Governors

25. The main use of bank funds is for
a. loans.
b. investment securities.
c. fixed assets.
d. repurchase agreements.

26. Bank loans designed to support a firm’s ongoing business operations are called
a. term loans.
b. working capital loans.
c. direct lease loans.
d. revolving credit loans.

27. ____ loans are primarily used to finance the purchase of fixed assets.
a. Term
b. Working capital
c. Informal line of credit
d. Revolving credit

28. Which of the following is most appropriate for a business that may experience a sudden need for funds but does not know precisely when?
a. working capital loan
b. direct lease loan
c. term loan
d. informal line of credit

29. A ____ loan may be especially appropriate when the bank wishes to avoid adding more debt to its balance sheet.
a. term
b. bullet
c. direct lease
d. revolving credit

30. The interest rate banks charge their most creditworthy customers is known as the
a. federal funds rate.
b. primary credit lending rate.
c. prime rate.
d. call money rate.

31. Transaction deposits do not include
a. demand deposits.
b. NCDs.
c. NOW accounts.
d. all of the above are transactions deposits

32. Commercial banks are not allowed to invest in
a. Treasury securities.
b. Freddie Mac securities.
c. Fannie Mae securities.
d. Banks can invest in all securities mentioned above.

33. Money market deposit accounts (MMDAs)
a. require a maturity of 6 months or longer.
b. allow a limited number of checks to be written against the account.
c. pay a higher interest rate than CDs.
d. none of the above

34. Which of the following accounts does not allow checks (at least a limited amount) to be written?
a. NOW accounts
b. money market deposit accounts (MMDAs)
c. retail CDs
d. all of the above allow checks to be written

35. Banks sometimes need funds and sometimes have excess funds available. Which of the following is commonly a source of bank funds and a use of bank funds?
a. MMDAs
b. federal funds
c. the discount window
d. retail CDs

36. The bank holding company structure allows more flexibility to borrow funds, issue stock, repurchase the company’s own stock, and acquire other firms.
a. True
b. False

37. Like other market interest rates, the primary credit lending rate moves in reaction to changes in demand or supply of funds or both.
a. True
b. False

38. The yield on repurchase agreements is slightly higher than the federal funds rate at any given point in time.
a. True
b. False

39. Bank regulators are concerned that banks may maintain a higher level of capital than they should and have therefore imposed capital requirements on them.
a. True
b. False

40. In a revolving credit loan, the bank typically charges businesses a commitment fee on any unused funds.
a. True
b. False

41. Bank rates on credit card balances are usually not very different from the rate charged on business loans.
a. True
b. False

42. While U.S. banks have expanded into non-U.S. markets, few non-U.S. banks have entered U.S. markets.
a. True
b. False

43. ____ is (are) not a major source of funds for commercial banks.
a. Deposit accounts
b. Borrowed funds
c. Commercial loans
d. Bank capital
e. All of the above are commercial banks sources of funds.

44. Which of the following statements is incorrect with respect to the federal funds market?
a. It allows depository institutions to accommodate the short-term liquidity needs of other financial institutions.
b. Federal funds purchased represent an asset to the borrowing bank and a liability to the lending bank that sells them.
c. The federal funds market is typically most active on Wednesday, because that is the final day of each particular settlement period for which each bank must maintain a specified volume of reserves required by the Fed.
d. All of the above are true with respect to the federal funds market.

45. The federal funds rate is typically ____ the primary credit lending rate.
a. greater than
b. less than
c. equal to
d. none of the above

46. ____ are the largest bank source of funds as a percentage of total liabilities.
a. Small-denomination time deposits
b. Money market deposit accounts (MMDAs)
c. Transaction deposits
d. Borrowed funds
e. Savings deposits (including MMDAs)

47. ____ do not specify a maturity and provide limited check-writing ability (they allow only a limited number of transactions per month).
a. Money market deposit accounts (MMDAs)
b. Negotiable CDs (NCDs)
c. Retail CDs
d. Callable CDs
e. Negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW) accounts

48. ____ loans are extended primarily to finance the purchase of fixed assets such as machinery.
a. Term
b. Working capital
c. Federal fund
d. Direct lease

49. Which of the following is not an off-balance sheet activity for commercial banks?
a. consumer loans
b. loan commitments
c. standby letters of credit
d. swap contracts
e. All of the above are off-balance sheet activities.

50. A ____ is a type of loan commitment.
a. standby letter of credit (SLC)
b. note issuance facility (NIF)
c. forward contract
d. swap contract
e. none of the above

51. When a bank obtains funds through a ____, the provider of the funds receives collateral.
a. retail CD
b. NOW account
c. repurchase agreement
d. money market deposit account

52. When banks obtain funds in the federal funds market, the providers of the funds are
a. other depository institutions.
b. nonfinancial corporations.
c. consumers.
d. the Federal Reserve.

53. A single loan in the federal funds market is usually for ____; when a bank sells a single repurchase agreement, the maturity is usually ____.
a. just a few days; one year or more
b. several weeks; one year or more
c. several weeks; just a few days
d. just a few days; just a few days

54. The interest rate charged on loans between depository institutions is commonly referred to as the
a. federal funds rate.
b. discount rate.
c. primary credit lending rate.
d. none of the above

55. The interest rate charged on loans from the Federal Reserve to banks is commonly referred to as the
a. federal funds rate.
b. primary credit lending rate.
c. repo rate.
d. none of the above

56. The primary credit lending rate is determined by
a. the Federal Reserve.
b. Congress.
c. the Treasury.
d. the President of the United States.

57. Bank capital represents funds obtained through ____ and through ____.
a. issuing stock; offering long-term CDs
b. issuing repurchase agreements; issuing bonds
c. issuing stock; retaining earnings
d. offering long-term CDs; issuing bonds

58. Banks sometimes prefer to minimize their amount of capital since
a. interest payments must be paid by the bank on all capital that is held.
b. they try to avoid diluting ownership of the bank.
c. A and B
d. none of the above

59. When a bank obtains funds through ____, households are not a common provider of the funds.
a. NOW accounts
b. retail CDs
c. passbook savings accounts
d. NCDs

60. Which of the following is not an off-balance sheet activity?
a. highly leveraged transactions (HLTs)
b. standby letters of credit
c. forward contracts
d. swap contracts

61. A bank’s uses of funds represent liabilities of a bank.
a. True
b. False

62. ____ are the largest bank source of funds (as a percentage of total liabilities).
a. Small-denomination time deposits
b. Large-denomination time deposits
c. Transaction deposits
d. Savings deposits (including MMDAs)

63. The five largest banks in the United States account for about one-tenth of all assets in U.S. banks.
a. True
b. False

STA: DISC.FMAI.MADU.15.03

64. From a bank manager’s perspective, the differential in interest between a bank’s loans and its deposits;
a. must not exceed the federal funds rate.
b. is called the primary credit lending rate.
c. must be sufficient to cover the bank’s other expenses and generate a reasonable profit for the bank’s owners.
d. must be sufficient to cover the bank’s deposit insurance premiums and its reserve requirements at the Federal Reserve.

65. In a loan participation arrangement, normally all of the participating banks are exposed to credit (default) risk.
a. True
b. False

66. Banks will not accept intangible assets, such as patents and brand names, as collateral for commercial loans.
a. True
b. False

67. Proprietary trading is generally less risky than a bank’s lending operations.
a. True
b. False

68. When a bank engages in proprietary trading, it:
a. uses its own funds to make investments.
b. is not subject to regulations.
c. lends the funds in the federal funds market.
d. normally uses the funds to build its capital.

69. In a standby letter of credit, a bank agrees to:
a. charge a fixed interest rate for a line of credit for a specified period.
b. back a customer’s obligation to a third party.
c. provide a customer with funds up to a specified maximum amount over a specified period.
d. service credit card loans originated by another bank.

70. A forward contract on currency:
a. is a way to hedge credit (default) risk.
b. is used to to swap fixed interest payments in euros for variable interest payments in dollars.
c. is an agreement between a customer and a bank to exchange one currency for another on a specified date at a specified exchange rate.
d. is an agreement between a customer and a bank to exchange one currency for another on a specified date at whatever the exchange rate is on that day.

71. Before the credit crisis, _________ were heavily used to protect against the credit (default) risk from investing in mortgage-backed securities.
a. standby letters of credit
b. interest rate swap contracts
c. credit default swap contracts
d. forward contracts on mortgages

72. Before establishing foreign branches, a U.S. bank must obtain the approval of the:
a. U.S. Treasury.
b. U.S. Commerce Department.
c. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
d. Federal Reserve.

FIN 350 Week 5 Quiz – Strayer University New

FIN/350 Week 5 Quiz – Strayer

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Chapter 7—Bond Markets

1. ____ require the owner to clip coupons attached to the bonds and send them to the issuer to receive coupon payments.
a. Bearer
b. Registered
c. Treasury
d. Corporate

2. The yield to maturity is the annualized discount rate that equates the future coupon and principal payments to the initial proceeds received from the bond offering.
a. True
b. False

3. Note maturities are usually ____, while bond maturities are ____.
a. less than 10 years; 10 years or more
b. 10 years or more; less than 10 years
c. less than 5 years; 5 years or more
d. 5 years or more; less than 5 years

4. Investors in Treasury notes and bonds receive ____ interest payments from the Treasury.
a. annual
b. semiannual
c. quarterly
d. monthly

5. The Treasury has relied heavily on ____-year bonds to finance the U.S. budget deficit.
a. 50
b. 70
c. 10
d. 5

6. Interest earned from Treasury bonds is
a. exempt from all income tax.
b. exempt from federal income tax.
c. exempt from state and local taxes.
d. subject to all income taxes.

7. Treasury bond auctions are normally conducted only at the beginning of each year.
a. True
b. False

8. ____ bids for Treasury bonds specify a price that the bidder is willing to pay and a dollar amount of securities to be purchased.
a. Competitive
b. Noncompetitive
c. Negotiable
d. Non-negotiable

9. Treasury bond dealers
a. quote an ask price for customers who want to sell existing Treasury bonds to the dealers.
b. profit from a very wide spread between bid and ask prices in the Treasury securities market.
c. may trade Treasury bonds among themselves.
d. make a primary market for Treasury bonds.

10. Under the STRIP program created by the Treasury, stripped securities are created and sold by the Treasury.
a. True
b. False

11. A ten-year, inflation-indexed bond has a par value of $10,000 and a coupon rate of 5 percent. During the first six months since the bond was issued, the inflation rate was 2 percent. Based on this information, the coupon payment after six months will be $____.
a. 250
b. 255
c. 500
d. 510

12. Bonds issued by ____ are backed by the federal government.
a. the Treasury
b. AAA-rated corporations
c. state governments
d. city governments

13. Municipal general obligation bonds are ____. Municipal revenue bonds are ____.
a. supported by the municipal government’s ability to tax; supported by the municipal government’s ability to tax
b. supported by the municipal government’s ability to tax; supported by revenue generated from the project
c. always subject to federal taxes; always exempt from state and local taxes
d. typically zero-coupon bonds; typically zero-coupon bonds

14. In general, variable-rate municipal bonds are desirable to investors who expect that interest rates will ____.
a. remain unchanged
b. fall
c. rise
d. none of the above

15. Which of the following statements is not true regarding zero-coupon bonds?
a. They are issued at a deep discount from par value.
b. Investors are taxed on the total amount of interest earned at maturity.
c. The issuing firm is permitted to deduct the amortized discount as interest expense for federal income tax purposes, even though it does not pay interest until maturity.
d. Zero-coupon bonds are purchased mainly for tax-exempt investment accounts, such as pension funds and individual retirement accounts.
e. All of the above are true.

16. A variable rate bond allows
a. investors to benefit from declining rates over time.
b. issuers to benefit from rising market interest rates over time.
c. investors to benefit from rising market interest rates over time.
d. none of the above.

17. Corporate bonds that receive a ____ rating from credit rating agencies are normally placed at ____ yields.
a. higher; lower
b. lower; lower
c. higher; higher
d. none of the above

18. A private bond placement has to be registered with the SEC.
a. True
b. False

19. Which of the following institutions is most likely to purchase a private bond placement?
a. commercial bank
b. mutual fund
c. insurance company
d. savings institution

20. A protective covenant may
a. specify all the rights and obligations of the issuing firm and the bondholders.
b. require the firm to retire a certain amount of the bond issue each year.
c. restrict the amount of additional debt the firm can issue.
d. none of the above

21. A call provision on bonds normally
a. allows the firm to sell new bonds at par value.
b. gives the firm to sell new bonds above market value.
c. allows the firm to sell bonds to the Treasury.
d. allows the firm to buy back bonds that it previously issued.

22. When would a firm most likely call bonds?
a. after interest rates have declined
b. if interest rates do not change
c. after interest rates increase
d. just before the time at which interest rates are expected to decline

23. Assume U.S. interest rates are significantly higher than German rates. A U.S. firm with a German subsidiary could achieve a lower financing rate, without exchange rate risk by denominating the bonds in
a. dollars.
b. euros and making payments from U.S. headquarters.
c. euros and making payments from its German subsidiary.
d. dollars and making payments from its German subsidiary.

24. Many bonds have different call prices: a higher price for calling the bonds to meet sinking-fund requirements and a lower price if the bonds are called for any other reason.
a. True
b. False

25. Bonds that are not secured by specific property are called
a. a chattel mortgage.
b. open-end mortgage bonds.
c. debentures.
d. blanket mortgage bonds.

26. Bonds that are secured by personal property are called
a. chattel mortgage bonds.
b. first mortgage bonds.
c. second mortgage bonds.
d. debentures.

27. The coupon rate of most variable-rate bonds is tied to
a. the prime rate.
b. the discount rate.
c. LIBOR.
d. the federal funds rate.

28. Assume that you purchased corporate bonds one year ago that have no protective covenants. Today, it is announced that the firm that issued the bonds plans a leveraged buyout. The market value of your bonds will likely ____ as a result.
a. rise
b. decline
c. be zero
d. be unaffected

29. During weak economic periods, newly issued junk bonds require lower risk premiums than in strong economic periods.
a. True
b. False

30. ____ bonds have the most active secondary market.
a. Treasury
b. Zero-coupon corporate
c. Junk
d. Municipal

31. Some bonds are “stripped,” which means that
a. they have defaulted.
b. the call provision has been eliminated.
c. they are transferred into principal-only and interest-only securities.
d. their maturities have been reduced.

32. ____ are not primary purchasers of bonds.
a. Insurance companies
b. Finance companies
c. Mutual funds
d. Pension funds

33. Leveraged buyouts are commonly financed by the issuance of:
a. money market securities.
b. Treasury bonds.
c. corporate bonds.
d. municipal bonds.

34. When firms issue ____, the amount of interest and principal to be paid is based on specified market conditions. The amount of the repayment may be tied to a Treasury bond price index or even to a stock index.
a. auction-rate securities
b. structured notes
c. leveraged notes
d. stripped securities

35. Which of the following statements is true regarding STRIPS?
a. they are issued by the Treasury
b. they are created and sold by various financial institutions
c. they are not backed by the U.S. government
d. they have to be held until maturity
e. all of the above are true regarding STRIPS

36. (Financial calculator required.) Lisa can purchase bonds with 15 years until maturity, a par value of $1,000, and a 9 percent annualized coupon rate for $1,100. Lisa’s yield to maturity is ____ percent.
a. 9.33
b. 7.84
c. 9.00
d. none of the above

37. (Financial calculator required.) Erin is, a private investor, who can purchase $1,000 par value bonds for $980. The bonds have a 10 percent coupon rate, pay interest annually, and have 20 years remaining until maturity. Erin’s yield to maturity is ____ percent.
a. 9.96
b. 10.00
c. 10.33
d. 10.24
e. none of the above

38. Devin is, a private investor, purchases $1,000 par value bonds with a 12 percent coupon rate and a 9 percent yield to maturity. Devin will hold the bonds until maturity. Thus, he will earn a return of ____ percent.
a. 12
b. 9
c. 10.5
d. more information is needed to answer this question

39. Which of the following is not true regarding zero-coupon bonds?
a. They are issued at a deep discount from par value.
b. Investors are taxed annually on the amount of interest earned, even though the interest will not be received until maturity.
c. The issuing firm is permitted to deduct the amortized discount as interest expense for federal income tax purposes, even though it does not pay interest.
d. Zero-coupon bonds are purchased mainly for tax-exempt investment account, such as pension funds and individual retirement accounts.
e. all of the above are true

40. Which of the following is not true regarding the call provision?
a. It typically requires a firm to pay a price above par value when it calls its bonds.
b. The difference between the market value of the bond and the par value is called the call premium.
c. A principal use of the call provision is to lower future interest payments.
d. A principal use of the call provision is to retire bonds as required by a sinking-fund provision.
e. A call provision is normally viewed as a disadvantage to bondholders.

41. If interest rates suddenly ____, those existing bonds that have a call feature are ____ likely to be called.
a. decline; more
b. decline; less
c. increase; more
d. none of the above

42. Which of the following would not be a likely example of a protective covenant provision?
a. a limit on the amount of dividends a firm can pay
b. a limit on the corporate officers’ salaries a firm can pay
c. the amount of additional debt a firm can issue
d. a call feature

43. Bonds are issued in the primary market through a telecommunications network.
a. True
b. False

44. Corporate bonds can be placed with investors through a public offering or a private placement.
a. True
b. False

45. When a corporation issues bonds, it normally hires a securities firm that targets large institutional investors such as pension funds, bond mutual funds, and insurance companies.
a. True
b. False

46. Rule 144A, which allows small individual investors to trade privately-placed bonds (and some other securities) with each other without requiring that the firms that issued the securities to register them with the SEC.
a. True
b. False

47. Rule 144A creates liquidity for securities that are privately placed.
a. True
b. False

48. Corporate bonds are more standardized than stocks.
a. True
b. False

49. Structured notes are issued by firms to borrow funds, and the repayment of interest and principal is based on specified market conditions.
a. True
b. False

50. Bonds issued by large well-known corporations in large volume are illiquid because most buyers hold these bonds until maturity.
a. True
b. False

51. The bond market is served by bond dealers, who can play a broker role by matching up buyers and sellers.
a. True
b. False

52. Bond dealers do not have an inventory of bonds.
a. True
b. False

53. Bond dealers specialize in small transactions (less than $100,000) in order to enable small investors to trade bonds.
a. True
b. False

54. Many bonds are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).
a. True
b. False

55. The primary investors in bond markets are institutional investors such as commercial banks, bond mutual funds, pension funds, and insurance companies.
a. True
b. False

56. The key difference between a note and a bond is that note maturities are usually less than one year, while bond maturities are one year or more.
a. True
b. False

57. Treasury bonds are issued by state and local governments.
a. True
b. False

58. Stripped bonds are bonds whose cash flows have been transformed into a security representing the principal payment only and a security representing interest payments only.
a. True
b. False

59. Inflation-indexed Treasury bonds are intended for investors who wish to ensure that the returns on their investments keep up with the increase in prices over time.
a. True
b. False

60. Savings bonds are bonds issued by the Federal Reserve.
a. True
b. False

61. Corporate bonds usually pay interest on an annual basis.
a. True
b. False

62. The bond debenture is a legal document specifying the rights and obligations of both the issuing firm and the bondholders.
a. True
b. False

63. A sinking-fund provision is a requirement that the issuing firm retire a certain amount of the bond issue each year.
a. True
b. False

64. Subordinated indentures are debentures that have claims against the firm’s assets that are junior to the claims of both mortgage bonds and regular debentures.
a. True
b. False

65. High-risk bonds are called trash bonds.
a. True
b. False

66. Zero-coupon bonds do not pay interest. Instead, they are issued at a discount from par value.
a. True
b. False

67. If interest rates suddenly decline, those existing bonds that have a call feature are less likely to be called.
a. True
b. False

68. Which of the following statements is not true regarding STRIPS?
a. They are not issued by the Treasury.
b. They are created and sold by various financial institutions.
c. They are backed by the U.S. government.
d. They have to be held until maturity.
e. All of the above are true regarding STRIPS.

69. (Financial calculator required.) Paul can purchase bonds with 15 years remaining until maturity, a par value of $1,000, and a 9 percent annual coupon rate for $1,100. Paul’s yield to maturity is ____ percent.
a. 9.33
b. 7.84
c. 9.00
d. none of the above

70. (Financial calculator required.) Steven, a private investor, can purchase $1,000 par value bonds for $980. The bonds have a 10 percent coupon rate, pay interest annually, and have 20 years remaining until maturity. Steven’s yield to maturity is ____ percent.
a. 9.96
b. 10.00
c. 10.33
d. 10.24
e. none of the above

71. Jim purchases $1,000 par value bonds with a 12 percent coupon rate and a 9 percent yield to maturity. Jim will hold the bonds until maturity. Thus, he will earn a return of ____ percent.
a. 12.00
b. 9.00
c. 10.50
d. More information is needed to answer this question.

72. Which of the following is not an example of a municipal bond?
a. general obligation bond
b. revenue bond
c. Treasury bond
d. All of the above are examples of municipal bonds.

73. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. The municipal bond must pay a risk premium to compensate for the possibility of default risk.
b. The Treasury bond must pay a slight premium to compensate for being less liquid than municipal bonds.
c. The income earned from municipal bonds is exempt from federal taxes.
d. All of the above are true.

74. Which of the following is not mentioned in your text as a protective covenant?
a. a limit on the amount of dividends a firm can pay
b. a limit on the corporate officers’ salaries a firm can pay
c. the amount of additional debt a firm can issue
d. the appointment of a trustee in all bond indentures
e. All of the above are mentioned in the text as protective covenants.

75. Everything else being equal, which of the following bond ratings is associated with the highest yield?
a. Baa
b. A
c. Aa
d. Aaa

76. A ____ has first claim on specified assets, while a ____ is a debenture that has claims against a firm’s assets that are junior to the claims of mortgage bonds and regular debentures.
a. first mortgage bond; second mortgage bond
b. first mortgage bond; debenture
c. first mortgage bond; subordinated debenture
d. chattel mortgage bond; subordinated debenture
e. none of the above

77. If a firm believes that it will have sufficient cash flows to cover interest payments, it may consider using ____ debt and ____ equity, which implies a ____ degree of financial leverage.
a. more; less; lower
b. more; less; higher
c. less; more; higher
d. none of the above

78. The yield to investors on Treasury bonds reflects the risk-free rate because these bonds are virtually free from credit (default) risk.
a. True
b. False

79. The issuance of municipal securities is regulated by:
a. the Securities and Exchange Commission.
b. the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.
c. their respective state governments.
d. the Federal Reserve.

80. For bonds issued under a _______ arrangement, the underwriter guarantees the issuer that the bonds will be sold at a specified price.
a. specific value
b. fixed proceeds
c. best efforts
d. firm commitment

81. For bonds issued under a _______ arrangement, the underwriter attempts to sell the bonds at a specified price but makes no guarantee to the issuer.
a. floating value
b. variable proceeds
c. best efforts
d. firm commitment

82. Which of the following eurozone countries has not recently experienced debt repayment problems?
a. Finland
b. Greece
c. Portugal
d. Spain

83. The Financial Reform Act of 2010 established the __________ to provide oversight for credit rating agencies.
a. Federal Ratings Bureau
b. Office of Credit Ratings
c. Office of Agency Supervision
d. Ratings Oversight Commission

84. A credit rating agency is paid by:
a. the purchasers of the bonds that the agency rates.
b. the issuers of the bonds that the agency rates.
c. the taxpayers, because the rating agencies are government agencies.
d. the New York Stock Exchange or the over-the-counter market where the bonds are listed.

85. All of the bonds issued by a particular company will have the same maturity, price, and credit rating.
a. True
b. False

86. When purchasing bonds, individual investors can use a ________ to specify the maximum price they are willing to pay for a bond.
a. limit order
b. market order
c. stop order
d. price order

87. Online bond brokerage services offer several advantages including:
a. pricing is more transparent because investors can easily compare bid and ask spreads.
b. some services charge commissions, which may be more easily understood than bid and ask spreads.
c. some brokers have narrowed their spreads so that they do not lose business to competitors.
d. all of the above

Chapter 8—Bond Valuation and Risk

1. The appropriate discount rate for valuing any bond is the
a. bond’s coupon rate.
b. bond’s coupon rate adjusted for the expected inflation rate over the life of the bond.
c. Treasury bill rate with an adjustment to include a risk premium if one exists.
d. yield that could be earned on alternative investments with similar risk and maturity.

2. The valuation of bonds is generally perceived to be ____ the valuation of equity securities.
a. more difficult than
b. easier than
c. just as difficult as
d. none of the above

3. A bond with a $1,000 par value has an 8 percent annual coupon rate. It will mature in 4 years, and annual coupon payments are made at the end of each year. Present annual yields on similar bonds are 6 percent. What should be the current price?
a. $1,069.31
b. $1,000.00
c. $9712
d. $927.66
e. none of the above

4. A bond with a ten percent coupon rate bond pays interest semi-annually. Par value is $1,000. The bond has three years to maturity. The investors’ required rate of return is 12 percent. What is the present value of the bond?
a. $1,021
b. $1,000
c. $981
d. $951
e. none of the above

5. A bond with a 12 percent quarterly coupon rate has a yield to maturity of 16 percent. The bond has a par value of $1,000 and matures in 20 years. Based on this information, a fair price of this bond is $____.
a. 1,302
b. 763
c. 761
d. 1,299

6. From the perspective of investing institutions, the most attractive foreign bonds offer a ____ and are denominated in a currency that ____ over the investment horizon.
a. high yield; appreciates
b. high yield; remains stable
c. low yield; appreciates
d. low yield; depreciates

7. The value of ____-risk securities will be relatively ____.
a. high; high
b. high; low
c. low; low
d. none of the above

8. The larger the investor’s ____ relative to the ____, the larger the ____ of a bond with a particular par value.
a. discount rate; required rate of return; discount
b. required rate of return; discount rate; discount
c. required rate of return; discount rate; premium
d. none of the above

9. If the coupon rate equals the required rate of return, the price of the bond
a. should be above its par value.
b. should be below its par value.
c. should be equal to its par value.
d. is negligible.

10. When financial institutions expect interest rates to ____, they may ____.
a. increase; sell bonds and buy short-term securities
b. increase; sell short-term securities and buy bonds
c. decrease; sell bonds and buy short-term securities
d. B and C

11. For a given par value of a bond, the higher the investor’s required rate of return is above the coupon rate, the
a. greater is the premium on the price.
b. greater is the discount on the price.
c. smaller is the premium on the price.
d. smaller is the discount on the price.

12. Zero coupon bonds with a par value of $1,000,000 have a maturity of 10 years, and a required rate of return of 9 percent. What is the current price?
a. $363,212
b. $385,500
c. $422,400
d. $424,100
e. none of the above

13. If the coupon rate ____ the required rate of return, the price of a bond ____ par value.
a. equals; equals
b. exceeds; is less than
c. is less than; is greater than
d. B and C
e. none of the above

14. As interest rates increase, long-term bond prices
a. increase by a greater degree than short-term bond prices.
b. increase by an equal degree as short-term bond prices.
c. decrease by a greater degree than short-term bond prices.
d. decrease by an equal degree as short-term bond prices.
e. decrease by a smaller degree than short-term bond prices.

15. The prices of bonds with ____ are most sensitive to interest rate movements.
a. high coupon payments
b. zero coupon payments
c. small coupon payments
d. none of the above (The size of the coupon payment does not affect sensitivity of bond prices to interest rate movements.)

16. A(n) ____ in the expected level of inflation results in ____ pressure on bond prices.
a. increase; upward
b. increase; downward
c. decrease; downward
d. none of the above

17. Other things held constant, bond prices should increase when inflationary expectations rise.
a. True
b. False

18. An expected ____ in economic growth places ____ pressure on bond prices.
a. increase; downward
b. increase; upward
c. decrease; downward
d. none of the above

19. Assume that the price of a $1,000 zero coupon bond with five years to maturity is $567 when the required rate of return is 12 percent. If the required rate of return suddenly changes to 15 percent, what is the price elasticity of the bond?
a. −.980
b. +.980
c. −.494
d. +.494
e. none of the above

20. If a financial institution’s bond portfolio contains a relatively large portion of ____, it will be ____.
a. high coupon bonds; more favorably affected by declining interest rates
b. zero or low coupon bonds; more favorably affected by declining interest rates
c. zero or low coupon bonds; more favorably affected by rising interest rates
d. high coupon bonds; completely insulated from rising interest rates

21. The prices of ____-coupon and ____ maturities are most sensitive to changes in the required rate of return.
a. low; short
b. low; long
c. high; short
d. high; long

22. An insurance company purchases corporate bonds in the secondary market with six years to maturity. Total par value is $55 million. The coupon rate is 11 percent, with annual interest payments. If the expected required rate of return in 4 years is 9 percent, what will the market value of the bonds be then?
a. $52,115,093
b. $55,341,216
c. $55,000,000
d. $56,935,022

23. A $1,000 par bond with five years to maturity is currently priced at $892. Annual interest payments are $90. What is the yield to maturity?
a. 13 percent
b. 12 percent
c. 11 percent
d. 10 percent

24. A bank buys bonds with a par value of $25 million for $24,040,000. The coupon rate is 10 percent, and the bonds pay annual payments. The bonds mature in four years. The bank wants to sell them in two years, and estimates the required rate of return in two years will be 8 percent. What will the market value of the bonds be in two years?
a. $24,113,418
b. $24,667,230
c. $25,000,000
d. $25,891,632

25. The price of short-term bonds are commonly ____ those of long-term bonds.
a. more volatile than
b. equally volatile as
c. less volatile than
d. A and C occur with about equal frequency

26. Assume that the value of liabilities equals that of earning assets. If asset portfolio durations are ____ than liability portfolio durations, then the market value of assets are ____ interest-rate sensitive than the market value of liabilities.
a. greater; more
b. greater; equally
c. greater; less
d. less; equally
e. B and D

27. As interest rates consistently rise over a specific period, the market price of a bond you own would likely ____ over this period. (Assume no major change in the bond’s default risk.)
a. consistently increase
b. consistently decrease
c. remain unchanged
d. change in a direction that cannot be determined with the above information

28. As interest rates consistently decline over a specific period, the market price of a bond you own would likely ____ over this period. (Assume no major change in the bond’s default risk.)
a. consistently increase
b. consistently decrease
c. remain unchanged
d. change in a direction that cannot be determined with the above information

29. If analysts expect that the demand for loanable funds will increase, and the supply of loanable funds will decrease, they would most likely expect interest rates to ____ and prices of existing bonds to ____.
a. increase; increase
b. increase; decrease
c. decrease; decrease
d. decrease; increase

30. If analysts expect that the demand for loanable funds will decrease, and the supply of loanable funds will increase, they would most likely expect interest rates to ____ and prices of existing bonds to ____.
a. increase; increase
b. increase; decrease
c. decrease; decrease
d. decrease; increase

31. Consider a coupon bond that sold at par value two years ago. If interest rates are much lower now than when this bond was issued, the coupon rate of that bond will likely be ____ the prevailing interest rates, and the present value of the bonds will be ____ its par value.
a. above; above
b. above; below
c. below; below
d. below; above

32. Consider a coupon bond that sold at par value two years ago. If interest rates are much higher now than when this bond was issued, the coupon rate of that bond will likely be ____ the prevailing interest rates, and the present value of the bonds will be ____ its par value.
a. above; above
b. above; below
c. below; below
d. below; above

33. If bond portfolio managers expect interest rates to increase in the future, they would likely ____ their holdings of bonds now, which could cause the prices of bonds to ____ as a result of their actions.
a. increase; increase
b. increase; decrease
c. decrease; decrease
d. decrease; increase

34. If bond portfolio managers expect interest rates to decrease in the future, they would likely ____ their holdings of bonds now, which could cause the prices of bonds to ____ as a result of their actions.
a. increase; increase
b. increase; decrease
c. decrease; decrease
d. decrease; increase

35. Which of the following will most likely cause bond prices to increase? (Assume no possibility of higher inflation in the future.)
a. reduced Treasury borrowing along with anticipation that money supply growth will decrease
b. reduced Treasury borrowing along with anticipation that money supply growth will increase
c. an anticipated drop in money supply growth along with increasing Treasury borrowing
d. higher levels of Treasury borrowing and corporate borrowing

36. If the United States announces that it will borrow an additional $10 billion, this announcement will normally cause the bond traders to expect
a. higher interest rates in the future, and will buy bonds now.
b. higher interest rates in the future, and will sell bonds now.
c. stable interest rates in the future, and will buy bonds now.
d. lower interest rates in the future, and will buy bonds now.
e. lower interest rates in the future, and will sell bonds now.

37. The market value of long-term bonds is ____ sensitive to interest rate movements; as interest rates fall, the market value of long-term bonds ____.
a. slightly; rises
b. very; rises
c. very; declines
d. slightly; declines

38. The bonds that are most sensitive to interest rate movements have
a. no coupon and a short-term maturity.
b. high coupons and a short-term maturity.
c. high coupons and a long-term maturity.
d. no coupon and a long-term maturity.

39. When two securities have the same expected cash flows, the value of the ____ security will be higher than the value of the ____ security.
a. high-risk; low-risk
b. low-risk; high-risk
c. high-risk; high-risk
d. low-risk; low-risk
e. none of the above

40. Morgan would like to purchase a bond that has a par value of $1,000, pays $80 at the end of each year in coupon payments, and has 10 years remaining until maturity. If the prevailing annualized yield on other bonds with similar characteristics is 6 percent, how much will Morgan pay for the bond?
a. $1,000.00
b. $1,147.20
c. $856.80
d. none of the above

41. Sioux Financial Corp. has forecasted its bond portfolio value for one year ahead to be $105 million. In one year, it expects to receive $10,000,000 in coupon payments. The bond portfolio today is worth $101 million. What is the forecasted return of this bond portfolio?
a. 10 percent
b. 8.82 percent
c. 4.32 percent
d. 13.86 percent
e. none of the above

42. Hurricane Corp. recently purchased corporate bonds in the secondary market with a par value of $11 million, a coupon rate of 12 percent (with annual coupon payments), and four years until maturity. If Bullock intends to sell the bonds in two years and expects investors’ required rate of return at that time on similar investments to be 14 percent at that time, what is the expected market value of the bonds in two years?
a. $9.33 million
b. $11.00 million
c. $10.64 million
d. $9.82 million
e. none of the above

43. Assume a bond with a $1,000 par value and an 11 percent coupon rate, two years remaining to maturity, and a 10 percent yield to maturity. The duration of this bond is
a. 1.90 years.
b. 1.50 years.
c. 1.92 years.
d. none of the above

44. Assume a bond with a $1,000 par value and an 11 percent coupon rate, two years remaining to maturity, and a 10 percent yield to maturity. The modified duration of this bond is
a. 1.73 years.
b. 1.71 years.
c. 1.90 years.
d. none of the above

45. The relationship reflecting the actual response of a bond’s price to a change in bond yields is
a. concave.
b. convex.
c. linear.
d. quadratic.

46. If the level of inflation is expected to ____, there will be ____ pressure on interest rates and ____ pressure on the required rate of return on bonds.
a. increase; upward; downward
b. decrease; upward; downward
c. decrease; upward; upward
d. increase; downward; upward
e. increase; upward; upward

47. Using a(n) ____ strategy, investors allocate funds evenly to bonds in each of several different maturity classes.
a. matching
b. laddered
c. barbell
d. interest rate
e. none of the above

48. With a(n) ____ strategy, funds are allocated to bonds with a short term to maturity and bonds with a long term to maturity. Thus, this strategy allocates some funds to achieving a relatively high return and other funds to covering liquidity needs.
a. matching
b. laddered
c. barbell
d. interest rate
e. none of the above

49. Which of the following bonds is most susceptible to interest rate risk from an investor’s perspective?
a. short-term, high-coupon
b. short-term, low-coupon
c. long-term, high-coupon
d. long-term, zero-coupon

50. Which of the following is most likely to cause a decrease in bond prices?
a. a decrease in money supply growth and an increase in the demand for loanable funds
b. a forecast of decreasing oil prices
c. a forecast of a stronger dollar
d. an increase in money supply growth and no change in the demand for loanable funds

51. If the Treasury issues an unusually large amount of bonds in the primary market, it places ____ on bond prices, and ____ on yields to be earned by investors that purchase bonds and plan to hold them to maturity.
a. downward pressure; downward pressure
b. downward pressure; upward pressure
c. upward pressure; upward pressure
d. upward pressure; downward pressure

52. Assume bond portfolio managers actively manage their portfolios. If they expect interest rates to ____, they would shift toward ____.
a. increase; long-maturity bonds with zero-coupon rates
b. decrease; short-maturity bonds with high-coupon rates
c. increase; high-coupon bonds with long maturities
d. decrease; long-maturity bonds with zero-coupon rates

53. The market price of a bond is partly determined by the timing of the payments made to bondholders.
a. True
b. False

54. The appropriate price of a bond is simply the sum of the cash flows to be received.
a. True
b. False

55. The valuation of bonds is generally perceived to be more difficult than the valuation of equity securities.
a. True
b. False

56. Bonds that sell below their par value are called premium bonds.
a. True
b. False

57. A zero-coupon bond makes no coupon payments.
a. True
b. False

58. If the coupon rate of a bond is above the investor’s required rate of return, the price of the bond should be below its par value.
a. True
b. False

59. An increase in either the risk-free rate or the general level of the risk premium on bonds results in a higher required rate of return and therefore causes bond prices to increase.
a. True
b. False

60. The long-term, risk-free interest rate is driven by inflationary expectations, economic growth, the money supply, and the budget deficit.
a. True
b. False

61. If the level of inflation is expected to decrease, there will be upward pressure on interest rates and on the required rate of return on bonds.
a. True
b. False

62. Foreign investors anticipating dollar depreciation are less willing to hold U.S. bonds because the coupon payments will convert to less of their home currency.
a. True
b. False

63. Any announcement that signals stronger than expected economic growth tends to increase bond prices.
a. True
b. False

64. Bond price elasticity is the percentage change in bond prices divided by the percentage change in the required rate of return.
a. True
b. False

65. As interest rates increase, prices of short-term bonds will decline by a greater degree than prices on long-term bonds.
a. True
b. False

66. Duration is a measure of bond price sensitivity.
a. True
b. False

67. A bond portfolio containing a large portion of zero-coupon bonds will be more favorably affected by declining interest rates than a bond portfolio containing no zero-coupon bonds.
a. True
b. False

68. International diversification of bonds reduces the sensitivity of a bond portfolio to any single country’s interest rate movements.
a. True
b. False

69. In a laddered strategy, investors create a bond portfolio that will generate periodic income that can match their expected periodic expenses.
a. True
b. False

70. Which of the following formulas best describes the value of a bond?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e. none of the above

71. Stephanie would like to purchase a bond that has a par value of $1,000, pays $80 at the end of each year in coupon payments, and has ten years remaining until maturity. If the prevailing annualized yield on other bonds with similar characteristics is 6 percent, how much will Stephanie pay for the bond?
a. $1,000.00
b. $1,147.20
c. $856.80
d. none of the above

72. Julia just purchased a $1,000 par value bond with a 10 percent annual coupon rate and a life of twenty years. The bond has four years remaining until maturity, and the yield to maturity is 12 percent. How much did Julia pay for the bond?
a. $1,063.40
b. $1,000
c. $939.25
d. none of the above

73. To determine the present value of a bond that pays semiannual interest, which of the following adjustments should not be made to compute the price of the bond?
a. The annualized coupon should be split in half.
b. The annual discount rate should be divided by 2.
c. The number of annual periods should be doubled.
d. The par value should be split in half.
e. All of the above adjustments have to be made.

74. A $1,000 par value bond, paying $50 semiannually, with an 8 percent yield to maturity and five years remaining to maturity should sell for
a. $1,000.00.
b. $1,081.11.
c. $798.70.
d. $880.22.
e. none of the above.

75. If the level of inflation is expected to ____, there will be ____ pressure on interest rates and ____ pressure on the required rate of return on bonds.
a. increase; upward; downward
b. decrease; upward; downward
c. decrease; upward; upward
d. increase; upward; upward
e. increase; downward; upward

76. An economic announcement signaling ____ economic growth in the future will probably cause bond prices to ____.
a. weak; decrease
b. strong; increase
c. weak; increase
d. strong; decrease
e. Answers C and D are correct.

77. Because of a change in the required rate of return from 11 percent to 13 percent, the bond price of a zero-coupon bond will fall from $1,000 to $860. Thus, the bond price elasticity for this bond is
a. 0.77.
b. −0.77.
c. −0.90.
d. −1.06.
e. none of the above.

78. The required rate of return on a certain bond changes from 12 percent to 8 percent, causing the price of the bond to change from $900 to $1,100. The bond price elasticity of this bond is
a. −0.36.
b. −0.44.
c. −0.55.
d. −0.67.
e. 0.67.

79. Assume a bond with a $1,000 par value and an 11 percent coupon rate, two years remaining to maturity, and a 10 percent yield to maturity. The duration of this bond is ____ years.
a. 1.92
b. 1.50
c. 1.90
d. none of the above

80. A bond has a $1,000 par value and an 8 percent coupon rate. The bond has four years remaining to maturity and a 10 percent yield to maturity. This bond’s modified duration is ____ years.
a. 1.33
b. 1.27
c. 3.24
d. 1.31
e. none of the above

81. If investors rely strictly on modified duration to estimate the percentage change in the price of a bond, they will tend to ____ the price decline associated with an increase in rates and ____ the price increase associated with a decrease in rates.
a. underestimate; underestimate
b. overestimate; overestimate
c. underestimate; overestimate
d. overestimate; underestimate

82. In the ____ strategy, funds are allocated to bonds with a short term to maturity and bonds with a long term to maturity.
a. matching
b. laddered
c. barbell
d. interest rate
e. none of the above

83. Using a(n) ____ strategy, investors allocate funds evenly to bonds in each of several different maturity classes.
a. matching
b. laddered
c. barbell
d. interest rate
e. none of the above

84. Which of the following is not a factor affecting the market price of a foreign bond held by a U.S. investor?
a. foreign interest rate movements
b. credit risk
c. exchange rate fluctuations
d. All of the above are factors affecting the market price of a foreign bond.

85. When holding other factors constant, increased borrowing by the Treasury can result in a _______ required return and therefore _______ prices on existing bonds.
a. higher; lower
b. higher; higher
c. lower; higher
d. lower; lower

86. Holding other factors constant, a higher budget deficit leads to ______ interest rates, and higher inflationary expectations lead to _______ interest rates.
a. higher; lower
b. higher; higher
c. lower; higher
d. lower; lower

87. The credit risk premium tends to be larger for bonds that have longer terms to maturity.
a. True
b. False

88. The ____________ was recently established to identify risks in the U.S. financial system and make regulatory recommendations that could reduce such risks.
a. Financial Risk Assessment Commission
b. Financial Markets Protection Agency
c. Financial Stability Oversight Council
d. Federal Bureau of Financial Markets

89. When the European Central Bank provides credit to a country that is experiencing debt repayment problems, the ECB commonly:
a. allows the country’s government to conduct its own monetary policy.
b. recommends that the country withdraw from the eurozone.
c. urges the country’s government to increase spending and lower taxes to stimulate the economy.
d. imposes austerity conditions to enable the government to reduce its budget deficit.

90. Although the European debt crisis has had substantial effects on European financial markets, the crisis has been contained and has not affected markets and financial institutions outside Europe.
a. True
b. False