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HSA 590 Midterm and Final Exam

HSA 590 Midterm and Final Exam – Strayer
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Chapter 1 Through 12
Chapter 1

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. To be considered true research, a project must:
a. gather together a body of existing information and communicate it in a clear and
concise way.
b. uncover obscure or esoteric information and bring it to the consideration of the broader research community.
c. gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some phenomenon.
d. produce definitive conclusions regarding the subject of study.

**2. Which of the following examples illustrates research the way it is defined in your textbook?
a. Sally is writing a paper about the effects of the Harry Potter books on the reading habits of fourth graders in the United States and United Kingdom. She goes to a research library to find information to include in her paper.
b. Ian wants to know why the population of songbirds has declined in recent years in the Sutton Wilderness Area. He carefully collects soil and water samples, systematically surveys the entire area for predators, and then sits down to make sense of his findings.
c. Leonard is starting a woodworking business and is not sure how to calculate the cost of his labor so he can be both profitable and fair to the customers. He asks several established business owners how they calculate labor changes.
d. Bill is doing a report on the sonnets of Shakespeare. He carefully reads a number of sonnets and then carefully reads scholarly reviews of those same sonnets written by various Shakespeare scholars. He synthesizes all of this information in his report.

*3. Which of the following is defined as an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon?
a. Theory
b. Inference
c. Hypothesis
d. Interpretation

*4. Which of the following is defined as a reasonable guess, or a logical supposition, for explaining the phenomenon under investigation?
a. Theory
b. Inference
c. Hypothesis
d. Interpretation
*5. The process of formal research begins with the identification of:
a. research hypotheses.
b. a feasible research plan.
c. available participants.
d. a research problem.

*6. The purpose of formal research is to:
a. prove or disprove the study hypotheses.
b. support or fail to support the study hypotheses.
c. identify alternative hypotheses.
d. move beyond the need for hypotheses.

*7. Assumptions come into play:
a. in regard to nearly every aspect of every research study.
b. in qualitative research but not in quantitative research.
c. when research is not well thought out.
d. rarely, if ever.

*8. Well-designed research manages to minimize or avoid:
a. assumptions.
b. predictions.
c. theory.
d. bias.

*9. Researchers ______ their phenomenon of interest on the basis of data analysis.
a. make inferences about
b. know facts about
c. define
d. identify

*10. A primary function of the methodology is to:
a. guide and control the acquisition of data.
b. extract meaning from the data that have been gathered.
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b

*11. Three of the following come into play as the researcher analyzes the data. Which one does NOT?
a. The study hypothesis/hypotheses
b. Preferences for certain outcomes
c. The logical reasoning process
d. Assumptions

*12. A well-designed and well-conducted study:
a. answers questions of importance in the field.
b. raises questions of importance to the field.
c. answers some questions and raises other questions.

*13. Reading the professional literature in the field of interest:
a. will enhance an individual’s ability to design and conduct high-quality research.
b. will stifle creativity and constrain the individual to the status quo.
c. will make little difference to the quality and impact of the individual’s work.
d. is necessary only for the leaders in the field.

*14. One indication that a piece of information is of high quality is that the information:
a. is found on the Internet.
b. is found in a juried (or refereed) research report.
c. resulted from a project that received corporate funding.
d. is the firsthand account of a personal experience.

Essay Questions

15. Your chapter states: “Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical.” Explain why “cyclical” is an appropriate description of the research process. Then explain why “helical” is a better description.

16. Describe an example of the word research being used inappropriately. Be clear about how your example deviates from the definition of research offered in the chapter.

17. Graduate professors like to insist that the completion of thesis or dissertation research is not merely an “academic exercise” or final hurdle to obtaining the desired degree. Explain at least one personal benefit that the individual derives from completing a high- quality thesis or dissertation. Then explain at least one societal benefit that follows from the individual’s completion of a high-quality thesis or dissertation.

18. In the most rigorous tests of hypotheses, the researcher sets out to fail to support the hypothesis. Why is the attempt to fail to support a more rigorous test of the hypothesis than an attempt to support it?

Chapter 2

TOOLS OF RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. A ______ is a specific mechanism or strategy the researcher uses to collect,
manipulate, or interpret data.
a. research tool
b. research methodology
c. statistical test
d. theory

*2. Research methodology refers to:
a. the general approach the researcher takes to conducting a research project.
b. a specific device the researcher uses to collect data.
c. the specific theoretical basis of the research project.
d. the statistical tests to be employed in a research project.

**3. Sam wants to find high-quality research reports related to attribution theory that have been published in professional journals. Sam’s best approach would be to:
a. consult the library catalog.
b. consult an online or electronic database.
c. search the World Wide Web.
d. browse the shelves in the library.

**4. Sonya is a college freshman who has just been assigned her first research paper, and she doesn’t know how to get started finding information. Sonya should:
a. search the World Wide Web.
b. consult an online or electronic database.
c. consult a reference librarian.
d. browse the shelves in the library.

*5. ______ allows a researcher to receive news in an area of special interest and discuss that news with others.
a. A search engine
b. E-mail
c. A list server
d. A Web browser

*6. ______ allows researchers to personally correspond practically instantly with other users around the world.
a. A search engine
b. E-mail
c. A list server
d. A Web browser

**7. John wants to begin using e-mail. Which of the following steps is NOT necessary for John to get started as an email user?
a. Request an e-mail account
b. Obtain necessary software from the e-mail provider and load it onto a computer
c. Learn to use a Web browser to explore the Internet
d. Learn how to access and use the e-mail provider’s services

*8. Three of the following statements about measurement in the research setting are accurate. Which one is NOT accurate?
a. The purpose of measurement is to systematically limit the data in a way that makes it quantifiable.
b. Measurement is applied by researchers only to insubstantial phenomena.
c. Measurement is a tool that aids researchers in interpreting their observations.
d. Systematic measurement assists researchers in obtaining objectivity in their researcher.

*9. An ordinal scale of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. is tied to an absolute zero.
c. incorporates equal units of measurement.
d. communicates greater than and less than relationships.

*10. An interval level of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. communicates rank-order information.
c. incorporates equal units of measurement.
d. is tied to an absolute zero.

*11. A ratio scale of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. communicates rank-order information.
c. is especially appropriate for opinion data.
d. is tied to an absolute zero.

**12. The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is that only one of them:
a. includes an absolute zero.
b. uses equal units of measurement.
c. supports the use of statistical analyses.
d. is used in research with human subjects.
**13. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report how politically conservative they are. It includes a 7-point scale where 1 is “not at all conservative” and 7 is “extremely conservative.” This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**14. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their highest level of education by choosing from these options: “some high school,” “completed high school,” “some college,” or “completed 4-year college degree.” This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**15. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their age in years. This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**16. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report whether they are currently living in an “urban,” “suburban,” or “rural” setting. This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

*17. ______ refers to whether a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure.
a. Validity
b. Reliability
c. Accountability
d. Robustness

*18. ______ refers to how consistently a measurement tool will yield the same result when the phenomenon under investigation does not change.
a. Validity
b. Reliability
c. Replicability
d. Dependability

**19. Kade has spent the past month carefully observing a group of third graders on the playground during recess, taking note of how the students interact with one another. On the basis of these observations, Kade is drawing conclusions about the interaction styles of boys and girls. This is an example of:
a. hypothetical logic.
b. deductive logic.
c. inductive logic.
d. propositional logic.

**20. Kimberly knows that teenagers often do not make good decisions in areas where they have little knowledge. She also knows that most teens have little knowledge about human sexuality. Therefore, Kimberly believes that teens are likely to make poor decisions about sexual activity. This is an example of:
a. inductive logic.
b. propositional logic.
c. transductive logic.
d. deductive logic.

Essay Questions

21. In your opinion, what is the one greatest advantage to society of the information revolution? What is the one greatest disadvantage? Support your answer.

22. Near the end of Chapter 2 the authors of your textbook include a relatively lengthy section on writing the research report. Why is it important that research results are carefully written up and made available to the scientific community?

23. Do recent technological advances (e.g., the World Wide Web, electronic databases) assure that future research will be of higher quality, or of greater utility, than past research? Support your answer.

Chapter 3

THE PROBLEM: THE HEART OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Research problems, as defined in your textbook:
a. are identified by experts in the field, and not typically knowable by novices.
b. clearly and completely specify important questions that are currently unanswered in a particular field of inquiry.
c. are broad, general statements about the incomplete state of understanding in a particular field of inquiry.
d. can be addressed by compiling and synthesizing existing information in a way that sheds light on the issue of interest.

*2. Basic research is:
a. research intended to enhance basic knowledge about the physical, biological, psychological, or social world or to shed light on historical, cultural, or aesthetic phenomena.
b. large scale research performed under contract with a governmental agency such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), etc.
c. informal research conducted locally by a small staff with a small budget, the purpose of which is to pave the way for larger research initiatives.
d. research intended to address issues that have immediate relevance to current practices, procedures, and policies.

*3. Applied research is:
a. research intended to enhance basic knowledge about the physical, biological, psychological, or social world or to shed light on historical, cultural, or aesthetic phenomena.
b. large-scale research performed under contract with a governmental agency such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), etc.
c. informal research conducted by a small staff with a small budget, the purpose of which is to shed light on a problem of local interest.
d. research intended to address issues that have immediate relevance to current practices, procedures, and policies.

**4. Which of the following represents a well-written basic research problem?
a. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
d. “What is the ratio of native-born students to international students on the campuses of major U.S. state universities?”

**5. Which of the following represents a well-written applied research problem?
a. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”
d. “What is the ratio of native-born students to international students on the campuses of major U.S. state universities?”

**6. Three of the following questions lend themselves well to formal research. Which one does NOT?
a. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “Does message medium, print versus television, impact the effectiveness of public service health messages?”
d. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”

*7. Three of the following are characteristics of a well-written research problem. Which one is NOT?
a. The problem statement includes jargon associated with the field.
b. The problem statement clearly delimits the object(s) of study.
c. The problem statement identifies the important factors to be investigated in the study.
d. The problem statement explicitly identifies assumptions.

*8. A common weakness of research problems is that they:
a. delimit the object(s) of study.
b. constrain the variables to be investigated.
c. implicitly rest on common assumptions.
d. incorporate a number of subproblems.

**9. “What proportion of workers hired by selected factories in the state of Oklahoma between 1995 and 2000 held four-year college degrees?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
b. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
c. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**10. “What do underemployed U.S. workers (i.e., those workers who are employed, but not in positions for which they have specialized training or expertise) identify as the primary reason for their inability to find suitable employment?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
b. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
c. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**11. “What is the correlation between an index of civic-mindedness and years of involvement in local organizations and charities among members of city councils of selected midsized cities in the northeastern United States?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
b. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
c. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**12. “Among social workers in selected U.S. urban areas, are the personality characteristics of Need for Structure or In-Group Preference related to prejudicial social judgments about African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans?”
Which of the following is a well-stated subproblem that follows from this research problem?
a. Which group is more discriminated against by the public at large in each of the selected areas: African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans?
b. What is the most valid existing measure of In-Group Preference?
c. What is the relationship between an index of Need for Structure and an index of prejudice targeting attitudes about Asian Americans among the selected social workers?
d. Which analytic technique is best suited to addressing the research problem, multiple regression or path analysis?

*13. In regard to research questions and hypotheses, a high-quality research study will:
a. articulate only research questions, not hypotheses, so as not to constrain the possible findings.
b. articulate only hypotheses, not research questions, in order to preserve the scientific rigor of the investigation.
c. focus only on those questions that can support the correctness of current hypotheses or theoretical positions.
d. articulate either research questions or hypotheses depending on the nature of the study.

**14. Which of the following represents a null hypothesis?
a. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.
b. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.
c. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?
d. None of the above

**15. Which of the following represents a research hypothesis?
a. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.
b. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.
c. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?
d. None of the above

*16. The recommended order of tasks in preparing a research proposal is:
a. state the problem and subproblems, note the assumptions, note the delimitations, define the terms, note the research questions/hypotheses.
b. state the problem and subproblems, note the delimitations, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the assumptions, define the terms.
c. state the problem and subproblems, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the assumptions, define the terms, note the delimitations.
d. state the problem and subproblems, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the delimitations, define the terms, note the assumptions.

*17. Three of the following comprise the setting of the research problem. Which one does NOT?
a. A clear description of all measurement tools to be used in the research project
b. A clear statement of what the researcher will and will not do in the course of the study
c. A clear statement of the assumptions on which the research problem rests
d. A clear definition of all terms related to the research problem that might be misunderstood by a reader

Essay Questions

18. Why is it important that the researcher articulate, as clearly as possible, all assumptions that affect the research problem?

19. Your textbook authors recommend explicitly defining any term that might be misunderstood by someone reading the research proposal. If the research proposal is being written chiefly for use and review by researchers, why is such a step necessary?

20. Daphne has been a member of a research team studying interpersonal aggression among preschoolers for more than a year. In that time, her team has repeatedly employed a consistent set of techniques and procedures to study preschoolers as they interact in a number of settings. The procedures revolve around volunteer mothers bringing their children to the university child development lab for a “play session” that is the basis of the formal observations. Settings they have studied so far include: the university pre-school, affluent local day-care centers, and a pre-kindergarten program being offered in the neighborhood school district. All of these settings were fairly racially homogenous.

Daphne has just learned that a friend of a friend can help her gain research access, in the near future, to preschoolers in an unusually racially diverse though impoverished preschool setting. Daphne decides she has no time to prepare a formal research proposal before embarking on the study. “Besides,” she thinks, “this study should go just like all the others we’ve done.”

Is Daphne leaving herself open to problems in this situation, or is she safe moving ahead with no formal proposal, given how familiar she is with the study techniques and procedures?

Chapter 4

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Generally speaking, the best time to begin the literature review associated with a specific research project is:
a. after the research problem has been clearly articulated.
b. after the data have been collected, but before they are analyzed.
c. based on personal preference; there is no single best time.
d. before or during the formulation of the research problem.

*2. If you want to find information about books available in your local library, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the World Wide Web

*3. If you want to conduct a keyword or author search of research reports published in professional journals, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the World Wide Web

*4. If you want to find statistics on health care spending broken down by state, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the reference lists of important papers in your area

**5. If an important reference you want to include in your literature review is checked out to another library patron, you might:
a. obtain it through interlibrary loan.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. decide to make do without it.

**6. If an important recent research article that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, you might:
a. cite it anyway for the benefit of the reader.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. decide to make do without it.

**7. If an important book that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, your best move would probably be to:
a. obtain it through interlibrary loan.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. cite it anyway for the benefit of the reader.

*8. ______ is an example of a search engine.
a. Altavista
b. Books in Print
c. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)
d. Humanities Index

*9. ______ is an example of an electronic database.
a. Altavista
b. Books in Print
c. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)
d. Humanities Index

**10. Jane wants to search for information about the variety of attention disorders that are seen in childhood. Which of the following sets of keywords would best get Jane started on an effective and efficient search?
a. “attention disorders”
b. “ADHD,” “ADD,” and “children”
c. “disorders” and “children”
d. “attention disorders” and “children”

*11. If a researcher has completed a thorough search of the World Wide Web:
a. the literature search can be concluded.
b. it may also be fruitful to search an electronic database.
c. it may also be fruitful to search the Internet.
d. he/she will find largely redundant information on an electronic database.

*12. The main purpose of the review of the literature is to:
a. acknowledge the work of others by listing their findings prior to proposing your own project.
b. show how your study is superior to other work done in the area.
c. publicly demonstrate your mastery of the research literature in your area.
d. show how your study is related to, and extends, other work in the area.

*13. A well-structured literature review:
a. contains highly detailed descriptions of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.
b. begins with those studies most closely related to the research problem, then opens up to a broader perspective.
c. begins with broad/general information, then narrows the focus to those studies most closely related to the research problem.
d. contains general summaries of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.

*14. The review of the literature can be curtailed when:
a. you are no longer encountering new ideas or information.
b. all of the work done by top researchers in the area has been reviewed.
c. all published work related to a topic has been reviewed.
d. two to four weeks have been devoted to the search.

*15. A well-written literature review:
a. avoids evaluation or critique of the literature reviewed, so as not to bias the opinion of the reader.
b. emphasizes critique and synthesis of the work of others that is related to your own research problem.
c. avoids summarizing the work of others so that details of the original work are not lost in the reviewing process.
d. emphasizes detailed reporting of each piece of research included in the literature review.

*16. Typically, the literature review should:
a. include few or no works more than five years old to avoid having the work become prematurely obsolete.
b. be limited to work coming out of the very best labs and universities in the country.
c. give a broad overview of the area, without getting bogged down in the details of particular studies or theoretical perspectives.
d. emphasize how the studies being reviewed are related to the research problem under consideration.

Essay Questions

17. Describe three benefits of conducting a thorough review of existing literature before writing a research proposal.

18. Kirby is conducting a literature review in preparation for his study of “expectations regarding the sharing of financial and practical responsibilities among married and cohabiting couples in which both partners are between the ages of 20 and 29.” Conducting a keyword search on “couples” and “responsibility,” Kirby has generated a lengthy list of research articles. He decides to shorten the list of potential articles by eliminating all articles that were not published in prestigious research journals. He will include all the remaining articles in his literature review. What is your opinion of Kirby’s approach to selecting articles for the literature review? Explain.

19. You are reading a literature review written by a novice researcher in your field. You notice that the researcher seems to have relied heavily on the World Wide Web in preparing the literature review. Your hunch is supported when you glance at the reference page and find a long list of Internet addresses. What goes through your mind regarding the quality and adequacy of the literature review in this situation?

Chapter 5

PLANNING YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. A good research plan, according to your textbook, includes:
a. specific procedures and data sources, but does not lock the researcher into an analysis plan.
b. initial procedures and key data sources, but is also open to modification as the project progresses.
c. a specific plan regarding data sources and analyses, although information regarding the specific research sample is best left open.
d. includes specific sampling plan, procedures, data sources, and analysis plan.

*2. The basic format of the quantitative research process includes (in part), in chronological order:
a. pose the question, pose a hypothesis, search the literature, collect the data.
b. clearly state the research question, collect data, review the literature, write up the
findings.
c. review the literature, identify a question, collect data, analyze data.
d. pose a hypothesis, collect data, analyze data, review the literature.

*3. When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, universality refers to the fact that:
a. the research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.
b. another researcher in the same field, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.
c. a well-designed research project could be carried out by any competent researcher; it does not rely on a specific individual.
d. the phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

*4. When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, replicability refers to the fact that:
a. the research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.
b. another researcher, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.
c. a well-designed research project could be carried out by a specific individual conducting research in the same field.
d. the phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

*5. Three of the following accurately characterize data. Which one does NOT necessarily characterize data?
a. Data may be elusive.
b. Data can be volatile.
c. Data are ever changing.
d. Data reveal truth.

**6. Charlotte, an anthropologist, has been living in an Incan village for three years. During that time Charlotte has become expert in Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers in the community. For Charlotte, observing weaving constitutes:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.
c. informal data.
d. nonempirical data.

**7. Charlotte wrote a book about her experience as an anthropologist living in an Incan village for three years and becoming an expert weaver. Her book was widely read by other anthropologists, including Mira, who is an expert in Navaho weaving. For Mira, Charlotte’s book constitutes:
a. hearsay data.
b. secondary data.
c. informal data.
d. primary data.

**8. Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning. He is left somewhat confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items. Sean’s confusion indicates a lack of ______ regarding the task.
a. construct validity
b. content validity
c. criterion validity
d. face validity

**9. A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-established measure of interpersonal sensitivity. She finds that the two instruments are highly related, which supports the ______ of the new instrument.
a. predictive validity
b. content validity
c. criterion validity
d. face validity

**10. A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism. To test out his new instrument, he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire. Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire. This is an indication of the ______ of the new instrument.
a. criterion validity
b. content validity
c. face validity
d. predictive validity

**11. Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children. Separately, they each watch a videotape of four children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session. They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly similar. This is an example of ______ reliability.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

**12. Dr. Drive is testing a 10-question measure of achievement motivation. He notes that if his respondents agree with the first question, they tend to also agree with the other nine. Likewise, if his respondents disagree with the first question, they tend of disagree with the other nine. This is an indication of good ______ reliability.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

**13. Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group in early April, then again in early May. By comparing the two sets of scores, the professor can assess the ______ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

*14. Three of the following are associated with quantitative research methods. Which one is NOT?
a. The purpose is to explain or predict.
b. It is assumed that the findings will generalize to similar others.
c. Deductive reasoning is applied to data analysis and interpretation.
d. Statistical analyses are the primary source of findings.

*15. Three of the following are associated with qualitative research methods. Which one is NOT?
a. The purpose is to describe or explain.
b. No data are gathered as part of this approach.
c. Textual data are gathered from a small number of participants.
d. The study is context bound.

*16. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the internal validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
a. Conduct the study in a controlled laboratory setting.
b. Conduct a double-blind experiment.
c. Make participants fully aware of your expected findings.
d. Build in opportunities for triangulation.

*17. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the external validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
a. Conduct the study in a real-life setting.
b. Assure that you have a representative sample.
c. Replicate the study under a variety of relevant conditions.
d. Allow flexibility in procedures and instruments.

*18. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the credibility or dependability of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
a. Spend extensive time in the field studying the phenomenon of interest.
b. Acquire rich and detailed descriptions of the phenomena being studied.
c. Exclude participants who have experiences or opinions that are very different from those of others in the study.
d. Ask participants to comment on the conclusions being drawn from the study.

*19. The requirement to keep information provided by research participants confidential applies:
a. to legal minors (children under the age of 18), but not adults.
b. only in cases where it is specifically requested by the participant.
c. to all persons under almost all conditions.
d. only in cases where participants divulge information that is potentially illegal.

*20. The altering of data is allowable:
a. when it is clear that the participant marked a response in error.
b. when the researcher suspects a participant of being careless.
c. when the researcher suspects a participant of misunderstanding the question.
d. under no circumstances.

**21. Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. Participants will be seniors in local high school history classes. She hopes to publish her findings in the History Teacher Quarterly. Does Dr. Davenport need internal review board (IRB) approval for this study?
a. Yes
b. No
c. Only if the study is accepted for publication

**22. Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. She knows there is a large research literature regarding similar influences on learning, and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of high school history students. Moreover, as a researcher she is uneasy with a lack of structure. You recommend that Dr. Davenport conduct a ______ study.
a. quantitative
b. qualitative

**23. Dr. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early adolescents come to make a connection between their personal lifestyle and environmental problems, while others don’t. Furthermore, among those who see the connection, why do some become committed to environmentalism while others do not? Dr. Greenwald looks forward to probing the thoughts of young teens on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues through “14-year-old eyes.” You recommend that Dr. Greenhill conduct a ______ study.
a. quantitative
b. qualitative

Essay Questions

24. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students. Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a qualitative approach to studying these questions. State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a qualitative research approach. Then explain why your question is better addressed using a qualitative, rather than a quantitative, methodology.

25. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students. Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a quantitative approach to studying these questions. State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a quantitative research approach. Then explain why your question is better addressed using a quantitative, rather than a qualitative, methodology.

26. Sometimes students believe that taking the time to prepare a complete and carefully designed research proposal is something to be preached, but not really practiced. Identify at least two different problems related to research design that are commonly encountered when doing research. For each problem, explain how a complete and detailed research proposal would help the researcher avoid the problem.

Chapter 6

WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. According to the textbook, the most effective research proposals:
a. are a brief outline of the study you intend to conduct without an excess of detail.
b. justify the study to be conducted by explaining how it will contribute to the professional literature.
c. are detailed and straightforward explanations of the research problem and methodology.
d. include an autobiographical section that explains how the researcher became interested in the research topic.

*2. A proposal for a quantitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
a. a statement of the problem, a review of the literature, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of how the study will be conducted.
b. a review of the literature, a statement of the problem, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of how the study will be conducted.
c. a review of the literature, a statement of the problem, a description of how the study will be conducted, an explanation of the means for collecting data.
d. a statement of the problem, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a review of the literature, a description of how the study will be conducted.

*3. A proposal for a qualitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
a. an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, a management plan, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding.
b. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, a management plan.
c. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, a management plan.
d. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, a management plan, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature.

*4. Proposals for ______ studies include a methodology section.
a. qualitative
b. quantitative
c. both quantitative and qualitative
d. neither quantitative or qualitative

*5. In ______ research proposal(s), the review of literature comes late in the document in conjunction with interpretation of data.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*6. In ______ research proposal(s), a specific research problem is clearly stated at the outset
of the proposal.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*7. In ______ research proposal(s), a specific plan for how the data will be handled is clearly laid out in the document.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*8. In ______ research proposal(s), specific hypotheses regarding findings are often stated.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*9. In regard to the style you will use for headings and subheadings in the research proposal:
a. there are no special formatting requirements unless the document is a thesis or dissertation.
b. all disciplines recognize the major formal styles, so it is a matter of personal choice.
c. the writer is free to show creativity as long as s/he is consistent throughout the document.
d. disciplines often dictate the use of specific formal styles, so you must find out what the expectations are.

*10. Experienced writers of research proposals typically:
a. plan to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
b. do not need to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
c. make revisions to the first draft of the proposal only if they are requested by a
reviewer.
d. may need to edit the first draft of the proposal for typos, but not content.

*11. When writing the proposal, you should assume that the reader:
a. will know which data analytic techniques are appropriate for your study without a detailed explanation.
b. is an expert in the area you are addressing and will be familiar with common issues, variables, instruments, etc.
c. can discern for him/herself what the importance of the study is.
d. knows nothing about the proposed project, so all the details must be thoroughly explained.

*12. When explaining how the data are to be analyzed and interpreted:
a. it is best to provide only a general plan as things will probably change over the course of the study anyway.
b. it is best to be as detailed as possible so all contingencies related to analysis and interpretation can be anticipated.
c. it is impossible to be highly detailed until one has the actual data in hand.
d. an overly specific plan may bias the analyses or interpretation, impairing the validity of the study.

*13. Research proposals that ______ are commonly judged to be of higher quality than proposals that do not.
a. favor straightforward vocabulary
b. employ complex sentence structure
c. favor a highly esoteric vocabulary
d. rely on the reader to draw inferences

*14. Three of the following are elements in the proposal revision process. Which one is NOT?
a. Reconsider the feasibility of what you are proposing to do.
b. Carefully assess the logic and organization of the information in the document.
c. Avoid breaks of 24 hours or more as the material will get too “cold” in your mind.
d. Seek feedback from knowledgeable others.

**15. The research proposal is best thought of as:
a. a general and flexible outline of how the research problem is to be investigated.
b. “Plan A,” with the expectation that “Plan B” or even “Plan C” will become necessary as the study unfolds.
c. a detailed and firm contract between the researcher and others who are involved in the research project (participants, supervisors, funding agencies, etc.)
d. a document that is written for others (internal review boards, funding agencies) and is of little value to the researcher.

Essay Questions

16. In regard to quantitative research proposals, novice researchers often find it very challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted in their study. Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section of the proposal.

17. Issues of feasibility are central to a well-planned research project. Discuss how feasibility issues come into play when deciding on the sampling plan.

18. Issues of feasibility are central to a well-planned research project. Discuss how feasibility issues come into play when choosing the measurement instruments or techniques.

19. There are unique challenges associated with conducting research on data that are already in existence (e.g., historical research). Discuss some of these unique challenges, pointing out pitfalls the researcher should be careful to avoid.

Chapter 7

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. In qualitative research the ______ is the most important instrument.
a. questionnaire
b. behavior checklist
c. researcher
d. participant

*2. In qualitative research, the fact that the research methodology may be vaguely described or very general in nature at the outset of the study indicates:
a. a normal and acceptable practice.
b. that the study is poorly designed.
c. that the researcher is inexperienced.
d. a common but unprofessional practice.

*3. Qualitative studies typically serve three of the following purposes. Which purpose do they NOT serve?
a. description of situations, processes, relationships, etc.
b. interpretation of information in order to gain new understanding
c. determining the final truth about a situation or phenomenon
d. evaluation of existing policies, practices, etc.

*4. In ______, a body of material is systematically examined for patterns, themes, or biases.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis

*5. In ______, a particular group of individuals is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. phenomenology
d. grounded theory

*6. In ______, the researcher studies the deep meaning an event or situation holds for other people.
a. phenomenology
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis
*7. In ______, a particular individual, program, or event is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. phenomenology
d. grounded theory

**8. Carl Compost has been living and working on a communal organic farm for the past six months. He wants to understand the political, environmental, and social perspectives shared by the members of the commune. Dr. Compost is probably employing a/an ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. ethnographic
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

**9. Daniel Daring is an emerging playwright whose works have begun to stir great passions in the major U.S. cities where they are staged. Researcher Eugenia Edge is “shadowing” Mr. Daring for six months in an attempt to understand the artistic process. Dr. Edge is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

**10. Helen Heartwell flew to New York City a few weeks after the September 11, 2001, bombing of the World Trade Center. She wanted to know how the victims of the attack were making sense of what had happened to them. Dr. Heartwell is probably employing a/an ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. ethnographic

**11. Richard Relic is carefully examining writings from the time of the U.S. Civil War to determine how each side characterized the position of their opponent. Dr. Relic is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

*12. The constant comparative method of data analysis is most associated with:
a. ethnography.
b. phenomenology.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis.

*13. The technique of participant observation is most associated with:
a. case study.
b. ethnography.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis.

*14. ______ is most useful in situations where current theory regarding the subject of investigation is inadequate or nonexistent.
a. Case study
b. Ethnography
c. Grounded theory
d. Phenomenology

*15. When conducting observations to be used as data in a qualitative study, it is:
a. always necessary to obtain informed consent from those being observed.
b. not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observations are being conducted in a public place.
c. not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observer is in full view of those being observed.
d. only necessary to obtain informed consent if the study will be published.

*16. If you interview two people about the same event and their stories diverge at certain points, you can conclude that:
a. at least one of the interviewees is not being fully honest with you.
b. at least one of the participants was not paying attention to what was going on.
c. they didn’t really both witness the same event.
d. the meaning people draw from an event can vary from person to person.

*17. Three of the following are techniques that strengthen the objectivity of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
a. The researcher should intentionally look for evidence that contradicts his/her hunches or hypotheses.
b. The researcher should collect two or more different kinds of data (e.g., observations and interviews).
c. The researcher should acknowledge personal biases or presumptions in the research report.
d. The researcher should rely as much as possible on a single well-informed respondent.

Essay Questions

18. A goal of qualitative research is to uncover the “multiple truths” that characterize any complex phenomenon or situation. What does the term “multiple truths” refer to in this usage?

19. A fundamental pitfall in qualitative research is to confuse the actual observations with the interpretation of the observations. Why is it important that these two things remain distinctly separate?

20. Dr. D is conducting an interview with Amber, who works as a cocktail waitress. Here is an excerpt:

Dr. D: What shift do you typically work?
Amber: Night. I come in a around 7:00 p.m. and work until 2:00 a.m.
Dr. D: Cocktail waitressing has a bad reputation. How bad is it to work here?
Amber: Not so bad. Most of our customers are pretty nice guys. They’re
regulars and they don’t drink too much and get out of control. In fact, if
one customer is giving me a hard time, another often steps in and helps out.
Dr. D: As the evening progresses, the men give you more and more problems,
don’t they? What do you do about that?
Amber: I ignore it as long as I can. I get the manager to step in if they don’t
straighten up.

Do you notice any problems with the interviewing technique of Dr. D? Describe the problems you see in the excerpts and then explain what Dr. D should do differently.

Chapter 8

HISTORICAL RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Historical research is chiefly concerned with:
a. the study of history.
b. the meaning of past events.
c. creating an accurate chronology of past events.
d. determining an “official” interpretation of a historical event.

*2. Historical research may include:
a. qualitative, but not quantitative, methods.
b. quantitative, but not qualitative, methods.
c. both qualitative and quantitative methods.
d. neither qualitative or quantitative methods.

**3. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, to her sister in Philadelphia represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.

**4. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Deloris Adams of Philadelphia, describing the life of her sister, Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.

**5. Professor McGrath is studying the history of African Americans in Oklahoma. Three of the following are primary data sources for Professor McGrath. Which one is NOT?
a. Census reports from the all-Black town of Taft
b. Photographs of Taft
c. Diaries of a school teacher in one of the first integrated schools in Taft
d. Articles from the Taft newspaper published in the late 19th century

*6. In historical research, bias:
a. generally does not exist to a problematic degree.
b. is less of a problem than in other forms of research.
c. is impossible for the researcher to detect.
d. can be used as an advantage to the researcher.

*7. In regard to bias in historical research, the researcher:
a. must be vigilant in regard to bias in secondary data, but it is not a problem with primary data.
b. must be vigilant in regard to bias in primary data, but it is not a problem with secondary data.
c. must be vigilant in regard to bias in both primary and secondary data.
d. can assume that the various biases will cancel each other out without special steps being taken by the researcher.

**8. Perry Prose is in possession of a letter allegedly written by President Theodore Roosevelt during his time in office. He has taken the letter to a number of experts, who have examined the paper, ink, handwriting, and content of the letter in an attempt to establish its authenticity. Dr. Prose is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

**9. Fran Freedom is trying to determine what the phrase “with liberty and justice for all” from the Pledge of Allegiance meant at the time it was penned. She suspects there were actually some limits on “all.” Dr. Freedom is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

**10. The information to the right is an example of:
a. ex post facto research.
b. a historiography.
c. a historic method.
d. a chronology.

*11. ______ is/are an appropriate focus of historical research.
a. Concepts
b. Ideas
c. People
d. all of the above

*12. Historical researchers can count on authoritative sources such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronology or the Cambridge Ancient History as accurate and complete accounts of history.
a. True
b. False

*13. In writing a historical research report, it is best to:
a. avoid mentioning alternative interpretations of events proposed by other scholars.
b. leave most of the interpretation of data to the reader rather than impose your own
point of view.
c. point out the weaknesses in the arguments or assertions you are making.
d. discuss the weaknesses, but not the strengths, of arguments put forth by other
scholars.

*14. A historical research report may differ from other research reports in that presentation of data and interpretation of data:
a. are confined to separate sections of the paper.
b. may not be included.
c. may be intertwined in a technical style of scientific writing.
d. may be intertwined in a flowing narrative style.

Essay Questions

15. One of the most challenging aspects of conducting historical research is systematically organizing the hundreds or thousands of notes that are collected in the course of the research project. Describe one method for handling this organizational challenge, including mention of both the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

16. Conducting rigorous historical research involves more than reading historical documents, taking notes, and organizing those notes. Explain.

17. The authors recommend that chronological data be arrayed in a time line as part of the interpretative process. What type of information can be revealed by this technique?

18. The authors recommend that chronological data be plotted on a map as part of the interpretative process. What type of information can be revealed by this technique?

Chapter 9

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Observational research, as a form of descriptive research,
a. focuses on rich narrative description of the phenomenon of interest.
b. involves counting or rating of behavior in as objective a manner as possible.
c. relies on open-ended techniques that can respond to the evolving situation.
d. allows the researcher to gather behavioral data in a relatively quick and easy
manner.

*2. Three of the following procedures or techniques are integral to observational research. Which one is NOT?
a. Pilot studies are used to test instruments and procedures.
b. Observers are carefully trained to follow specific criteria when recording the
observation data.
c. Multiple observers may independently rate the same behavior.
d. Observation instruments are intentionally general so as not to constrain the
observer.

*3. Correlational research allows the researcher to answer questions such as:
a. what is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B?
b. does change in Variable A cause change in Variable B?
c. is there a significant difference between scores on Variable A and scores on Variable B?
d. does change in Variable B causes change in Variable A?

**4. The scatterplot to the right indicates a ______ relationship between Variable A and Variable B.
a. weak
b. moderate
c. strong
d. indeterminate

**5. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in people’s preference for action movies. The researcher locates 50 people at each of the following ages: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 years. She asks them to rate their preference for action movies in relation to other sorts of movies. This is an example of a ______ design.
a. longitudinal
b. nested
c. cross-sectional
d. panel

**6. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in the music people prefer to listen to. The researcher locates 50 people who are about 20 years old. She sends these people a questionnaire every year for the next 10 years asking about the types of music they prefer to listen to. This is an example of a ______ design.
a. longitudinal
b. nested
c. cross-sectional
d. panel

*7. Among survey methods, _____ generally generate the highest response rate, and ______ generally generate the lowest response rate.
a. face-to-face interviews; telephone interviews
b. telephone interviews; questionnaires
c. face-to-face interviews; questionnaires
d. questionnaires; telephone interviews

*8. Advantages of questionnaires include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. large numbers of people can be contacted for a relatively low cost.
b. data can be gathered from a large number of people in a relatively short period of
time.
c. participants may feel more confident about their anonymity and therefore respond more honestly.
d. because questions are in written form, they are less likely to be misunderstood by respondents.

*9. Regarding the length of questionnaires to be used in survey research, which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. Including a large number of items on the survey assures that you will get useful data for all of your trouble.
b. Keeping the survey short makes it more likely people will be willing to complete it.
c. A relatively lengthy survey communicates your seriousness about the research endeavor so people will be more willing to complete it.
d. Shorter surveys produce data that are ambiguous and therefore not useful.

**10. “How unhappy are you with your current salary?”
This question violates which rule of good survey writing?
a. It is not quantifiable.
b. It makes an unwarranted assumption.
c. It fails to keep the respondent’s task simple.
d. It uses technical language that may not be known to all.

*11. The typical return rate for a survey mailed to strangers is about:
a. 80%
b. 65%
c. 50%
d. 35%

*12. In descriptive research, the researcher typically studies a______, then draws conclusions about the______.
a. sample; population
b. population; sample
c. sample; sample
d. population; population

**13. Polly Petunia is Chief Horticulturalist for the Southwest region, encompassing Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. She wants to survey amateur gardeners in her region to determine what, if any, water conservation practices they employ in their home gardening. Polly sends her survey to 150 randomly selected gardeners in each state. Polly is using:
a. purposive sampling.
b. proportional stratified sampling.
c. systematic sampling.
d. stratified random sampling.

**14. Paul Pollster, a political psychologist, wants to determine whether rates of voter participation in his home state vary between rural, urban, and suburban voters. He notes that there are more rural voters than suburban or urban voters in the state. Paul should use ______ in this study.
a. simple random sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. proportional stratified sampling
d. systematic sampling

**15. Simon Cinema wants to know what the audience thought of tonight’s advanced screening of a heralded psychological thriller called “I Can’t Sleep.” He and his research assistants stand outside the theatre exit and ask every fifth person leaving the theatre to answer several questions about their impression of the movie. Simon is using:
a. systematic sampling.
b. stratified random sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. purposive sampling.

**16. Danny Drive wants to know the relationship between intrinsic motivation and course grade among math students. He contacts a local professor who teaches several general education math classes and asks about the possibility of gathering data in her classes. Danny is using:
a. simple random sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. systematic sampling

**17. Edward Ethics is studying public opinion regarding prayer in public schools. He plans to gather survey data from a number of churches on Sunday mornings. He also wants to include a number of people who are not associated with an organized religion in his sample. Edward is using:
a. stratified random sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. purposive sampling.

Essay Questions

18. Your chapter identifies several weaknesses related to survey data. Note one of these weaknesses and discuss the associated problems and possible ways to minimize them.

19. In writing the cover letter to accompany a mailed survey, novice researchers often stress the immediacy of their need for the data. Is this the best approach to take in the cover letter? If not, what do you recommend instead?

20. The authors of your textbook suggest that sampling bias is virtually unavoidable and that it is important to disclose and discuss possible sources of bias in the study report. Do you agree? Explain your position.

Chapter 10

EXPERIMENTAL AND EX POST FACTO DESIGNS

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Experimental research differs from descriptive research in that it:
a. is less sensitive to sampling bias.
b. employs statistical analyses.
c. attempts to determine causality.
d. is conducted in a laboratory.

*2. In experimental design, the variable that is manipulated is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

*3. In experimental design, the variable that reflects the outcome of the treatment is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**4. “There will be gender differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy.”
In this hypothesis, gender is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**5. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
In this hypothesis, mood elevation is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**6. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
In this hypothesis, type of therapy is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. confounding variable.
c. independent variable.
d. constant.

**7. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
During a test of this hypothesis, it was discovered that some of the participants lived with family members and others lived alone. This variable, living situation, is a/an _____.
a. independent variable.
b. dependent variable.
c. constant.
d. confounding variable.

**8. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of the semester, all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the traditional method constitute the:
a. placebo group.
b. treatment group.
c. sample.
d. control group.

**9. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of semester all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the problem-based method constitute the:
a. placebo group.
b. treatment group.
c. sample.
d. control group.

**10. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method for Unit 1 of the course. Then all sections switch instructional method for Unit 2. He plans to compare the performance of the two groups of sections on their Unit 1 and Unit 2 exams. This study employs a ______ design.
a. within subjects (repeated measures)
b. quasi-experimental
c. true experimental
d. ex post facto

**11. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for many years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the dependent variable.
a. Doggie Do-Right
b. type of dog training program
c. score on the dog obedience checklist
d. obedience training versus no training

**12. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the independent variable.
a. Doggie Do-Right
b. type of dog training program
c. score on the dog obedience checklist
d. obedience training versus no training

**13. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). This study employed a/an ______ design.
a. one-shot experimental
b. ex post facto
c. posttest-only control group design
d. within subjects

**14. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the independent variable.
a. score on the “attitude toward public schools” measure
b. experience with Indian boarding school
c. gender of participant
d. age of participant

**15. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the dependent variable.
a. score on the “attitude toward public schools” measure
b. experience with Indian boarding school
c. gender of participant
d. age of participant

**16. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. This study employs a/an ______ design.
a. pre-experimental
b. factorial
c. true experimental
d. ex post facto

*17. Three of the following are examples of true experimental designs. Which one is NOT?
a. Multiple baseline design
b. Solomon four-group design
c. Within subjects design
d. Pretest–posttest control group design

*18. Three of the following are examples of quasi-experimental designs. Which one is NOT?
a. Nonrandomized pretest–posttest control group design
b. Control group time-series design
c. Single-subjects design
d. One-shot experimental design

*19. A meta-analysis is used when:
a. the researcher wishes to analyze the analyses of a number of existing studies.
b. there is little existing literature to use as a launching pad for a new study.
c. the researcher has no access to sophisticated statistical techniques.
d. several researchers jointly conduct a large-scale study.

Essay Questions

20. A researcher is studying the effectiveness of two different resident adolescent drug treatment programs. Program A is used at Summerhill adolescent facility. Program B is used at Winterdale adolescent facility. Because random assignment to treatments is not possible in this situation, what can the researcher do to minimize possible effects of sample bias?

21. Factorial designs allow researchers to study the effects of more than one independent variable simultaneously. Why is this advantageous? What information can factorial designs yield that nonfactorial designs cannot?

Chapter 11

STRATEGIES FOR ANALYZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. How are inferential statistics different from descriptive statistics?
a. Descriptive statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.
b. Descriptive statistics verify the accuracy of the inferential statistics.
c. Inferential statistics describe the results of a study.
d. Inferential statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.

*2. ____ are characteristics of samples, wheras _______ are characteristics of populations.
a. Concepts; statistics
b. Parameters; statistics
c. Statistics; parameters
d. Parameters; estimations

*3. In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores falls between one standard deviation below the mean and one standard deviation above the mean?
a. 16%
b. 50%
c. 68%
d. 90%

*4. Dorothy has been surveying the Munchkins to determine their level of life satisfaction. The possible scores on the life satisfaction questionnaire range from 0 to 100. If Dorothy decides to statistically compare the male and female Munchkins on their level of satisfaction, she should use a _______ test.
a. parametric
b. nonparametric

**5. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mean of this set of scores is ______.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 4.25
d. 4.5

**6. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The median of this set of scores is ______.
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 4.5
**7. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mode of this set of scores is ______.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 4.22
d. 4.5

*8. The measure(s) of central tendency that is/are appropriate for use with nominal data is/are:
a. the median only.
b. the mode only.
c. the median and the mean.
d. the median and the mode.

*9. When summarizing ordinal data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.
a. arithmetic mean
b. mode
c. median
d. geometric mean

*10. When reporting growth data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.
a. arithmetic mean
b. mode
c. median
d. geometric mean

*11. When the ____ is the measure of central tendency, the _____ is the most appropriate and informative measure of dispersion.
a. median; standard deviation
b. median; interquartile range
c. mean; interquartile range
d. mean; range

**12. An exam was given to two sections of the same course. In Section 1, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 7. In Section 2, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 13. Which of the following conclusions is accurate?
a. Section 1 did better on the exam than Section 2.
b. Section 1 scores were more variable than Section 2.
c. Section 1 scores were less variable than Section 2.
d. Section 1 did less well on the exam than Section 2.

*13. The z-score, or standard score, allows the research to determine:
a. how far a target individual’s score is from the group mean.
b. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored above the target individual.
c. the mean for the population based on the mean for the sample.
d. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual.
*14. The percentile rank allows the researcher to determine:
a. how far a target individual’s score is from the group mean.
b. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored above the target individual.
c. the mean for the population based on the mean for the sample.
d. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual.

**15. Danzell is a purchasing agent for a major grocery store chain. He has noticed over the years that the higher the outdoor temperature, the more likely people are to buy fresh fruit. Based on Danzell’s observations, we would say there is ______ relationship between outdoor temperature and buying of fresh fruit.
a. a positive
b. a negative
c. a causal
d. no

**16. Frank Fitness found a correlation coefficient of –.74 between hours of strenuous exercise each week and a standard measure of body mass. He interprets this to mean that there is a ______ and ______ relationship between hours of strenuous exercise and body mass.
a. strong; positive
b. strong; negative
c. weak; positive
d. weak; negative

*17. Three of the following factors are associated with a relatively small standard error of the mean. Which one is NOT?
a. Sample size is relatively large.
b. Sample standard deviation is relatively small.
c. The variance in the sample is relatively large.
d. The sample is highly representative of the population.

**18. Seamus has determined that there is a 95% chance that the number of people visiting the Blarney Stone in the month of June will be between 1,760 and 2,025. This is a/an ______ estimate.
a. point
b. interval

*19. Statistical hypothesis testing involves testing the:
a. research hypothesis.
b. probability level.
c. significance level.
d. null hypothesis.

**20. On the basis of statistical findings, Ron determines that the differences between males and females on a test of spatial reasoning are not due merely to chance. If, in fact, there are no gender differences in the population, Ron will have made a:
a. Type I error.
b. Type II error.

**21. On the basis of statistical findings, Becky determines that the difference between males and females on a test of abstract mathematical reasoning is merely due to chance. If, in fact, there are gender differences in the population, Becky will have made a:
a. Type I error.
b. Type II error.

Essay Questions

22. A medical researcher is concerned about mistakenly concluding that a new medication is effective when it really is not. What type of error is the researcher concerned about making (Type I or Type II)? Describe what the researcher might do to decrease the likelihood of making that type of error. Discuss ramifications of your suggested approach for other types of error in the study.

23. Note several steps researchers can take to optimize the power of their statistical tests.

24. After completing planned analyses, the researcher must interpret the results of statistical tests. Note several steps that are involved in such interpretation.

Chapter 12

TECHNICAL DETAILS: STYLE, FORMAT, AND ORGANIZATION
OF THE RESEARCH REPORT

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. When writing the research report, the findings of statistical analyses are typically reported in the ______ section.
a. review of literature
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*2. When writing the research report, the descriptions of instruments used for data gathering are typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*3. When writing the research report, the interpretation of study findings is typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*4. When writing the research report, the research problem is typically described in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. review of literature
c. method
d. results

*5. When writing the research report, information regarding the study design is typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. review of literature
c. method
d. results

*6. The reference list is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*7. Copies of the survey instruments are included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*8. The abstract is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*9. In a quantitative study, the description of participants (subjects) is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. method section.

*10. The acknowledgments are included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

**11. “Johnson eliminated three interviews from the data set due to noncompliance on the part of the respondents.”
This sentence is an example of:
a. active voice.
b. passive voice.

**12. “The third subscale was dropped from further consideration due to problems with internal consistency.”
This sentence is an example of:
a. active voice.
b. passive voice.

*13. The style manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that ____ tense be used when writing the method section and ______ tense be used when presenting conclusions.
a. present; present
b. past; past
c. present; past
d. past; present

Essay Questions

14. Throughout your textbook the authors return to the importance of interpreting the findings of a research project. Explain why this is an essential element in a high-quality research report.

15. Imagine that you just completed a research project in which the data failed to support your chief hypothesis. Why might this have happened? Discuss several possibilities.

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Chapter 1 Through 12
Chapter 1

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. To be considered true research, a project must:
a. gather together a body of existing information and communicate it in a clear and
concise way.
b. uncover obscure or esoteric information and bring it to the consideration of the broader research community.
c. gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some phenomenon.
d. produce definitive conclusions regarding the subject of study.

**2. Which of the following examples illustrates research the way it is defined in your textbook?
a. Sally is writing a paper about the effects of the Harry Potter books on the reading habits of fourth graders in the United States and United Kingdom. She goes to a research library to find information to include in her paper.
b. Ian wants to know why the population of songbirds has declined in recent years in the Sutton Wilderness Area. He carefully collects soil and water samples, systematically surveys the entire area for predators, and then sits down to make sense of his findings.
c. Leonard is starting a woodworking business and is not sure how to calculate the cost of his labor so he can be both profitable and fair to the customers. He asks several established business owners how they calculate labor changes.
d. Bill is doing a report on the sonnets of Shakespeare. He carefully reads a number of sonnets and then carefully reads scholarly reviews of those same sonnets written by various Shakespeare scholars. He synthesizes all of this information in his report.

*3. Which of the following is defined as an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon?
a. Theory
b. Inference
c. Hypothesis
d. Interpretation

*4. Which of the following is defined as a reasonable guess, or a logical supposition, for explaining the phenomenon under investigation?
a. Theory
b. Inference
c. Hypothesis
d. Interpretation
*5. The process of formal research begins with the identification of:
a. research hypotheses.
b. a feasible research plan.
c. available participants.
d. a research problem.

*6. The purpose of formal research is to:
a. prove or disprove the study hypotheses.
b. support or fail to support the study hypotheses.
c. identify alternative hypotheses.
d. move beyond the need for hypotheses.

*7. Assumptions come into play:
a. in regard to nearly every aspect of every research study.
b. in qualitative research but not in quantitative research.
c. when research is not well thought out.
d. rarely, if ever.

*8. Well-designed research manages to minimize or avoid:
a. assumptions.
b. predictions.
c. theory.
d. bias.

*9. Researchers ______ their phenomenon of interest on the basis of data analysis.
a. make inferences about
b. know facts about
c. define
d. identify

*10. A primary function of the methodology is to:
a. guide and control the acquisition of data.
b. extract meaning from the data that have been gathered.
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b

*11. Three of the following come into play as the researcher analyzes the data. Which one does NOT?
a. The study hypothesis/hypotheses
b. Preferences for certain outcomes
c. The logical reasoning process
d. Assumptions

*12. A well-designed and well-conducted study:
a. answers questions of importance in the field.
b. raises questions of importance to the field.
c. answers some questions and raises other questions.

*13. Reading the professional literature in the field of interest:
a. will enhance an individual’s ability to design and conduct high-quality research.
b. will stifle creativity and constrain the individual to the status quo.
c. will make little difference to the quality and impact of the individual’s work.
d. is necessary only for the leaders in the field.

*14. One indication that a piece of information is of high quality is that the information:
a. is found on the Internet.
b. is found in a juried (or refereed) research report.
c. resulted from a project that received corporate funding.
d. is the firsthand account of a personal experience.

Essay Questions

15. Your chapter states: “Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical.” Explain why “cyclical” is an appropriate description of the research process. Then explain why “helical” is a better description.

16. Describe an example of the word research being used inappropriately. Be clear about how your example deviates from the definition of research offered in the chapter.

17. Graduate professors like to insist that the completion of thesis or dissertation research is not merely an “academic exercise” or final hurdle to obtaining the desired degree. Explain at least one personal benefit that the individual derives from completing a high- quality thesis or dissertation. Then explain at least one societal benefit that follows from the individual’s completion of a high-quality thesis or dissertation.

18. In the most rigorous tests of hypotheses, the researcher sets out to fail to support the hypothesis. Why is the attempt to fail to support a more rigorous test of the hypothesis than an attempt to support it?

Chapter 2

TOOLS OF RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. A ______ is a specific mechanism or strategy the researcher uses to collect,
manipulate, or interpret data.
a. research tool
b. research methodology
c. statistical test
d. theory

*2. Research methodology refers to:
a. the general approach the researcher takes to conducting a research project.
b. a specific device the researcher uses to collect data.
c. the specific theoretical basis of the research project.
d. the statistical tests to be employed in a research project.

**3. Sam wants to find high-quality research reports related to attribution theory that have been published in professional journals. Sam’s best approach would be to:
a. consult the library catalog.
b. consult an online or electronic database.
c. search the World Wide Web.
d. browse the shelves in the library.

**4. Sonya is a college freshman who has just been assigned her first research paper, and she doesn’t know how to get started finding information. Sonya should:
a. search the World Wide Web.
b. consult an online or electronic database.
c. consult a reference librarian.
d. browse the shelves in the library.

*5. ______ allows a researcher to receive news in an area of special interest and discuss that news with others.
a. A search engine
b. E-mail
c. A list server
d. A Web browser

*6. ______ allows researchers to personally correspond practically instantly with other users around the world.
a. A search engine
b. E-mail
c. A list server
d. A Web browser

**7. John wants to begin using e-mail. Which of the following steps is NOT necessary for John to get started as an email user?
a. Request an e-mail account
b. Obtain necessary software from the e-mail provider and load it onto a computer
c. Learn to use a Web browser to explore the Internet
d. Learn how to access and use the e-mail provider’s services

*8. Three of the following statements about measurement in the research setting are accurate. Which one is NOT accurate?
a. The purpose of measurement is to systematically limit the data in a way that makes it quantifiable.
b. Measurement is applied by researchers only to insubstantial phenomena.
c. Measurement is a tool that aids researchers in interpreting their observations.
d. Systematic measurement assists researchers in obtaining objectivity in their researcher.

*9. An ordinal scale of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. is tied to an absolute zero.
c. incorporates equal units of measurement.
d. communicates greater than and less than relationships.

*10. An interval level of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. communicates rank-order information.
c. incorporates equal units of measurement.
d. is tied to an absolute zero.

*11. A ratio scale of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. communicates rank-order information.
c. is especially appropriate for opinion data.
d. is tied to an absolute zero.

**12. The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is that only one of them:
a. includes an absolute zero.
b. uses equal units of measurement.
c. supports the use of statistical analyses.
d. is used in research with human subjects.
**13. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report how politically conservative they are. It includes a 7-point scale where 1 is “not at all conservative” and 7 is “extremely conservative.” This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**14. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their highest level of education by choosing from these options: “some high school,” “completed high school,” “some college,” or “completed 4-year college degree.” This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**15. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their age in years. This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**16. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report whether they are currently living in an “urban,” “suburban,” or “rural” setting. This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

*17. ______ refers to whether a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure.
a. Validity
b. Reliability
c. Accountability
d. Robustness

*18. ______ refers to how consistently a measurement tool will yield the same result when the phenomenon under investigation does not change.
a. Validity
b. Reliability
c. Replicability
d. Dependability

**19. Kade has spent the past month carefully observing a group of third graders on the playground during recess, taking note of how the students interact with one another. On the basis of these observations, Kade is drawing conclusions about the interaction styles of boys and girls. This is an example of:
a. hypothetical logic.
b. deductive logic.
c. inductive logic.
d. propositional logic.

**20. Kimberly knows that teenagers often do not make good decisions in areas where they have little knowledge. She also knows that most teens have little knowledge about human sexuality. Therefore, Kimberly believes that teens are likely to make poor decisions about sexual activity. This is an example of:
a. inductive logic.
b. propositional logic.
c. transductive logic.
d. deductive logic.

Essay Questions

21. In your opinion, what is the one greatest advantage to society of the information revolution? What is the one greatest disadvantage? Support your answer.

22. Near the end of Chapter 2 the authors of your textbook include a relatively lengthy section on writing the research report. Why is it important that research results are carefully written up and made available to the scientific community?

23. Do recent technological advances (e.g., the World Wide Web, electronic databases) assure that future research will be of higher quality, or of greater utility, than past research? Support your answer.

Chapter 3

THE PROBLEM: THE HEART OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Research problems, as defined in your textbook:
a. are identified by experts in the field, and not typically knowable by novices.
b. clearly and completely specify important questions that are currently unanswered in a particular field of inquiry.
c. are broad, general statements about the incomplete state of understanding in a particular field of inquiry.
d. can be addressed by compiling and synthesizing existing information in a way that sheds light on the issue of interest.

*2. Basic research is:
a. research intended to enhance basic knowledge about the physical, biological, psychological, or social world or to shed light on historical, cultural, or aesthetic phenomena.
b. large scale research performed under contract with a governmental agency such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), etc.
c. informal research conducted locally by a small staff with a small budget, the purpose of which is to pave the way for larger research initiatives.
d. research intended to address issues that have immediate relevance to current practices, procedures, and policies.

*3. Applied research is:
a. research intended to enhance basic knowledge about the physical, biological, psychological, or social world or to shed light on historical, cultural, or aesthetic phenomena.
b. large-scale research performed under contract with a governmental agency such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), etc.
c. informal research conducted by a small staff with a small budget, the purpose of which is to shed light on a problem of local interest.
d. research intended to address issues that have immediate relevance to current practices, procedures, and policies.

**4. Which of the following represents a well-written basic research problem?
a. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
d. “What is the ratio of native-born students to international students on the campuses of major U.S. state universities?”

**5. Which of the following represents a well-written applied research problem?
a. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”
d. “What is the ratio of native-born students to international students on the campuses of major U.S. state universities?”

**6. Three of the following questions lend themselves well to formal research. Which one does NOT?
a. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “Does message medium, print versus television, impact the effectiveness of public service health messages?”
d. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”

*7. Three of the following are characteristics of a well-written research problem. Which one is NOT?
a. The problem statement includes jargon associated with the field.
b. The problem statement clearly delimits the object(s) of study.
c. The problem statement identifies the important factors to be investigated in the study.
d. The problem statement explicitly identifies assumptions.

*8. A common weakness of research problems is that they:
a. delimit the object(s) of study.
b. constrain the variables to be investigated.
c. implicitly rest on common assumptions.
d. incorporate a number of subproblems.

**9. “What proportion of workers hired by selected factories in the state of Oklahoma between 1995 and 2000 held four-year college degrees?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
b. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
c. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**10. “What do underemployed U.S. workers (i.e., those workers who are employed, but not in positions for which they have specialized training or expertise) identify as the primary reason for their inability to find suitable employment?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
b. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
c. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**11. “What is the correlation between an index of civic-mindedness and years of involvement in local organizations and charities among members of city councils of selected midsized cities in the northeastern United States?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
b. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
c. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**12. “Among social workers in selected U.S. urban areas, are the personality characteristics of Need for Structure or In-Group Preference related to prejudicial social judgments about African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans?”
Which of the following is a well-stated subproblem that follows from this research problem?
a. Which group is more discriminated against by the public at large in each of the selected areas: African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans?
b. What is the most valid existing measure of In-Group Preference?
c. What is the relationship between an index of Need for Structure and an index of prejudice targeting attitudes about Asian Americans among the selected social workers?
d. Which analytic technique is best suited to addressing the research problem, multiple regression or path analysis?

*13. In regard to research questions and hypotheses, a high-quality research study will:
a. articulate only research questions, not hypotheses, so as not to constrain the possible findings.
b. articulate only hypotheses, not research questions, in order to preserve the scientific rigor of the investigation.
c. focus only on those questions that can support the correctness of current hypotheses or theoretical positions.
d. articulate either research questions or hypotheses depending on the nature of the study.

**14. Which of the following represents a null hypothesis?
a. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.
b. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.
c. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?
d. None of the above

**15. Which of the following represents a research hypothesis?
a. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.
b. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.
c. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?
d. None of the above

*16. The recommended order of tasks in preparing a research proposal is:
a. state the problem and subproblems, note the assumptions, note the delimitations, define the terms, note the research questions/hypotheses.
b. state the problem and subproblems, note the delimitations, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the assumptions, define the terms.
c. state the problem and subproblems, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the assumptions, define the terms, note the delimitations.
d. state the problem and subproblems, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the delimitations, define the terms, note the assumptions.

*17. Three of the following comprise the setting of the research problem. Which one does NOT?
a. A clear description of all measurement tools to be used in the research project
b. A clear statement of what the researcher will and will not do in the course of the study
c. A clear statement of the assumptions on which the research problem rests
d. A clear definition of all terms related to the research problem that might be misunderstood by a reader

Essay Questions

18. Why is it important that the researcher articulate, as clearly as possible, all assumptions that affect the research problem?

19. Your textbook authors recommend explicitly defining any term that might be misunderstood by someone reading the research proposal. If the research proposal is being written chiefly for use and review by researchers, why is such a step necessary?

20. Daphne has been a member of a research team studying interpersonal aggression among preschoolers for more than a year. In that time, her team has repeatedly employed a consistent set of techniques and procedures to study preschoolers as they interact in a number of settings. The procedures revolve around volunteer mothers bringing their children to the university child development lab for a “play session” that is the basis of the formal observations. Settings they have studied so far include: the university pre-school, affluent local day-care centers, and a pre-kindergarten program being offered in the neighborhood school district. All of these settings were fairly racially homogenous.

Daphne has just learned that a friend of a friend can help her gain research access, in the near future, to preschoolers in an unusually racially diverse though impoverished preschool setting. Daphne decides she has no time to prepare a formal research proposal before embarking on the study. “Besides,” she thinks, “this study should go just like all the others we’ve done.”

Is Daphne leaving herself open to problems in this situation, or is she safe moving ahead with no formal proposal, given how familiar she is with the study techniques and procedures?

Chapter 4

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Generally speaking, the best time to begin the literature review associated with a specific research project is:
a. after the research problem has been clearly articulated.
b. after the data have been collected, but before they are analyzed.
c. based on personal preference; there is no single best time.
d. before or during the formulation of the research problem.

*2. If you want to find information about books available in your local library, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the World Wide Web

*3. If you want to conduct a keyword or author search of research reports published in professional journals, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the World Wide Web

*4. If you want to find statistics on health care spending broken down by state, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the reference lists of important papers in your area

**5. If an important reference you want to include in your literature review is checked out to another library patron, you might:
a. obtain it through interlibrary loan.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. decide to make do without it.

**6. If an important recent research article that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, you might:
a. cite it anyway for the benefit of the reader.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. decide to make do without it.

**7. If an important book that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, your best move would probably be to:
a. obtain it through interlibrary loan.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. cite it anyway for the benefit of the reader.

*8. ______ is an example of a search engine.
a. Altavista
b. Books in Print
c. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)
d. Humanities Index

*9. ______ is an example of an electronic database.
a. Altavista
b. Books in Print
c. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)
d. Humanities Index

**10. Jane wants to search for information about the variety of attention disorders that are seen in childhood. Which of the following sets of keywords would best get Jane started on an effective and efficient search?
a. “attention disorders”
b. “ADHD,” “ADD,” and “children”
c. “disorders” and “children”
d. “attention disorders” and “children”

*11. If a researcher has completed a thorough search of the World Wide Web:
a. the literature search can be concluded.
b. it may also be fruitful to search an electronic database.
c. it may also be fruitful to search the Internet.
d. he/she will find largely redundant information on an electronic database.

*12. The main purpose of the review of the literature is to:
a. acknowledge the work of others by listing their findings prior to proposing your own project.
b. show how your study is superior to other work done in the area.
c. publicly demonstrate your mastery of the research literature in your area.
d. show how your study is related to, and extends, other work in the area.

*13. A well-structured literature review:
a. contains highly detailed descriptions of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.
b. begins with those studies most closely related to the research problem, then opens up to a broader perspective.
c. begins with broad/general information, then narrows the focus to those studies most closely related to the research problem.
d. contains general summaries of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.

*14. The review of the literature can be curtailed when:
a. you are no longer encountering new ideas or information.
b. all of the work done by top researchers in the area has been reviewed.
c. all published work related to a topic has been reviewed.
d. two to four weeks have been devoted to the search.

*15. A well-written literature review:
a. avoids evaluation or critique of the literature reviewed, so as not to bias the opinion of the reader.
b. emphasizes critique and synthesis of the work of others that is related to your own research problem.
c. avoids summarizing the work of others so that details of the original work are not lost in the reviewing process.
d. emphasizes detailed reporting of each piece of research included in the literature review.

*16. Typically, the literature review should:
a. include few or no works more than five years old to avoid having the work become prematurely obsolete.
b. be limited to work coming out of the very best labs and universities in the country.
c. give a broad overview of the area, without getting bogged down in the details of particular studies or theoretical perspectives.
d. emphasize how the studies being reviewed are related to the research problem under consideration.

Essay Questions

17. Describe three benefits of conducting a thorough review of existing literature before writing a research proposal.

18. Kirby is conducting a literature review in preparation for his study of “expectations regarding the sharing of financial and practical responsibilities among married and cohabiting couples in which both partners are between the ages of 20 and 29.” Conducting a keyword search on “couples” and “responsibility,” Kirby has generated a lengthy list of research articles. He decides to shorten the list of potential articles by eliminating all articles that were not published in prestigious research journals. He will include all the remaining articles in his literature review. What is your opinion of Kirby’s approach to selecting articles for the literature review? Explain.

19. You are reading a literature review written by a novice researcher in your field. You notice that the researcher seems to have relied heavily on the World Wide Web in preparing the literature review. Your hunch is supported when you glance at the reference page and find a long list of Internet addresses. What goes through your mind regarding the quality and adequacy of the literature review in this situation?

Chapter 5

PLANNING YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. A good research plan, according to your textbook, includes:
a. specific procedures and data sources, but does not lock the researcher into an analysis plan.
b. initial procedures and key data sources, but is also open to modification as the project progresses.
c. a specific plan regarding data sources and analyses, although information regarding the specific research sample is best left open.
d. includes specific sampling plan, procedures, data sources, and analysis plan.

*2. The basic format of the quantitative research process includes (in part), in chronological order:
a. pose the question, pose a hypothesis, search the literature, collect the data.
b. clearly state the research question, collect data, review the literature, write up the
findings.
c. review the literature, identify a question, collect data, analyze data.
d. pose a hypothesis, collect data, analyze data, review the literature.

*3. When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, universality refers to the fact that:
a. the research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.
b. another researcher in the same field, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.
c. a well-designed research project could be carried out by any competent researcher; it does not rely on a specific individual.
d. the phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

*4. When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, replicability refers to the fact that:
a. the research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.
b. another researcher, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.
c. a well-designed research project could be carried out by a specific individual conducting research in the same field.
d. the phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

*5. Three of the following accurately characterize data. Which one does NOT necessarily characterize data?
a. Data may be elusive.
b. Data can be volatile.
c. Data are ever changing.
d. Data reveal truth.

**6. Charlotte, an anthropologist, has been living in an Incan village for three years. During that time Charlotte has become expert in Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers in the community. For Charlotte, observing weaving constitutes:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.
c. informal data.
d. nonempirical data.

**7. Charlotte wrote a book about her experience as an anthropologist living in an Incan village for three years and becoming an expert weaver. Her book was widely read by other anthropologists, including Mira, who is an expert in Navaho weaving. For Mira, Charlotte’s book constitutes:
a. hearsay data.
b. secondary data.
c. informal data.
d. primary data.

**8. Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning. He is left somewhat confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items. Sean’s confusion indicates a lack of ______ regarding the task.
a. construct validity
b. content validity
c. criterion validity
d. face validity

**9. A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-established measure of interpersonal sensitivity. She finds that the two instruments are highly related, which supports the ______ of the new instrument.
a. predictive validity
b. content validity
c. criterion validity
d. face validity

**10. A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism. To test out his new instrument, he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire. Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire. This is an indication of the ______ of the new instrument.
a. criterion validity
b. content validity
c. face validity
d. predictive validity

**11. Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children. Separately, they each watch a videotape of four children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session. They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly similar. This is an example of ______ reliability.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

**12. Dr. Drive is testing a 10-question measure of achievement motivation. He notes that if his respondents agree with the first question, they tend to also agree with the other nine. Likewise, if his respondents disagree with the first question, they tend of disagree with the other nine. This is an indication of good ______ reliability.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

**13. Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group in early April, then again in early May. By comparing the two sets of scores, the professor can assess the ______ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

*14. Three of the following are associated with quantitative research methods. Which one is NOT?
a. The purpose is to explain or predict.
b. It is assumed that the findings will generalize to similar others.
c. Deductive reasoning is applied to data analysis and interpretation.
d. Statistical analyses are the primary source of findings.

*15. Three of the following are associated with qualitative research methods. Which one is NOT?
a. The purpose is to describe or explain.
b. No data are gathered as part of this approach.
c. Textual data are gathered from a small number of participants.
d. The study is context bound.

*16. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the internal validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
a. Conduct the study in a controlled laboratory setting.
b. Conduct a double-blind experiment.
c. Make participants fully aware of your expected findings.
d. Build in opportunities for triangulation.

*17. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the external validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
a. Conduct the study in a real-life setting.
b. Assure that you have a representative sample.
c. Replicate the study under a variety of relevant conditions.
d. Allow flexibility in procedures and instruments.

*18. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the credibility or dependability of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
a. Spend extensive time in the field studying the phenomenon of interest.
b. Acquire rich and detailed descriptions of the phenomena being studied.
c. Exclude participants who have experiences or opinions that are very different from those of others in the study.
d. Ask participants to comment on the conclusions being drawn from the study.

*19. The requirement to keep information provided by research participants confidential applies:
a. to legal minors (children under the age of 18), but not adults.
b. only in cases where it is specifically requested by the participant.
c. to all persons under almost all conditions.
d. only in cases where participants divulge information that is potentially illegal.

*20. The altering of data is allowable:
a. when it is clear that the participant marked a response in error.
b. when the researcher suspects a participant of being careless.
c. when the researcher suspects a participant of misunderstanding the question.
d. under no circumstances.

**21. Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. Participants will be seniors in local high school history classes. She hopes to publish her findings in the History Teacher Quarterly. Does Dr. Davenport need internal review board (IRB) approval for this study?
a. Yes
b. No
c. Only if the study is accepted for publication

**22. Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. She knows there is a large research literature regarding similar influences on learning, and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of high school history students. Moreover, as a researcher she is uneasy with a lack of structure. You recommend that Dr. Davenport conduct a ______ study.
a. quantitative
b. qualitative

**23. Dr. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early adolescents come to make a connection between their personal lifestyle and environmental problems, while others don’t. Furthermore, among those who see the connection, why do some become committed to environmentalism while others do not? Dr. Greenwald looks forward to probing the thoughts of young teens on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues through “14-year-old eyes.” You recommend that Dr. Greenhill conduct a ______ study.
a. quantitative
b. qualitative

Essay Questions

24. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students. Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a qualitative approach to studying these questions. State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a qualitative research approach. Then explain why your question is better addressed using a qualitative, rather than a quantitative, methodology.

25. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students. Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a quantitative approach to studying these questions. State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a quantitative research approach. Then explain why your question is better addressed using a quantitative, rather than a qualitative, methodology.

26. Sometimes students believe that taking the time to prepare a complete and carefully designed research proposal is something to be preached, but not really practiced. Identify at least two different problems related to research design that are commonly encountered when doing research. For each problem, explain how a complete and detailed research proposal would help the researcher avoid the problem.

Chapter 6

WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. According to the textbook, the most effective research proposals:
a. are a brief outline of the study you intend to conduct without an excess of detail.
b. justify the study to be conducted by explaining how it will contribute to the professional literature.
c. are detailed and straightforward explanations of the research problem and methodology.
d. include an autobiographical section that explains how the researcher became interested in the research topic.

*2. A proposal for a quantitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
a. a statement of the problem, a review of the literature, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of how the study will be conducted.
b. a review of the literature, a statement of the problem, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of how the study will be conducted.
c. a review of the literature, a statement of the problem, a description of how the study will be conducted, an explanation of the means for collecting data.
d. a statement of the problem, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a review of the literature, a description of how the study will be conducted.

*3. A proposal for a qualitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
a. an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, a management plan, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding.
b. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, a management plan.
c. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, a management plan.
d. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, a management plan, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature.

*4. Proposals for ______ studies include a methodology section.
a. qualitative
b. quantitative
c. both quantitative and qualitative
d. neither quantitative or qualitative

*5. In ______ research proposal(s), the review of literature comes late in the document in conjunction with interpretation of data.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*6. In ______ research proposal(s), a specific research problem is clearly stated at the outset
of the proposal.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*7. In ______ research proposal(s), a specific plan for how the data will be handled is clearly laid out in the document.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*8. In ______ research proposal(s), specific hypotheses regarding findings are often stated.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*9. In regard to the style you will use for headings and subheadings in the research proposal:
a. there are no special formatting requirements unless the document is a thesis or dissertation.
b. all disciplines recognize the major formal styles, so it is a matter of personal choice.
c. the writer is free to show creativity as long as s/he is consistent throughout the document.
d. disciplines often dictate the use of specific formal styles, so you must find out what the expectations are.

*10. Experienced writers of research proposals typically:
a. plan to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
b. do not need to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
c. make revisions to the first draft of the proposal only if they are requested by a
reviewer.
d. may need to edit the first draft of the proposal for typos, but not content.

*11. When writing the proposal, you should assume that the reader:
a. will know which data analytic techniques are appropriate for your study without a detailed explanation.
b. is an expert in the area you are addressing and will be familiar with common issues, variables, instruments, etc.
c. can discern for him/herself what the importance of the study is.
d. knows nothing about the proposed project, so all the details must be thoroughly explained.

*12. When explaining how the data are to be analyzed and interpreted:
a. it is best to provide only a general plan as things will probably change over the course of the study anyway.
b. it is best to be as detailed as possible so all contingencies related to analysis and interpretation can be anticipated.
c. it is impossible to be highly detailed until one has the actual data in hand.
d. an overly specific plan may bias the analyses or interpretation, impairing the validity of the study.

*13. Research proposals that ______ are commonly judged to be of higher quality than proposals that do not.
a. favor straightforward vocabulary
b. employ complex sentence structure
c. favor a highly esoteric vocabulary
d. rely on the reader to draw inferences

*14. Three of the following are elements in the proposal revision process. Which one is NOT?
a. Reconsider the feasibility of what you are proposing to do.
b. Carefully assess the logic and organization of the information in the document.
c. Avoid breaks of 24 hours or more as the material will get too “cold” in your mind.
d. Seek feedback from knowledgeable others.

**15. The research proposal is best thought of as:
a. a general and flexible outline of how the research problem is to be investigated.
b. “Plan A,” with the expectation that “Plan B” or even “Plan C” will become necessary as the study unfolds.
c. a detailed and firm contract between the researcher and others who are involved in the research project (participants, supervisors, funding agencies, etc.)
d. a document that is written for others (internal review boards, funding agencies) and is of little value to the researcher.

Essay Questions

16. In regard to quantitative research proposals, novice researchers often find it very challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted in their study. Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section of the proposal.

17. Issues of feasibility are central to a well-planned research project. Discuss how feasibility issues come into play when deciding on the sampling plan.

18. Issues of feasibility are central to a well-planned research project. Discuss how feasibility issues come into play when choosing the measurement instruments or techniques.

19. There are unique challenges associated with conducting research on data that are already in existence (e.g., historical research). Discuss some of these unique challenges, pointing out pitfalls the researcher should be careful to avoid.

Chapter 7

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. In qualitative research the ______ is the most important instrument.
a. questionnaire
b. behavior checklist
c. researcher
d. participant

*2. In qualitative research, the fact that the research methodology may be vaguely described or very general in nature at the outset of the study indicates:
a. a normal and acceptable practice.
b. that the study is poorly designed.
c. that the researcher is inexperienced.
d. a common but unprofessional practice.

*3. Qualitative studies typically serve three of the following purposes. Which purpose do they NOT serve?
a. description of situations, processes, relationships, etc.
b. interpretation of information in order to gain new understanding
c. determining the final truth about a situation or phenomenon
d. evaluation of existing policies, practices, etc.

*4. In ______, a body of material is systematically examined for patterns, themes, or biases.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis

*5. In ______, a particular group of individuals is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. phenomenology
d. grounded theory

*6. In ______, the researcher studies the deep meaning an event or situation holds for other people.
a. phenomenology
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis
*7. In ______, a particular individual, program, or event is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. phenomenology
d. grounded theory

**8. Carl Compost has been living and working on a communal organic farm for the past six months. He wants to understand the political, environmental, and social perspectives shared by the members of the commune. Dr. Compost is probably employing a/an ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. ethnographic
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

**9. Daniel Daring is an emerging playwright whose works have begun to stir great passions in the major U.S. cities where they are staged. Researcher Eugenia Edge is “shadowing” Mr. Daring for six months in an attempt to understand the artistic process. Dr. Edge is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

**10. Helen Heartwell flew to New York City a few weeks after the September 11, 2001, bombing of the World Trade Center. She wanted to know how the victims of the attack were making sense of what had happened to them. Dr. Heartwell is probably employing a/an ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. ethnographic

**11. Richard Relic is carefully examining writings from the time of the U.S. Civil War to determine how each side characterized the position of their opponent. Dr. Relic is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

*12. The constant comparative method of data analysis is most associated with:
a. ethnography.
b. phenomenology.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis.

*13. The technique of participant observation is most associated with:
a. case study.
b. ethnography.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis.

*14. ______ is most useful in situations where current theory regarding the subject of investigation is inadequate or nonexistent.
a. Case study
b. Ethnography
c. Grounded theory
d. Phenomenology

*15. When conducting observations to be used as data in a qualitative study, it is:
a. always necessary to obtain informed consent from those being observed.
b. not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observations are being conducted in a public place.
c. not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observer is in full view of those being observed.
d. only necessary to obtain informed consent if the study will be published.

*16. If you interview two people about the same event and their stories diverge at certain points, you can conclude that:
a. at least one of the interviewees is not being fully honest with you.
b. at least one of the participants was not paying attention to what was going on.
c. they didn’t really both witness the same event.
d. the meaning people draw from an event can vary from person to person.

*17. Three of the following are techniques that strengthen the objectivity of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
a. The researcher should intentionally look for evidence that contradicts his/her hunches or hypotheses.
b. The researcher should collect two or more different kinds of data (e.g., observations and interviews).
c. The researcher should acknowledge personal biases or presumptions in the research report.
d. The researcher should rely as much as possible on a single well-informed respondent.

Essay Questions

18. A goal of qualitative research is to uncover the “multiple truths” that characterize any complex phenomenon or situation. What does the term “multiple truths” refer to in this usage?

19. A fundamental pitfall in qualitative research is to confuse the actual observations with the interpretation of the observations. Why is it important that these two things remain distinctly separate?

20. Dr. D is conducting an interview with Amber, who works as a cocktail waitress. Here is an excerpt:

Dr. D: What shift do you typically work?
Amber: Night. I come in a around 7:00 p.m. and work until 2:00 a.m.
Dr. D: Cocktail waitressing has a bad reputation. How bad is it to work here?
Amber: Not so bad. Most of our customers are pretty nice guys. They’re
regulars and they don’t drink too much and get out of control. In fact, if
one customer is giving me a hard time, another often steps in and helps out.
Dr. D: As the evening progresses, the men give you more and more problems,
don’t they? What do you do about that?
Amber: I ignore it as long as I can. I get the manager to step in if they don’t
straighten up.

Do you notice any problems with the interviewing technique of Dr. D? Describe the problems you see in the excerpts and then explain what Dr. D should do differently.

Chapter 8

HISTORICAL RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Historical research is chiefly concerned with:
a. the study of history.
b. the meaning of past events.
c. creating an accurate chronology of past events.
d. determining an “official” interpretation of a historical event.

*2. Historical research may include:
a. qualitative, but not quantitative, methods.
b. quantitative, but not qualitative, methods.
c. both qualitative and quantitative methods.
d. neither qualitative or quantitative methods.

**3. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, to her sister in Philadelphia represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.

**4. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Deloris Adams of Philadelphia, describing the life of her sister, Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.

**5. Professor McGrath is studying the history of African Americans in Oklahoma. Three of the following are primary data sources for Professor McGrath. Which one is NOT?
a. Census reports from the all-Black town of Taft
b. Photographs of Taft
c. Diaries of a school teacher in one of the first integrated schools in Taft
d. Articles from the Taft newspaper published in the late 19th century

*6. In historical research, bias:
a. generally does not exist to a problematic degree.
b. is less of a problem than in other forms of research.
c. is impossible for the researcher to detect.
d. can be used as an advantage to the researcher.

*7. In regard to bias in historical research, the researcher:
a. must be vigilant in regard to bias in secondary data, but it is not a problem with primary data.
b. must be vigilant in regard to bias in primary data, but it is not a problem with secondary data.
c. must be vigilant in regard to bias in both primary and secondary data.
d. can assume that the various biases will cancel each other out without special steps being taken by the researcher.

**8. Perry Prose is in possession of a letter allegedly written by President Theodore Roosevelt during his time in office. He has taken the letter to a number of experts, who have examined the paper, ink, handwriting, and content of the letter in an attempt to establish its authenticity. Dr. Prose is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

**9. Fran Freedom is trying to determine what the phrase “with liberty and justice for all” from the Pledge of Allegiance meant at the time it was penned. She suspects there were actually some limits on “all.” Dr. Freedom is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

**10. The information to the right is an example of:
a. ex post facto research.
b. a historiography.
c. a historic method.
d. a chronology.

*11. ______ is/are an appropriate focus of historical research.
a. Concepts
b. Ideas
c. People
d. all of the above

*12. Historical researchers can count on authoritative sources such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronology or the Cambridge Ancient History as accurate and complete accounts of history.
a. True
b. False

*13. In writing a historical research report, it is best to:
a. avoid mentioning alternative interpretations of events proposed by other scholars.
b. leave most of the interpretation of data to the reader rather than impose your own
point of view.
c. point out the weaknesses in the arguments or assertions you are making.
d. discuss the weaknesses, but not the strengths, of arguments put forth by other
scholars.

*14. A historical research report may differ from other research reports in that presentation of data and interpretation of data:
a. are confined to separate sections of the paper.
b. may not be included.
c. may be intertwined in a technical style of scientific writing.
d. may be intertwined in a flowing narrative style.

Essay Questions

15. One of the most challenging aspects of conducting historical research is systematically organizing the hundreds or thousands of notes that are collected in the course of the research project. Describe one method for handling this organizational challenge, including mention of both the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

16. Conducting rigorous historical research involves more than reading historical documents, taking notes, and organizing those notes. Explain.

17. The authors recommend that chronological data be arrayed in a time line as part of the interpretative process. What type of information can be revealed by this technique?

18. The authors recommend that chronological data be plotted on a map as part of the interpretative process. What type of information can be revealed by this technique?

Chapter 9

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Observational research, as a form of descriptive research,
a. focuses on rich narrative description of the phenomenon of interest.
b. involves counting or rating of behavior in as objective a manner as possible.
c. relies on open-ended techniques that can respond to the evolving situation.
d. allows the researcher to gather behavioral data in a relatively quick and easy
manner.

*2. Three of the following procedures or techniques are integral to observational research. Which one is NOT?
a. Pilot studies are used to test instruments and procedures.
b. Observers are carefully trained to follow specific criteria when recording the
observation data.
c. Multiple observers may independently rate the same behavior.
d. Observation instruments are intentionally general so as not to constrain the
observer.

*3. Correlational research allows the researcher to answer questions such as:
a. what is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B?
b. does change in Variable A cause change in Variable B?
c. is there a significant difference between scores on Variable A and scores on Variable B?
d. does change in Variable B causes change in Variable A?

**4. The scatterplot to the right indicates a ______ relationship between Variable A and Variable B.
a. weak
b. moderate
c. strong
d. indeterminate

**5. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in people’s preference for action movies. The researcher locates 50 people at each of the following ages: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 years. She asks them to rate their preference for action movies in relation to other sorts of movies. This is an example of a ______ design.
a. longitudinal
b. nested
c. cross-sectional
d. panel

**6. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in the music people prefer to listen to. The researcher locates 50 people who are about 20 years old. She sends these people a questionnaire every year for the next 10 years asking about the types of music they prefer to listen to. This is an example of a ______ design.
a. longitudinal
b. nested
c. cross-sectional
d. panel

*7. Among survey methods, _____ generally generate the highest response rate, and ______ generally generate the lowest response rate.
a. face-to-face interviews; telephone interviews
b. telephone interviews; questionnaires
c. face-to-face interviews; questionnaires
d. questionnaires; telephone interviews

*8. Advantages of questionnaires include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. large numbers of people can be contacted for a relatively low cost.
b. data can be gathered from a large number of people in a relatively short period of
time.
c. participants may feel more confident about their anonymity and therefore respond more honestly.
d. because questions are in written form, they are less likely to be misunderstood by respondents.

*9. Regarding the length of questionnaires to be used in survey research, which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. Including a large number of items on the survey assures that you will get useful data for all of your trouble.
b. Keeping the survey short makes it more likely people will be willing to complete it.
c. A relatively lengthy survey communicates your seriousness about the research endeavor so people will be more willing to complete it.
d. Shorter surveys produce data that are ambiguous and therefore not useful.

**10. “How unhappy are you with your current salary?”
This question violates which rule of good survey writing?
a. It is not quantifiable.
b. It makes an unwarranted assumption.
c. It fails to keep the respondent’s task simple.
d. It uses technical language that may not be known to all.

*11. The typical return rate for a survey mailed to strangers is about:
a. 80%
b. 65%
c. 50%
d. 35%

*12. In descriptive research, the researcher typically studies a______, then draws conclusions about the______.
a. sample; population
b. population; sample
c. sample; sample
d. population; population

**13. Polly Petunia is Chief Horticulturalist for the Southwest region, encompassing Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. She wants to survey amateur gardeners in her region to determine what, if any, water conservation practices they employ in their home gardening. Polly sends her survey to 150 randomly selected gardeners in each state. Polly is using:
a. purposive sampling.
b. proportional stratified sampling.
c. systematic sampling.
d. stratified random sampling.

**14. Paul Pollster, a political psychologist, wants to determine whether rates of voter participation in his home state vary between rural, urban, and suburban voters. He notes that there are more rural voters than suburban or urban voters in the state. Paul should use ______ in this study.
a. simple random sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. proportional stratified sampling
d. systematic sampling

**15. Simon Cinema wants to know what the audience thought of tonight’s advanced screening of a heralded psychological thriller called “I Can’t Sleep.” He and his research assistants stand outside the theatre exit and ask every fifth person leaving the theatre to answer several questions about their impression of the movie. Simon is using:
a. systematic sampling.
b. stratified random sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. purposive sampling.

**16. Danny Drive wants to know the relationship between intrinsic motivation and course grade among math students. He contacts a local professor who teaches several general education math classes and asks about the possibility of gathering data in her classes. Danny is using:
a. simple random sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. systematic sampling

**17. Edward Ethics is studying public opinion regarding prayer in public schools. He plans to gather survey data from a number of churches on Sunday mornings. He also wants to include a number of people who are not associated with an organized religion in his sample. Edward is using:
a. stratified random sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. purposive sampling.

Essay Questions

18. Your chapter identifies several weaknesses related to survey data. Note one of these weaknesses and discuss the associated problems and possible ways to minimize them.

19. In writing the cover letter to accompany a mailed survey, novice researchers often stress the immediacy of their need for the data. Is this the best approach to take in the cover letter? If not, what do you recommend instead?

20. The authors of your textbook suggest that sampling bias is virtually unavoidable and that it is important to disclose and discuss possible sources of bias in the study report. Do you agree? Explain your position.

Chapter 10

EXPERIMENTAL AND EX POST FACTO DESIGNS

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Experimental research differs from descriptive research in that it:
a. is less sensitive to sampling bias.
b. employs statistical analyses.
c. attempts to determine causality.
d. is conducted in a laboratory.

*2. In experimental design, the variable that is manipulated is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

*3. In experimental design, the variable that reflects the outcome of the treatment is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**4. “There will be gender differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy.”
In this hypothesis, gender is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**5. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
In this hypothesis, mood elevation is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**6. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
In this hypothesis, type of therapy is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. confounding variable.
c. independent variable.
d. constant.

**7. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
During a test of this hypothesis, it was discovered that some of the participants lived with family members and others lived alone. This variable, living situation, is a/an _____.
a. independent variable.
b. dependent variable.
c. constant.
d. confounding variable.

**8. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of the semester, all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the traditional method constitute the:
a. placebo group.
b. treatment group.
c. sample.
d. control group.

**9. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of semester all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the problem-based method constitute the:
a. placebo group.
b. treatment group.
c. sample.
d. control group.

**10. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method for Unit 1 of the course. Then all sections switch instructional method for Unit 2. He plans to compare the performance of the two groups of sections on their Unit 1 and Unit 2 exams. This study employs a ______ design.
a. within subjects (repeated measures)
b. quasi-experimental
c. true experimental
d. ex post facto

**11. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for many years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the dependent variable.
a. Doggie Do-Right
b. type of dog training program
c. score on the dog obedience checklist
d. obedience training versus no training

**12. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the independent variable.
a. Doggie Do-Right
b. type of dog training program
c. score on the dog obedience checklist
d. obedience training versus no training

**13. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). This study employed a/an ______ design.
a. one-shot experimental
b. ex post facto
c. posttest-only control group design
d. within subjects

**14. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the independent variable.
a. score on the “attitude toward public schools” measure
b. experience with Indian boarding school
c. gender of participant
d. age of participant

**15. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the dependent variable.
a. score on the “attitude toward public schools” measure
b. experience with Indian boarding school
c. gender of participant
d. age of participant

**16. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. This study employs a/an ______ design.
a. pre-experimental
b. factorial
c. true experimental
d. ex post facto

*17. Three of the following are examples of true experimental designs. Which one is NOT?
a. Multiple baseline design
b. Solomon four-group design
c. Within subjects design
d. Pretest–posttest control group design

*18. Three of the following are examples of quasi-experimental designs. Which one is NOT?
a. Nonrandomized pretest–posttest control group design
b. Control group time-series design
c. Single-subjects design
d. One-shot experimental design

*19. A meta-analysis is used when:
a. the researcher wishes to analyze the analyses of a number of existing studies.
b. there is little existing literature to use as a launching pad for a new study.
c. the researcher has no access to sophisticated statistical techniques.
d. several researchers jointly conduct a large-scale study.

Essay Questions

20. A researcher is studying the effectiveness of two different resident adolescent drug treatment programs. Program A is used at Summerhill adolescent facility. Program B is used at Winterdale adolescent facility. Because random assignment to treatments is not possible in this situation, what can the researcher do to minimize possible effects of sample bias?

21. Factorial designs allow researchers to study the effects of more than one independent variable simultaneously. Why is this advantageous? What information can factorial designs yield that nonfactorial designs cannot?

Chapter 11

STRATEGIES FOR ANALYZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. How are inferential statistics different from descriptive statistics?
a. Descriptive statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.
b. Descriptive statistics verify the accuracy of the inferential statistics.
c. Inferential statistics describe the results of a study.
d. Inferential statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.

*2. ____ are characteristics of samples, wheras _______ are characteristics of populations.
a. Concepts; statistics
b. Parameters; statistics
c. Statistics; parameters
d. Parameters; estimations

*3. In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores falls between one standard deviation below the mean and one standard deviation above the mean?
a. 16%
b. 50%
c. 68%
d. 90%

*4. Dorothy has been surveying the Munchkins to determine their level of life satisfaction. The possible scores on the life satisfaction questionnaire range from 0 to 100. If Dorothy decides to statistically compare the male and female Munchkins on their level of satisfaction, she should use a _______ test.
a. parametric
b. nonparametric

**5. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mean of this set of scores is ______.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 4.25
d. 4.5

**6. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The median of this set of scores is ______.
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 4.5
**7. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mode of this set of scores is ______.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 4.22
d. 4.5

*8. The measure(s) of central tendency that is/are appropriate for use with nominal data is/are:
a. the median only.
b. the mode only.
c. the median and the mean.
d. the median and the mode.

*9. When summarizing ordinal data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.
a. arithmetic mean
b. mode
c. median
d. geometric mean

*10. When reporting growth data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.
a. arithmetic mean
b. mode
c. median
d. geometric mean

*11. When the ____ is the measure of central tendency, the _____ is the most appropriate and informative measure of dispersion.
a. median; standard deviation
b. median; interquartile range
c. mean; interquartile range
d. mean; range

**12. An exam was given to two sections of the same course. In Section 1, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 7. In Section 2, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 13. Which of the following conclusions is accurate?
a. Section 1 did better on the exam than Section 2.
b. Section 1 scores were more variable than Section 2.
c. Section 1 scores were less variable than Section 2.
d. Section 1 did less well on the exam than Section 2.

*13. The z-score, or standard score, allows the research to determine:
a. how far a target individual’s score is from the group mean.
b. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored above the target individual.
c. the mean for the population based on the mean for the sample.
d. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual.
*14. The percentile rank allows the researcher to determine:
a. how far a target individual’s score is from the group mean.
b. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored above the target individual.
c. the mean for the population based on the mean for the sample.
d. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual.

**15. Danzell is a purchasing agent for a major grocery store chain. He has noticed over the years that the higher the outdoor temperature, the more likely people are to buy fresh fruit. Based on Danzell’s observations, we would say there is ______ relationship between outdoor temperature and buying of fresh fruit.
a. a positive
b. a negative
c. a causal
d. no

**16. Frank Fitness found a correlation coefficient of –.74 between hours of strenuous exercise each week and a standard measure of body mass. He interprets this to mean that there is a ______ and ______ relationship between hours of strenuous exercise and body mass.
a. strong; positive
b. strong; negative
c. weak; positive
d. weak; negative

*17. Three of the following factors are associated with a relatively small standard error of the mean. Which one is NOT?
a. Sample size is relatively large.
b. Sample standard deviation is relatively small.
c. The variance in the sample is relatively large.
d. The sample is highly representative of the population.

**18. Seamus has determined that there is a 95% chance that the number of people visiting the Blarney Stone in the month of June will be between 1,760 and 2,025. This is a/an ______ estimate.
a. point
b. interval

*19. Statistical hypothesis testing involves testing the:
a. research hypothesis.
b. probability level.
c. significance level.
d. null hypothesis.

**20. On the basis of statistical findings, Ron determines that the differences between males and females on a test of spatial reasoning are not due merely to chance. If, in fact, there are no gender differences in the population, Ron will have made a:
a. Type I error.
b. Type II error.

**21. On the basis of statistical findings, Becky determines that the difference between males and females on a test of abstract mathematical reasoning is merely due to chance. If, in fact, there are gender differences in the population, Becky will have made a:
a. Type I error.
b. Type II error.

Essay Questions

22. A medical researcher is concerned about mistakenly concluding that a new medication is effective when it really is not. What type of error is the researcher concerned about making (Type I or Type II)? Describe what the researcher might do to decrease the likelihood of making that type of error. Discuss ramifications of your suggested approach for other types of error in the study.

23. Note several steps researchers can take to optimize the power of their statistical tests.

24. After completing planned analyses, the researcher must interpret the results of statistical tests. Note several steps that are involved in such interpretation.

Chapter 12

TECHNICAL DETAILS: STYLE, FORMAT, AND ORGANIZATION
OF THE RESEARCH REPORT

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. When writing the research report, the findings of statistical analyses are typically reported in the ______ section.
a. review of literature
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*2. When writing the research report, the descriptions of instruments used for data gathering are typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*3. When writing the research report, the interpretation of study findings is typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*4. When writing the research report, the research problem is typically described in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. review of literature
c. method
d. results

*5. When writing the research report, information regarding the study design is typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. review of literature
c. method
d. results

*6. The reference list is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*7. Copies of the survey instruments are included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*8. The abstract is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*9. In a quantitative study, the description of participants (subjects) is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. method section.

*10. The acknowledgments are included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

**11. “Johnson eliminated three interviews from the data set due to noncompliance on the part of the respondents.”
This sentence is an example of:
a. active voice.
b. passive voice.

**12. “The third subscale was dropped from further consideration due to problems with internal consistency.”
This sentence is an example of:
a. active voice.
b. passive voice.

*13. The style manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that ____ tense be used when writing the method section and ______ tense be used when presenting conclusions.
a. present; present
b. past; past
c. present; past
d. past; present

Essay Questions

14. Throughout your textbook the authors return to the importance of interpreting the findings of a research project. Explain why this is an essential element in a high-quality research report.

15. Imagine that you just completed a research project in which the data failed to support your chief hypothesis. Why might this have happened? Discuss several possibilities.

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Chapter 1 Through 12
Chapter 1

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. To be considered true research, a project must:
a. gather together a body of existing information and communicate it in a clear and
concise way.
b. uncover obscure or esoteric information and bring it to the consideration of the broader research community.
c. gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some phenomenon.
d. produce definitive conclusions regarding the subject of study.

**2. Which of the following examples illustrates research the way it is defined in your textbook?
a. Sally is writing a paper about the effects of the Harry Potter books on the reading habits of fourth graders in the United States and United Kingdom. She goes to a research library to find information to include in her paper.
b. Ian wants to know why the population of songbirds has declined in recent years in the Sutton Wilderness Area. He carefully collects soil and water samples, systematically surveys the entire area for predators, and then sits down to make sense of his findings.
c. Leonard is starting a woodworking business and is not sure how to calculate the cost of his labor so he can be both profitable and fair to the customers. He asks several established business owners how they calculate labor changes.
d. Bill is doing a report on the sonnets of Shakespeare. He carefully reads a number of sonnets and then carefully reads scholarly reviews of those same sonnets written by various Shakespeare scholars. He synthesizes all of this information in his report.

*3. Which of the following is defined as an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon?
a. Theory
b. Inference
c. Hypothesis
d. Interpretation

*4. Which of the following is defined as a reasonable guess, or a logical supposition, for explaining the phenomenon under investigation?
a. Theory
b. Inference
c. Hypothesis
d. Interpretation
*5. The process of formal research begins with the identification of:
a. research hypotheses.
b. a feasible research plan.
c. available participants.
d. a research problem.

*6. The purpose of formal research is to:
a. prove or disprove the study hypotheses.
b. support or fail to support the study hypotheses.
c. identify alternative hypotheses.
d. move beyond the need for hypotheses.

*7. Assumptions come into play:
a. in regard to nearly every aspect of every research study.
b. in qualitative research but not in quantitative research.
c. when research is not well thought out.
d. rarely, if ever.

*8. Well-designed research manages to minimize or avoid:
a. assumptions.
b. predictions.
c. theory.
d. bias.

*9. Researchers ______ their phenomenon of interest on the basis of data analysis.
a. make inferences about
b. know facts about
c. define
d. identify

*10. A primary function of the methodology is to:
a. guide and control the acquisition of data.
b. extract meaning from the data that have been gathered.
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b

*11. Three of the following come into play as the researcher analyzes the data. Which one does NOT?
a. The study hypothesis/hypotheses
b. Preferences for certain outcomes
c. The logical reasoning process
d. Assumptions

*12. A well-designed and well-conducted study:
a. answers questions of importance in the field.
b. raises questions of importance to the field.
c. answers some questions and raises other questions.

*13. Reading the professional literature in the field of interest:
a. will enhance an individual’s ability to design and conduct high-quality research.
b. will stifle creativity and constrain the individual to the status quo.
c. will make little difference to the quality and impact of the individual’s work.
d. is necessary only for the leaders in the field.

*14. One indication that a piece of information is of high quality is that the information:
a. is found on the Internet.
b. is found in a juried (or refereed) research report.
c. resulted from a project that received corporate funding.
d. is the firsthand account of a personal experience.

Essay Questions

15. Your chapter states: “Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical.” Explain why “cyclical” is an appropriate description of the research process. Then explain why “helical” is a better description.

16. Describe an example of the word research being used inappropriately. Be clear about how your example deviates from the definition of research offered in the chapter.

17. Graduate professors like to insist that the completion of thesis or dissertation research is not merely an “academic exercise” or final hurdle to obtaining the desired degree. Explain at least one personal benefit that the individual derives from completing a high- quality thesis or dissertation. Then explain at least one societal benefit that follows from the individual’s completion of a high-quality thesis or dissertation.

18. In the most rigorous tests of hypotheses, the researcher sets out to fail to support the hypothesis. Why is the attempt to fail to support a more rigorous test of the hypothesis than an attempt to support it?

Chapter 2

TOOLS OF RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. A ______ is a specific mechanism or strategy the researcher uses to collect,
manipulate, or interpret data.
a. research tool
b. research methodology
c. statistical test
d. theory

*2. Research methodology refers to:
a. the general approach the researcher takes to conducting a research project.
b. a specific device the researcher uses to collect data.
c. the specific theoretical basis of the research project.
d. the statistical tests to be employed in a research project.

**3. Sam wants to find high-quality research reports related to attribution theory that have been published in professional journals. Sam’s best approach would be to:
a. consult the library catalog.
b. consult an online or electronic database.
c. search the World Wide Web.
d. browse the shelves in the library.

**4. Sonya is a college freshman who has just been assigned her first research paper, and she doesn’t know how to get started finding information. Sonya should:
a. search the World Wide Web.
b. consult an online or electronic database.
c. consult a reference librarian.
d. browse the shelves in the library.

*5. ______ allows a researcher to receive news in an area of special interest and discuss that news with others.
a. A search engine
b. E-mail
c. A list server
d. A Web browser

*6. ______ allows researchers to personally correspond practically instantly with other users around the world.
a. A search engine
b. E-mail
c. A list server
d. A Web browser

**7. John wants to begin using e-mail. Which of the following steps is NOT necessary for John to get started as an email user?
a. Request an e-mail account
b. Obtain necessary software from the e-mail provider and load it onto a computer
c. Learn to use a Web browser to explore the Internet
d. Learn how to access and use the e-mail provider’s services

*8. Three of the following statements about measurement in the research setting are accurate. Which one is NOT accurate?
a. The purpose of measurement is to systematically limit the data in a way that makes it quantifiable.
b. Measurement is applied by researchers only to insubstantial phenomena.
c. Measurement is a tool that aids researchers in interpreting their observations.
d. Systematic measurement assists researchers in obtaining objectivity in their researcher.

*9. An ordinal scale of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. is tied to an absolute zero.
c. incorporates equal units of measurement.
d. communicates greater than and less than relationships.

*10. An interval level of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. communicates rank-order information.
c. incorporates equal units of measurement.
d. is tied to an absolute zero.

*11. A ratio scale of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. communicates rank-order information.
c. is especially appropriate for opinion data.
d. is tied to an absolute zero.

**12. The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is that only one of them:
a. includes an absolute zero.
b. uses equal units of measurement.
c. supports the use of statistical analyses.
d. is used in research with human subjects.
**13. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report how politically conservative they are. It includes a 7-point scale where 1 is “not at all conservative” and 7 is “extremely conservative.” This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**14. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their highest level of education by choosing from these options: “some high school,” “completed high school,” “some college,” or “completed 4-year college degree.” This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**15. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their age in years. This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**16. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report whether they are currently living in an “urban,” “suburban,” or “rural” setting. This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

*17. ______ refers to whether a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure.
a. Validity
b. Reliability
c. Accountability
d. Robustness

*18. ______ refers to how consistently a measurement tool will yield the same result when the phenomenon under investigation does not change.
a. Validity
b. Reliability
c. Replicability
d. Dependability

**19. Kade has spent the past month carefully observing a group of third graders on the playground during recess, taking note of how the students interact with one another. On the basis of these observations, Kade is drawing conclusions about the interaction styles of boys and girls. This is an example of:
a. hypothetical logic.
b. deductive logic.
c. inductive logic.
d. propositional logic.

**20. Kimberly knows that teenagers often do not make good decisions in areas where they have little knowledge. She also knows that most teens have little knowledge about human sexuality. Therefore, Kimberly believes that teens are likely to make poor decisions about sexual activity. This is an example of:
a. inductive logic.
b. propositional logic.
c. transductive logic.
d. deductive logic.

Essay Questions

21. In your opinion, what is the one greatest advantage to society of the information revolution? What is the one greatest disadvantage? Support your answer.

22. Near the end of Chapter 2 the authors of your textbook include a relatively lengthy section on writing the research report. Why is it important that research results are carefully written up and made available to the scientific community?

23. Do recent technological advances (e.g., the World Wide Web, electronic databases) assure that future research will be of higher quality, or of greater utility, than past research? Support your answer.

Chapter 3

THE PROBLEM: THE HEART OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Research problems, as defined in your textbook:
a. are identified by experts in the field, and not typically knowable by novices.
b. clearly and completely specify important questions that are currently unanswered in a particular field of inquiry.
c. are broad, general statements about the incomplete state of understanding in a particular field of inquiry.
d. can be addressed by compiling and synthesizing existing information in a way that sheds light on the issue of interest.

*2. Basic research is:
a. research intended to enhance basic knowledge about the physical, biological, psychological, or social world or to shed light on historical, cultural, or aesthetic phenomena.
b. large scale research performed under contract with a governmental agency such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), etc.
c. informal research conducted locally by a small staff with a small budget, the purpose of which is to pave the way for larger research initiatives.
d. research intended to address issues that have immediate relevance to current practices, procedures, and policies.

*3. Applied research is:
a. research intended to enhance basic knowledge about the physical, biological, psychological, or social world or to shed light on historical, cultural, or aesthetic phenomena.
b. large-scale research performed under contract with a governmental agency such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), etc.
c. informal research conducted by a small staff with a small budget, the purpose of which is to shed light on a problem of local interest.
d. research intended to address issues that have immediate relevance to current practices, procedures, and policies.

**4. Which of the following represents a well-written basic research problem?
a. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
d. “What is the ratio of native-born students to international students on the campuses of major U.S. state universities?”

**5. Which of the following represents a well-written applied research problem?
a. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”
d. “What is the ratio of native-born students to international students on the campuses of major U.S. state universities?”

**6. Three of the following questions lend themselves well to formal research. Which one does NOT?
a. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “Does message medium, print versus television, impact the effectiveness of public service health messages?”
d. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”

*7. Three of the following are characteristics of a well-written research problem. Which one is NOT?
a. The problem statement includes jargon associated with the field.
b. The problem statement clearly delimits the object(s) of study.
c. The problem statement identifies the important factors to be investigated in the study.
d. The problem statement explicitly identifies assumptions.

*8. A common weakness of research problems is that they:
a. delimit the object(s) of study.
b. constrain the variables to be investigated.
c. implicitly rest on common assumptions.
d. incorporate a number of subproblems.

**9. “What proportion of workers hired by selected factories in the state of Oklahoma between 1995 and 2000 held four-year college degrees?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
b. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
c. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**10. “What do underemployed U.S. workers (i.e., those workers who are employed, but not in positions for which they have specialized training or expertise) identify as the primary reason for their inability to find suitable employment?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
b. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
c. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**11. “What is the correlation between an index of civic-mindedness and years of involvement in local organizations and charities among members of city councils of selected midsized cities in the northeastern United States?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
b. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
c. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**12. “Among social workers in selected U.S. urban areas, are the personality characteristics of Need for Structure or In-Group Preference related to prejudicial social judgments about African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans?”
Which of the following is a well-stated subproblem that follows from this research problem?
a. Which group is more discriminated against by the public at large in each of the selected areas: African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans?
b. What is the most valid existing measure of In-Group Preference?
c. What is the relationship between an index of Need for Structure and an index of prejudice targeting attitudes about Asian Americans among the selected social workers?
d. Which analytic technique is best suited to addressing the research problem, multiple regression or path analysis?

*13. In regard to research questions and hypotheses, a high-quality research study will:
a. articulate only research questions, not hypotheses, so as not to constrain the possible findings.
b. articulate only hypotheses, not research questions, in order to preserve the scientific rigor of the investigation.
c. focus only on those questions that can support the correctness of current hypotheses or theoretical positions.
d. articulate either research questions or hypotheses depending on the nature of the study.

**14. Which of the following represents a null hypothesis?
a. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.
b. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.
c. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?
d. None of the above

**15. Which of the following represents a research hypothesis?
a. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.
b. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.
c. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?
d. None of the above

*16. The recommended order of tasks in preparing a research proposal is:
a. state the problem and subproblems, note the assumptions, note the delimitations, define the terms, note the research questions/hypotheses.
b. state the problem and subproblems, note the delimitations, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the assumptions, define the terms.
c. state the problem and subproblems, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the assumptions, define the terms, note the delimitations.
d. state the problem and subproblems, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the delimitations, define the terms, note the assumptions.

*17. Three of the following comprise the setting of the research problem. Which one does NOT?
a. A clear description of all measurement tools to be used in the research project
b. A clear statement of what the researcher will and will not do in the course of the study
c. A clear statement of the assumptions on which the research problem rests
d. A clear definition of all terms related to the research problem that might be misunderstood by a reader

Essay Questions

18. Why is it important that the researcher articulate, as clearly as possible, all assumptions that affect the research problem?

19. Your textbook authors recommend explicitly defining any term that might be misunderstood by someone reading the research proposal. If the research proposal is being written chiefly for use and review by researchers, why is such a step necessary?

20. Daphne has been a member of a research team studying interpersonal aggression among preschoolers for more than a year. In that time, her team has repeatedly employed a consistent set of techniques and procedures to study preschoolers as they interact in a number of settings. The procedures revolve around volunteer mothers bringing their children to the university child development lab for a “play session” that is the basis of the formal observations. Settings they have studied so far include: the university pre-school, affluent local day-care centers, and a pre-kindergarten program being offered in the neighborhood school district. All of these settings were fairly racially homogenous.

Daphne has just learned that a friend of a friend can help her gain research access, in the near future, to preschoolers in an unusually racially diverse though impoverished preschool setting. Daphne decides she has no time to prepare a formal research proposal before embarking on the study. “Besides,” she thinks, “this study should go just like all the others we’ve done.”

Is Daphne leaving herself open to problems in this situation, or is she safe moving ahead with no formal proposal, given how familiar she is with the study techniques and procedures?

Chapter 4

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Generally speaking, the best time to begin the literature review associated with a specific research project is:
a. after the research problem has been clearly articulated.
b. after the data have been collected, but before they are analyzed.
c. based on personal preference; there is no single best time.
d. before or during the formulation of the research problem.

*2. If you want to find information about books available in your local library, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the World Wide Web

*3. If you want to conduct a keyword or author search of research reports published in professional journals, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the World Wide Web

*4. If you want to find statistics on health care spending broken down by state, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the reference lists of important papers in your area

**5. If an important reference you want to include in your literature review is checked out to another library patron, you might:
a. obtain it through interlibrary loan.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. decide to make do without it.

**6. If an important recent research article that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, you might:
a. cite it anyway for the benefit of the reader.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. decide to make do without it.

**7. If an important book that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, your best move would probably be to:
a. obtain it through interlibrary loan.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. cite it anyway for the benefit of the reader.

*8. ______ is an example of a search engine.
a. Altavista
b. Books in Print
c. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)
d. Humanities Index

*9. ______ is an example of an electronic database.
a. Altavista
b. Books in Print
c. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)
d. Humanities Index

**10. Jane wants to search for information about the variety of attention disorders that are seen in childhood. Which of the following sets of keywords would best get Jane started on an effective and efficient search?
a. “attention disorders”
b. “ADHD,” “ADD,” and “children”
c. “disorders” and “children”
d. “attention disorders” and “children”

*11. If a researcher has completed a thorough search of the World Wide Web:
a. the literature search can be concluded.
b. it may also be fruitful to search an electronic database.
c. it may also be fruitful to search the Internet.
d. he/she will find largely redundant information on an electronic database.

*12. The main purpose of the review of the literature is to:
a. acknowledge the work of others by listing their findings prior to proposing your own project.
b. show how your study is superior to other work done in the area.
c. publicly demonstrate your mastery of the research literature in your area.
d. show how your study is related to, and extends, other work in the area.

*13. A well-structured literature review:
a. contains highly detailed descriptions of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.
b. begins with those studies most closely related to the research problem, then opens up to a broader perspective.
c. begins with broad/general information, then narrows the focus to those studies most closely related to the research problem.
d. contains general summaries of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.

*14. The review of the literature can be curtailed when:
a. you are no longer encountering new ideas or information.
b. all of the work done by top researchers in the area has been reviewed.
c. all published work related to a topic has been reviewed.
d. two to four weeks have been devoted to the search.

*15. A well-written literature review:
a. avoids evaluation or critique of the literature reviewed, so as not to bias the opinion of the reader.
b. emphasizes critique and synthesis of the work of others that is related to your own research problem.
c. avoids summarizing the work of others so that details of the original work are not lost in the reviewing process.
d. emphasizes detailed reporting of each piece of research included in the literature review.

*16. Typically, the literature review should:
a. include few or no works more than five years old to avoid having the work become prematurely obsolete.
b. be limited to work coming out of the very best labs and universities in the country.
c. give a broad overview of the area, without getting bogged down in the details of particular studies or theoretical perspectives.
d. emphasize how the studies being reviewed are related to the research problem under consideration.

Essay Questions

17. Describe three benefits of conducting a thorough review of existing literature before writing a research proposal.

18. Kirby is conducting a literature review in preparation for his study of “expectations regarding the sharing of financial and practical responsibilities among married and cohabiting couples in which both partners are between the ages of 20 and 29.” Conducting a keyword search on “couples” and “responsibility,” Kirby has generated a lengthy list of research articles. He decides to shorten the list of potential articles by eliminating all articles that were not published in prestigious research journals. He will include all the remaining articles in his literature review. What is your opinion of Kirby’s approach to selecting articles for the literature review? Explain.

19. You are reading a literature review written by a novice researcher in your field. You notice that the researcher seems to have relied heavily on the World Wide Web in preparing the literature review. Your hunch is supported when you glance at the reference page and find a long list of Internet addresses. What goes through your mind regarding the quality and adequacy of the literature review in this situation?

Chapter 5

PLANNING YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. A good research plan, according to your textbook, includes:
a. specific procedures and data sources, but does not lock the researcher into an analysis plan.
b. initial procedures and key data sources, but is also open to modification as the project progresses.
c. a specific plan regarding data sources and analyses, although information regarding the specific research sample is best left open.
d. includes specific sampling plan, procedures, data sources, and analysis plan.

*2. The basic format of the quantitative research process includes (in part), in chronological order:
a. pose the question, pose a hypothesis, search the literature, collect the data.
b. clearly state the research question, collect data, review the literature, write up the
findings.
c. review the literature, identify a question, collect data, analyze data.
d. pose a hypothesis, collect data, analyze data, review the literature.

*3. When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, universality refers to the fact that:
a. the research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.
b. another researcher in the same field, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.
c. a well-designed research project could be carried out by any competent researcher; it does not rely on a specific individual.
d. the phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

*4. When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, replicability refers to the fact that:
a. the research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.
b. another researcher, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.
c. a well-designed research project could be carried out by a specific individual conducting research in the same field.
d. the phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

*5. Three of the following accurately characterize data. Which one does NOT necessarily characterize data?
a. Data may be elusive.
b. Data can be volatile.
c. Data are ever changing.
d. Data reveal truth.

**6. Charlotte, an anthropologist, has been living in an Incan village for three years. During that time Charlotte has become expert in Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers in the community. For Charlotte, observing weaving constitutes:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.
c. informal data.
d. nonempirical data.

**7. Charlotte wrote a book about her experience as an anthropologist living in an Incan village for three years and becoming an expert weaver. Her book was widely read by other anthropologists, including Mira, who is an expert in Navaho weaving. For Mira, Charlotte’s book constitutes:
a. hearsay data.
b. secondary data.
c. informal data.
d. primary data.

**8. Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning. He is left somewhat confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items. Sean’s confusion indicates a lack of ______ regarding the task.
a. construct validity
b. content validity
c. criterion validity
d. face validity

**9. A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-established measure of interpersonal sensitivity. She finds that the two instruments are highly related, which supports the ______ of the new instrument.
a. predictive validity
b. content validity
c. criterion validity
d. face validity

**10. A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism. To test out his new instrument, he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire. Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire. This is an indication of the ______ of the new instrument.
a. criterion validity
b. content validity
c. face validity
d. predictive validity

**11. Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children. Separately, they each watch a videotape of four children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session. They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly similar. This is an example of ______ reliability.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

**12. Dr. Drive is testing a 10-question measure of achievement motivation. He notes that if his respondents agree with the first question, they tend to also agree with the other nine. Likewise, if his respondents disagree with the first question, they tend of disagree with the other nine. This is an indication of good ______ reliability.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

**13. Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group in early April, then again in early May. By comparing the two sets of scores, the professor can assess the ______ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

*14. Three of the following are associated with quantitative research methods. Which one is NOT?
a. The purpose is to explain or predict.
b. It is assumed that the findings will generalize to similar others.
c. Deductive reasoning is applied to data analysis and interpretation.
d. Statistical analyses are the primary source of findings.

*15. Three of the following are associated with qualitative research methods. Which one is NOT?
a. The purpose is to describe or explain.
b. No data are gathered as part of this approach.
c. Textual data are gathered from a small number of participants.
d. The study is context bound.

*16. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the internal validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
a. Conduct the study in a controlled laboratory setting.
b. Conduct a double-blind experiment.
c. Make participants fully aware of your expected findings.
d. Build in opportunities for triangulation.

*17. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the external validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
a. Conduct the study in a real-life setting.
b. Assure that you have a representative sample.
c. Replicate the study under a variety of relevant conditions.
d. Allow flexibility in procedures and instruments.

*18. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the credibility or dependability of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
a. Spend extensive time in the field studying the phenomenon of interest.
b. Acquire rich and detailed descriptions of the phenomena being studied.
c. Exclude participants who have experiences or opinions that are very different from those of others in the study.
d. Ask participants to comment on the conclusions being drawn from the study.

*19. The requirement to keep information provided by research participants confidential applies:
a. to legal minors (children under the age of 18), but not adults.
b. only in cases where it is specifically requested by the participant.
c. to all persons under almost all conditions.
d. only in cases where participants divulge information that is potentially illegal.

*20. The altering of data is allowable:
a. when it is clear that the participant marked a response in error.
b. when the researcher suspects a participant of being careless.
c. when the researcher suspects a participant of misunderstanding the question.
d. under no circumstances.

**21. Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. Participants will be seniors in local high school history classes. She hopes to publish her findings in the History Teacher Quarterly. Does Dr. Davenport need internal review board (IRB) approval for this study?
a. Yes
b. No
c. Only if the study is accepted for publication

**22. Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. She knows there is a large research literature regarding similar influences on learning, and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of high school history students. Moreover, as a researcher she is uneasy with a lack of structure. You recommend that Dr. Davenport conduct a ______ study.
a. quantitative
b. qualitative

**23. Dr. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early adolescents come to make a connection between their personal lifestyle and environmental problems, while others don’t. Furthermore, among those who see the connection, why do some become committed to environmentalism while others do not? Dr. Greenwald looks forward to probing the thoughts of young teens on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues through “14-year-old eyes.” You recommend that Dr. Greenhill conduct a ______ study.
a. quantitative
b. qualitative

Essay Questions

24. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students. Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a qualitative approach to studying these questions. State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a qualitative research approach. Then explain why your question is better addressed using a qualitative, rather than a quantitative, methodology.

25. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students. Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a quantitative approach to studying these questions. State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a quantitative research approach. Then explain why your question is better addressed using a quantitative, rather than a qualitative, methodology.

26. Sometimes students believe that taking the time to prepare a complete and carefully designed research proposal is something to be preached, but not really practiced. Identify at least two different problems related to research design that are commonly encountered when doing research. For each problem, explain how a complete and detailed research proposal would help the researcher avoid the problem.

Chapter 6

WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. According to the textbook, the most effective research proposals:
a. are a brief outline of the study you intend to conduct without an excess of detail.
b. justify the study to be conducted by explaining how it will contribute to the professional literature.
c. are detailed and straightforward explanations of the research problem and methodology.
d. include an autobiographical section that explains how the researcher became interested in the research topic.

*2. A proposal for a quantitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
a. a statement of the problem, a review of the literature, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of how the study will be conducted.
b. a review of the literature, a statement of the problem, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of how the study will be conducted.
c. a review of the literature, a statement of the problem, a description of how the study will be conducted, an explanation of the means for collecting data.
d. a statement of the problem, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a review of the literature, a description of how the study will be conducted.

*3. A proposal for a qualitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
a. an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, a management plan, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding.
b. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, a management plan.
c. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, a management plan.
d. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, a management plan, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature.

*4. Proposals for ______ studies include a methodology section.
a. qualitative
b. quantitative
c. both quantitative and qualitative
d. neither quantitative or qualitative

*5. In ______ research proposal(s), the review of literature comes late in the document in conjunction with interpretation of data.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*6. In ______ research proposal(s), a specific research problem is clearly stated at the outset
of the proposal.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*7. In ______ research proposal(s), a specific plan for how the data will be handled is clearly laid out in the document.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*8. In ______ research proposal(s), specific hypotheses regarding findings are often stated.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*9. In regard to the style you will use for headings and subheadings in the research proposal:
a. there are no special formatting requirements unless the document is a thesis or dissertation.
b. all disciplines recognize the major formal styles, so it is a matter of personal choice.
c. the writer is free to show creativity as long as s/he is consistent throughout the document.
d. disciplines often dictate the use of specific formal styles, so you must find out what the expectations are.

*10. Experienced writers of research proposals typically:
a. plan to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
b. do not need to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
c. make revisions to the first draft of the proposal only if they are requested by a
reviewer.
d. may need to edit the first draft of the proposal for typos, but not content.

*11. When writing the proposal, you should assume that the reader:
a. will know which data analytic techniques are appropriate for your study without a detailed explanation.
b. is an expert in the area you are addressing and will be familiar with common issues, variables, instruments, etc.
c. can discern for him/herself what the importance of the study is.
d. knows nothing about the proposed project, so all the details must be thoroughly explained.

*12. When explaining how the data are to be analyzed and interpreted:
a. it is best to provide only a general plan as things will probably change over the course of the study anyway.
b. it is best to be as detailed as possible so all contingencies related to analysis and interpretation can be anticipated.
c. it is impossible to be highly detailed until one has the actual data in hand.
d. an overly specific plan may bias the analyses or interpretation, impairing the validity of the study.

*13. Research proposals that ______ are commonly judged to be of higher quality than proposals that do not.
a. favor straightforward vocabulary
b. employ complex sentence structure
c. favor a highly esoteric vocabulary
d. rely on the reader to draw inferences

*14. Three of the following are elements in the proposal revision process. Which one is NOT?
a. Reconsider the feasibility of what you are proposing to do.
b. Carefully assess the logic and organization of the information in the document.
c. Avoid breaks of 24 hours or more as the material will get too “cold” in your mind.
d. Seek feedback from knowledgeable others.

**15. The research proposal is best thought of as:
a. a general and flexible outline of how the research problem is to be investigated.
b. “Plan A,” with the expectation that “Plan B” or even “Plan C” will become necessary as the study unfolds.
c. a detailed and firm contract between the researcher and others who are involved in the research project (participants, supervisors, funding agencies, etc.)
d. a document that is written for others (internal review boards, funding agencies) and is of little value to the researcher.

Essay Questions

16. In regard to quantitative research proposals, novice researchers often find it very challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted in their study. Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section of the proposal.

17. Issues of feasibility are central to a well-planned research project. Discuss how feasibility issues come into play when deciding on the sampling plan.

18. Issues of feasibility are central to a well-planned research project. Discuss how feasibility issues come into play when choosing the measurement instruments or techniques.

19. There are unique challenges associated with conducting research on data that are already in existence (e.g., historical research). Discuss some of these unique challenges, pointing out pitfalls the researcher should be careful to avoid.

Chapter 7

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. In qualitative research the ______ is the most important instrument.
a. questionnaire
b. behavior checklist
c. researcher
d. participant

*2. In qualitative research, the fact that the research methodology may be vaguely described or very general in nature at the outset of the study indicates:
a. a normal and acceptable practice.
b. that the study is poorly designed.
c. that the researcher is inexperienced.
d. a common but unprofessional practice.

*3. Qualitative studies typically serve three of the following purposes. Which purpose do they NOT serve?
a. description of situations, processes, relationships, etc.
b. interpretation of information in order to gain new understanding
c. determining the final truth about a situation or phenomenon
d. evaluation of existing policies, practices, etc.

*4. In ______, a body of material is systematically examined for patterns, themes, or biases.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis

*5. In ______, a particular group of individuals is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. phenomenology
d. grounded theory

*6. In ______, the researcher studies the deep meaning an event or situation holds for other people.
a. phenomenology
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis
*7. In ______, a particular individual, program, or event is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. phenomenology
d. grounded theory

**8. Carl Compost has been living and working on a communal organic farm for the past six months. He wants to understand the political, environmental, and social perspectives shared by the members of the commune. Dr. Compost is probably employing a/an ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. ethnographic
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

**9. Daniel Daring is an emerging playwright whose works have begun to stir great passions in the major U.S. cities where they are staged. Researcher Eugenia Edge is “shadowing” Mr. Daring for six months in an attempt to understand the artistic process. Dr. Edge is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

**10. Helen Heartwell flew to New York City a few weeks after the September 11, 2001, bombing of the World Trade Center. She wanted to know how the victims of the attack were making sense of what had happened to them. Dr. Heartwell is probably employing a/an ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. ethnographic

**11. Richard Relic is carefully examining writings from the time of the U.S. Civil War to determine how each side characterized the position of their opponent. Dr. Relic is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

*12. The constant comparative method of data analysis is most associated with:
a. ethnography.
b. phenomenology.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis.

*13. The technique of participant observation is most associated with:
a. case study.
b. ethnography.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis.

*14. ______ is most useful in situations where current theory regarding the subject of investigation is inadequate or nonexistent.
a. Case study
b. Ethnography
c. Grounded theory
d. Phenomenology

*15. When conducting observations to be used as data in a qualitative study, it is:
a. always necessary to obtain informed consent from those being observed.
b. not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observations are being conducted in a public place.
c. not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observer is in full view of those being observed.
d. only necessary to obtain informed consent if the study will be published.

*16. If you interview two people about the same event and their stories diverge at certain points, you can conclude that:
a. at least one of the interviewees is not being fully honest with you.
b. at least one of the participants was not paying attention to what was going on.
c. they didn’t really both witness the same event.
d. the meaning people draw from an event can vary from person to person.

*17. Three of the following are techniques that strengthen the objectivity of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
a. The researcher should intentionally look for evidence that contradicts his/her hunches or hypotheses.
b. The researcher should collect two or more different kinds of data (e.g., observations and interviews).
c. The researcher should acknowledge personal biases or presumptions in the research report.
d. The researcher should rely as much as possible on a single well-informed respondent.

Essay Questions

18. A goal of qualitative research is to uncover the “multiple truths” that characterize any complex phenomenon or situation. What does the term “multiple truths” refer to in this usage?

19. A fundamental pitfall in qualitative research is to confuse the actual observations with the interpretation of the observations. Why is it important that these two things remain distinctly separate?

20. Dr. D is conducting an interview with Amber, who works as a cocktail waitress. Here is an excerpt:

Dr. D: What shift do you typically work?
Amber: Night. I come in a around 7:00 p.m. and work until 2:00 a.m.
Dr. D: Cocktail waitressing has a bad reputation. How bad is it to work here?
Amber: Not so bad. Most of our customers are pretty nice guys. They’re
regulars and they don’t drink too much and get out of control. In fact, if
one customer is giving me a hard time, another often steps in and helps out.
Dr. D: As the evening progresses, the men give you more and more problems,
don’t they? What do you do about that?
Amber: I ignore it as long as I can. I get the manager to step in if they don’t
straighten up.

Do you notice any problems with the interviewing technique of Dr. D? Describe the problems you see in the excerpts and then explain what Dr. D should do differently.

Chapter 8

HISTORICAL RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Historical research is chiefly concerned with:
a. the study of history.
b. the meaning of past events.
c. creating an accurate chronology of past events.
d. determining an “official” interpretation of a historical event.

*2. Historical research may include:
a. qualitative, but not quantitative, methods.
b. quantitative, but not qualitative, methods.
c. both qualitative and quantitative methods.
d. neither qualitative or quantitative methods.

**3. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, to her sister in Philadelphia represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.

**4. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Deloris Adams of Philadelphia, describing the life of her sister, Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.

**5. Professor McGrath is studying the history of African Americans in Oklahoma. Three of the following are primary data sources for Professor McGrath. Which one is NOT?
a. Census reports from the all-Black town of Taft
b. Photographs of Taft
c. Diaries of a school teacher in one of the first integrated schools in Taft
d. Articles from the Taft newspaper published in the late 19th century

*6. In historical research, bias:
a. generally does not exist to a problematic degree.
b. is less of a problem than in other forms of research.
c. is impossible for the researcher to detect.
d. can be used as an advantage to the researcher.

*7. In regard to bias in historical research, the researcher:
a. must be vigilant in regard to bias in secondary data, but it is not a problem with primary data.
b. must be vigilant in regard to bias in primary data, but it is not a problem with secondary data.
c. must be vigilant in regard to bias in both primary and secondary data.
d. can assume that the various biases will cancel each other out without special steps being taken by the researcher.

**8. Perry Prose is in possession of a letter allegedly written by President Theodore Roosevelt during his time in office. He has taken the letter to a number of experts, who have examined the paper, ink, handwriting, and content of the letter in an attempt to establish its authenticity. Dr. Prose is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

**9. Fran Freedom is trying to determine what the phrase “with liberty and justice for all” from the Pledge of Allegiance meant at the time it was penned. She suspects there were actually some limits on “all.” Dr. Freedom is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

**10. The information to the right is an example of:
a. ex post facto research.
b. a historiography.
c. a historic method.
d. a chronology.

*11. ______ is/are an appropriate focus of historical research.
a. Concepts
b. Ideas
c. People
d. all of the above

*12. Historical researchers can count on authoritative sources such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronology or the Cambridge Ancient History as accurate and complete accounts of history.
a. True
b. False

*13. In writing a historical research report, it is best to:
a. avoid mentioning alternative interpretations of events proposed by other scholars.
b. leave most of the interpretation of data to the reader rather than impose your own
point of view.
c. point out the weaknesses in the arguments or assertions you are making.
d. discuss the weaknesses, but not the strengths, of arguments put forth by other
scholars.

*14. A historical research report may differ from other research reports in that presentation of data and interpretation of data:
a. are confined to separate sections of the paper.
b. may not be included.
c. may be intertwined in a technical style of scientific writing.
d. may be intertwined in a flowing narrative style.

Essay Questions

15. One of the most challenging aspects of conducting historical research is systematically organizing the hundreds or thousands of notes that are collected in the course of the research project. Describe one method for handling this organizational challenge, including mention of both the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

16. Conducting rigorous historical research involves more than reading historical documents, taking notes, and organizing those notes. Explain.

17. The authors recommend that chronological data be arrayed in a time line as part of the interpretative process. What type of information can be revealed by this technique?

18. The authors recommend that chronological data be plotted on a map as part of the interpretative process. What type of information can be revealed by this technique?

Chapter 9

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Observational research, as a form of descriptive research,
a. focuses on rich narrative description of the phenomenon of interest.
b. involves counting or rating of behavior in as objective a manner as possible.
c. relies on open-ended techniques that can respond to the evolving situation.
d. allows the researcher to gather behavioral data in a relatively quick and easy
manner.

*2. Three of the following procedures or techniques are integral to observational research. Which one is NOT?
a. Pilot studies are used to test instruments and procedures.
b. Observers are carefully trained to follow specific criteria when recording the
observation data.
c. Multiple observers may independently rate the same behavior.
d. Observation instruments are intentionally general so as not to constrain the
observer.

*3. Correlational research allows the researcher to answer questions such as:
a. what is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B?
b. does change in Variable A cause change in Variable B?
c. is there a significant difference between scores on Variable A and scores on Variable B?
d. does change in Variable B causes change in Variable A?

**4. The scatterplot to the right indicates a ______ relationship between Variable A and Variable B.
a. weak
b. moderate
c. strong
d. indeterminate

**5. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in people’s preference for action movies. The researcher locates 50 people at each of the following ages: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 years. She asks them to rate their preference for action movies in relation to other sorts of movies. This is an example of a ______ design.
a. longitudinal
b. nested
c. cross-sectional
d. panel

**6. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in the music people prefer to listen to. The researcher locates 50 people who are about 20 years old. She sends these people a questionnaire every year for the next 10 years asking about the types of music they prefer to listen to. This is an example of a ______ design.
a. longitudinal
b. nested
c. cross-sectional
d. panel

*7. Among survey methods, _____ generally generate the highest response rate, and ______ generally generate the lowest response rate.
a. face-to-face interviews; telephone interviews
b. telephone interviews; questionnaires
c. face-to-face interviews; questionnaires
d. questionnaires; telephone interviews

*8. Advantages of questionnaires include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. large numbers of people can be contacted for a relatively low cost.
b. data can be gathered from a large number of people in a relatively short period of
time.
c. participants may feel more confident about their anonymity and therefore respond more honestly.
d. because questions are in written form, they are less likely to be misunderstood by respondents.

*9. Regarding the length of questionnaires to be used in survey research, which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. Including a large number of items on the survey assures that you will get useful data for all of your trouble.
b. Keeping the survey short makes it more likely people will be willing to complete it.
c. A relatively lengthy survey communicates your seriousness about the research endeavor so people will be more willing to complete it.
d. Shorter surveys produce data that are ambiguous and therefore not useful.

**10. “How unhappy are you with your current salary?”
This question violates which rule of good survey writing?
a. It is not quantifiable.
b. It makes an unwarranted assumption.
c. It fails to keep the respondent’s task simple.
d. It uses technical language that may not be known to all.

*11. The typical return rate for a survey mailed to strangers is about:
a. 80%
b. 65%
c. 50%
d. 35%

*12. In descriptive research, the researcher typically studies a______, then draws conclusions about the______.
a. sample; population
b. population; sample
c. sample; sample
d. population; population

**13. Polly Petunia is Chief Horticulturalist for the Southwest region, encompassing Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. She wants to survey amateur gardeners in her region to determine what, if any, water conservation practices they employ in their home gardening. Polly sends her survey to 150 randomly selected gardeners in each state. Polly is using:
a. purposive sampling.
b. proportional stratified sampling.
c. systematic sampling.
d. stratified random sampling.

**14. Paul Pollster, a political psychologist, wants to determine whether rates of voter participation in his home state vary between rural, urban, and suburban voters. He notes that there are more rural voters than suburban or urban voters in the state. Paul should use ______ in this study.
a. simple random sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. proportional stratified sampling
d. systematic sampling

**15. Simon Cinema wants to know what the audience thought of tonight’s advanced screening of a heralded psychological thriller called “I Can’t Sleep.” He and his research assistants stand outside the theatre exit and ask every fifth person leaving the theatre to answer several questions about their impression of the movie. Simon is using:
a. systematic sampling.
b. stratified random sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. purposive sampling.

**16. Danny Drive wants to know the relationship between intrinsic motivation and course grade among math students. He contacts a local professor who teaches several general education math classes and asks about the possibility of gathering data in her classes. Danny is using:
a. simple random sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. systematic sampling

**17. Edward Ethics is studying public opinion regarding prayer in public schools. He plans to gather survey data from a number of churches on Sunday mornings. He also wants to include a number of people who are not associated with an organized religion in his sample. Edward is using:
a. stratified random sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. purposive sampling.

Essay Questions

18. Your chapter identifies several weaknesses related to survey data. Note one of these weaknesses and discuss the associated problems and possible ways to minimize them.

19. In writing the cover letter to accompany a mailed survey, novice researchers often stress the immediacy of their need for the data. Is this the best approach to take in the cover letter? If not, what do you recommend instead?

20. The authors of your textbook suggest that sampling bias is virtually unavoidable and that it is important to disclose and discuss possible sources of bias in the study report. Do you agree? Explain your position.

Chapter 10

EXPERIMENTAL AND EX POST FACTO DESIGNS

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Experimental research differs from descriptive research in that it:
a. is less sensitive to sampling bias.
b. employs statistical analyses.
c. attempts to determine causality.
d. is conducted in a laboratory.

*2. In experimental design, the variable that is manipulated is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

*3. In experimental design, the variable that reflects the outcome of the treatment is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**4. “There will be gender differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy.”
In this hypothesis, gender is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**5. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
In this hypothesis, mood elevation is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**6. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
In this hypothesis, type of therapy is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. confounding variable.
c. independent variable.
d. constant.

**7. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
During a test of this hypothesis, it was discovered that some of the participants lived with family members and others lived alone. This variable, living situation, is a/an _____.
a. independent variable.
b. dependent variable.
c. constant.
d. confounding variable.

**8. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of the semester, all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the traditional method constitute the:
a. placebo group.
b. treatment group.
c. sample.
d. control group.

**9. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of semester all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the problem-based method constitute the:
a. placebo group.
b. treatment group.
c. sample.
d. control group.

**10. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method for Unit 1 of the course. Then all sections switch instructional method for Unit 2. He plans to compare the performance of the two groups of sections on their Unit 1 and Unit 2 exams. This study employs a ______ design.
a. within subjects (repeated measures)
b. quasi-experimental
c. true experimental
d. ex post facto

**11. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for many years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the dependent variable.
a. Doggie Do-Right
b. type of dog training program
c. score on the dog obedience checklist
d. obedience training versus no training

**12. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the independent variable.
a. Doggie Do-Right
b. type of dog training program
c. score on the dog obedience checklist
d. obedience training versus no training

**13. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). This study employed a/an ______ design.
a. one-shot experimental
b. ex post facto
c. posttest-only control group design
d. within subjects

**14. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the independent variable.
a. score on the “attitude toward public schools” measure
b. experience with Indian boarding school
c. gender of participant
d. age of participant

**15. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the dependent variable.
a. score on the “attitude toward public schools” measure
b. experience with Indian boarding school
c. gender of participant
d. age of participant

**16. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. This study employs a/an ______ design.
a. pre-experimental
b. factorial
c. true experimental
d. ex post facto

*17. Three of the following are examples of true experimental designs. Which one is NOT?
a. Multiple baseline design
b. Solomon four-group design
c. Within subjects design
d. Pretest–posttest control group design

*18. Three of the following are examples of quasi-experimental designs. Which one is NOT?
a. Nonrandomized pretest–posttest control group design
b. Control group time-series design
c. Single-subjects design
d. One-shot experimental design

*19. A meta-analysis is used when:
a. the researcher wishes to analyze the analyses of a number of existing studies.
b. there is little existing literature to use as a launching pad for a new study.
c. the researcher has no access to sophisticated statistical techniques.
d. several researchers jointly conduct a large-scale study.

Essay Questions

20. A researcher is studying the effectiveness of two different resident adolescent drug treatment programs. Program A is used at Summerhill adolescent facility. Program B is used at Winterdale adolescent facility. Because random assignment to treatments is not possible in this situation, what can the researcher do to minimize possible effects of sample bias?

21. Factorial designs allow researchers to study the effects of more than one independent variable simultaneously. Why is this advantageous? What information can factorial designs yield that nonfactorial designs cannot?

Chapter 11

STRATEGIES FOR ANALYZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. How are inferential statistics different from descriptive statistics?
a. Descriptive statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.
b. Descriptive statistics verify the accuracy of the inferential statistics.
c. Inferential statistics describe the results of a study.
d. Inferential statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.

*2. ____ are characteristics of samples, wheras _______ are characteristics of populations.
a. Concepts; statistics
b. Parameters; statistics
c. Statistics; parameters
d. Parameters; estimations

*3. In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores falls between one standard deviation below the mean and one standard deviation above the mean?
a. 16%
b. 50%
c. 68%
d. 90%

*4. Dorothy has been surveying the Munchkins to determine their level of life satisfaction. The possible scores on the life satisfaction questionnaire range from 0 to 100. If Dorothy decides to statistically compare the male and female Munchkins on their level of satisfaction, she should use a _______ test.
a. parametric
b. nonparametric

**5. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mean of this set of scores is ______.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 4.25
d. 4.5

**6. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The median of this set of scores is ______.
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 4.5
**7. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mode of this set of scores is ______.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 4.22
d. 4.5

*8. The measure(s) of central tendency that is/are appropriate for use with nominal data is/are:
a. the median only.
b. the mode only.
c. the median and the mean.
d. the median and the mode.

*9. When summarizing ordinal data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.
a. arithmetic mean
b. mode
c. median
d. geometric mean

*10. When reporting growth data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.
a. arithmetic mean
b. mode
c. median
d. geometric mean

*11. When the ____ is the measure of central tendency, the _____ is the most appropriate and informative measure of dispersion.
a. median; standard deviation
b. median; interquartile range
c. mean; interquartile range
d. mean; range

**12. An exam was given to two sections of the same course. In Section 1, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 7. In Section 2, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 13. Which of the following conclusions is accurate?
a. Section 1 did better on the exam than Section 2.
b. Section 1 scores were more variable than Section 2.
c. Section 1 scores were less variable than Section 2.
d. Section 1 did less well on the exam than Section 2.

*13. The z-score, or standard score, allows the research to determine:
a. how far a target individual’s score is from the group mean.
b. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored above the target individual.
c. the mean for the population based on the mean for the sample.
d. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual.
*14. The percentile rank allows the researcher to determine:
a. how far a target individual’s score is from the group mean.
b. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored above the target individual.
c. the mean for the population based on the mean for the sample.
d. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual.

**15. Danzell is a purchasing agent for a major grocery store chain. He has noticed over the years that the higher the outdoor temperature, the more likely people are to buy fresh fruit. Based on Danzell’s observations, we would say there is ______ relationship between outdoor temperature and buying of fresh fruit.
a. a positive
b. a negative
c. a causal
d. no

**16. Frank Fitness found a correlation coefficient of –.74 between hours of strenuous exercise each week and a standard measure of body mass. He interprets this to mean that there is a ______ and ______ relationship between hours of strenuous exercise and body mass.
a. strong; positive
b. strong; negative
c. weak; positive
d. weak; negative

*17. Three of the following factors are associated with a relatively small standard error of the mean. Which one is NOT?
a. Sample size is relatively large.
b. Sample standard deviation is relatively small.
c. The variance in the sample is relatively large.
d. The sample is highly representative of the population.

**18. Seamus has determined that there is a 95% chance that the number of people visiting the Blarney Stone in the month of June will be between 1,760 and 2,025. This is a/an ______ estimate.
a. point
b. interval

*19. Statistical hypothesis testing involves testing the:
a. research hypothesis.
b. probability level.
c. significance level.
d. null hypothesis.

**20. On the basis of statistical findings, Ron determines that the differences between males and females on a test of spatial reasoning are not due merely to chance. If, in fact, there are no gender differences in the population, Ron will have made a:
a. Type I error.
b. Type II error.

**21. On the basis of statistical findings, Becky determines that the difference between males and females on a test of abstract mathematical reasoning is merely due to chance. If, in fact, there are gender differences in the population, Becky will have made a:
a. Type I error.
b. Type II error.

Essay Questions

22. A medical researcher is concerned about mistakenly concluding that a new medication is effective when it really is not. What type of error is the researcher concerned about making (Type I or Type II)? Describe what the researcher might do to decrease the likelihood of making that type of error. Discuss ramifications of your suggested approach for other types of error in the study.

23. Note several steps researchers can take to optimize the power of their statistical tests.

24. After completing planned analyses, the researcher must interpret the results of statistical tests. Note several steps that are involved in such interpretation.

Chapter 12

TECHNICAL DETAILS: STYLE, FORMAT, AND ORGANIZATION
OF THE RESEARCH REPORT

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. When writing the research report, the findings of statistical analyses are typically reported in the ______ section.
a. review of literature
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*2. When writing the research report, the descriptions of instruments used for data gathering are typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*3. When writing the research report, the interpretation of study findings is typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*4. When writing the research report, the research problem is typically described in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. review of literature
c. method
d. results

*5. When writing the research report, information regarding the study design is typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. review of literature
c. method
d. results

*6. The reference list is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*7. Copies of the survey instruments are included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*8. The abstract is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*9. In a quantitative study, the description of participants (subjects) is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. method section.

*10. The acknowledgments are included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

**11. “Johnson eliminated three interviews from the data set due to noncompliance on the part of the respondents.”
This sentence is an example of:
a. active voice.
b. passive voice.

**12. “The third subscale was dropped from further consideration due to problems with internal consistency.”
This sentence is an example of:
a. active voice.
b. passive voice.

*13. The style manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that ____ tense be used when writing the method section and ______ tense be used when presenting conclusions.
a. present; present
b. past; past
c. present; past
d. past; present

Essay Questions

14. Throughout your textbook the authors return to the importance of interpreting the findings of a research project. Explain why this is an essential element in a high-quality research report.

15. Imagine that you just completed a research project in which the data failed to support your chief hypothesis. Why might this have happened? Discuss several possibilities.

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Chapter 1 Through 12
Chapter 1

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. To be considered true research, a project must:
a. gather together a body of existing information and communicate it in a clear and
concise way.
b. uncover obscure or esoteric information and bring it to the consideration of the broader research community.
c. gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some phenomenon.
d. produce definitive conclusions regarding the subject of study.

**2. Which of the following examples illustrates research the way it is defined in your textbook?
a. Sally is writing a paper about the effects of the Harry Potter books on the reading habits of fourth graders in the United States and United Kingdom. She goes to a research library to find information to include in her paper.
b. Ian wants to know why the population of songbirds has declined in recent years in the Sutton Wilderness Area. He carefully collects soil and water samples, systematically surveys the entire area for predators, and then sits down to make sense of his findings.
c. Leonard is starting a woodworking business and is not sure how to calculate the cost of his labor so he can be both profitable and fair to the customers. He asks several established business owners how they calculate labor changes.
d. Bill is doing a report on the sonnets of Shakespeare. He carefully reads a number of sonnets and then carefully reads scholarly reviews of those same sonnets written by various Shakespeare scholars. He synthesizes all of this information in his report.

*3. Which of the following is defined as an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon?
a. Theory
b. Inference
c. Hypothesis
d. Interpretation

*4. Which of the following is defined as a reasonable guess, or a logical supposition, for explaining the phenomenon under investigation?
a. Theory
b. Inference
c. Hypothesis
d. Interpretation
*5. The process of formal research begins with the identification of:
a. research hypotheses.
b. a feasible research plan.
c. available participants.
d. a research problem.

*6. The purpose of formal research is to:
a. prove or disprove the study hypotheses.
b. support or fail to support the study hypotheses.
c. identify alternative hypotheses.
d. move beyond the need for hypotheses.

*7. Assumptions come into play:
a. in regard to nearly every aspect of every research study.
b. in qualitative research but not in quantitative research.
c. when research is not well thought out.
d. rarely, if ever.

*8. Well-designed research manages to minimize or avoid:
a. assumptions.
b. predictions.
c. theory.
d. bias.

*9. Researchers ______ their phenomenon of interest on the basis of data analysis.
a. make inferences about
b. know facts about
c. define
d. identify

*10. A primary function of the methodology is to:
a. guide and control the acquisition of data.
b. extract meaning from the data that have been gathered.
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b

*11. Three of the following come into play as the researcher analyzes the data. Which one does NOT?
a. The study hypothesis/hypotheses
b. Preferences for certain outcomes
c. The logical reasoning process
d. Assumptions

*12. A well-designed and well-conducted study:
a. answers questions of importance in the field.
b. raises questions of importance to the field.
c. answers some questions and raises other questions.

*13. Reading the professional literature in the field of interest:
a. will enhance an individual’s ability to design and conduct high-quality research.
b. will stifle creativity and constrain the individual to the status quo.
c. will make little difference to the quality and impact of the individual’s work.
d. is necessary only for the leaders in the field.

*14. One indication that a piece of information is of high quality is that the information:
a. is found on the Internet.
b. is found in a juried (or refereed) research report.
c. resulted from a project that received corporate funding.
d. is the firsthand account of a personal experience.

Essay Questions

15. Your chapter states: “Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical.” Explain why “cyclical” is an appropriate description of the research process. Then explain why “helical” is a better description.

16. Describe an example of the word research being used inappropriately. Be clear about how your example deviates from the definition of research offered in the chapter.

17. Graduate professors like to insist that the completion of thesis or dissertation research is not merely an “academic exercise” or final hurdle to obtaining the desired degree. Explain at least one personal benefit that the individual derives from completing a high- quality thesis or dissertation. Then explain at least one societal benefit that follows from the individual’s completion of a high-quality thesis or dissertation.

18. In the most rigorous tests of hypotheses, the researcher sets out to fail to support the hypothesis. Why is the attempt to fail to support a more rigorous test of the hypothesis than an attempt to support it?

Chapter 2

TOOLS OF RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. A ______ is a specific mechanism or strategy the researcher uses to collect,
manipulate, or interpret data.
a. research tool
b. research methodology
c. statistical test
d. theory

*2. Research methodology refers to:
a. the general approach the researcher takes to conducting a research project.
b. a specific device the researcher uses to collect data.
c. the specific theoretical basis of the research project.
d. the statistical tests to be employed in a research project.

**3. Sam wants to find high-quality research reports related to attribution theory that have been published in professional journals. Sam’s best approach would be to:
a. consult the library catalog.
b. consult an online or electronic database.
c. search the World Wide Web.
d. browse the shelves in the library.

**4. Sonya is a college freshman who has just been assigned her first research paper, and she doesn’t know how to get started finding information. Sonya should:
a. search the World Wide Web.
b. consult an online or electronic database.
c. consult a reference librarian.
d. browse the shelves in the library.

*5. ______ allows a researcher to receive news in an area of special interest and discuss that news with others.
a. A search engine
b. E-mail
c. A list server
d. A Web browser

*6. ______ allows researchers to personally correspond practically instantly with other users around the world.
a. A search engine
b. E-mail
c. A list server
d. A Web browser

**7. John wants to begin using e-mail. Which of the following steps is NOT necessary for John to get started as an email user?
a. Request an e-mail account
b. Obtain necessary software from the e-mail provider and load it onto a computer
c. Learn to use a Web browser to explore the Internet
d. Learn how to access and use the e-mail provider’s services

*8. Three of the following statements about measurement in the research setting are accurate. Which one is NOT accurate?
a. The purpose of measurement is to systematically limit the data in a way that makes it quantifiable.
b. Measurement is applied by researchers only to insubstantial phenomena.
c. Measurement is a tool that aids researchers in interpreting their observations.
d. Systematic measurement assists researchers in obtaining objectivity in their researcher.

*9. An ordinal scale of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. is tied to an absolute zero.
c. incorporates equal units of measurement.
d. communicates greater than and less than relationships.

*10. An interval level of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. communicates rank-order information.
c. incorporates equal units of measurement.
d. is tied to an absolute zero.

*11. A ratio scale of measurement:
a. assigns a name to a category.
b. communicates rank-order information.
c. is especially appropriate for opinion data.
d. is tied to an absolute zero.

**12. The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is that only one of them:
a. includes an absolute zero.
b. uses equal units of measurement.
c. supports the use of statistical analyses.
d. is used in research with human subjects.
**13. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report how politically conservative they are. It includes a 7-point scale where 1 is “not at all conservative” and 7 is “extremely conservative.” This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**14. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their highest level of education by choosing from these options: “some high school,” “completed high school,” “some college,” or “completed 4-year college degree.” This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**15. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their age in years. This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

**16. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report whether they are currently living in an “urban,” “suburban,” or “rural” setting. This is an example of a/an:
a. nominal scale.
b. ordinal scale.
c. interval scale.
d. ratio scale.

*17. ______ refers to whether a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure.
a. Validity
b. Reliability
c. Accountability
d. Robustness

*18. ______ refers to how consistently a measurement tool will yield the same result when the phenomenon under investigation does not change.
a. Validity
b. Reliability
c. Replicability
d. Dependability

**19. Kade has spent the past month carefully observing a group of third graders on the playground during recess, taking note of how the students interact with one another. On the basis of these observations, Kade is drawing conclusions about the interaction styles of boys and girls. This is an example of:
a. hypothetical logic.
b. deductive logic.
c. inductive logic.
d. propositional logic.

**20. Kimberly knows that teenagers often do not make good decisions in areas where they have little knowledge. She also knows that most teens have little knowledge about human sexuality. Therefore, Kimberly believes that teens are likely to make poor decisions about sexual activity. This is an example of:
a. inductive logic.
b. propositional logic.
c. transductive logic.
d. deductive logic.

Essay Questions

21. In your opinion, what is the one greatest advantage to society of the information revolution? What is the one greatest disadvantage? Support your answer.

22. Near the end of Chapter 2 the authors of your textbook include a relatively lengthy section on writing the research report. Why is it important that research results are carefully written up and made available to the scientific community?

23. Do recent technological advances (e.g., the World Wide Web, electronic databases) assure that future research will be of higher quality, or of greater utility, than past research? Support your answer.

Chapter 3

THE PROBLEM: THE HEART OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Research problems, as defined in your textbook:
a. are identified by experts in the field, and not typically knowable by novices.
b. clearly and completely specify important questions that are currently unanswered in a particular field of inquiry.
c. are broad, general statements about the incomplete state of understanding in a particular field of inquiry.
d. can be addressed by compiling and synthesizing existing information in a way that sheds light on the issue of interest.

*2. Basic research is:
a. research intended to enhance basic knowledge about the physical, biological, psychological, or social world or to shed light on historical, cultural, or aesthetic phenomena.
b. large scale research performed under contract with a governmental agency such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), etc.
c. informal research conducted locally by a small staff with a small budget, the purpose of which is to pave the way for larger research initiatives.
d. research intended to address issues that have immediate relevance to current practices, procedures, and policies.

*3. Applied research is:
a. research intended to enhance basic knowledge about the physical, biological, psychological, or social world or to shed light on historical, cultural, or aesthetic phenomena.
b. large-scale research performed under contract with a governmental agency such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), etc.
c. informal research conducted by a small staff with a small budget, the purpose of which is to shed light on a problem of local interest.
d. research intended to address issues that have immediate relevance to current practices, procedures, and policies.

**4. Which of the following represents a well-written basic research problem?
a. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
d. “What is the ratio of native-born students to international students on the campuses of major U.S. state universities?”

**5. Which of the following represents a well-written applied research problem?
a. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”
d. “What is the ratio of native-born students to international students on the campuses of major U.S. state universities?”

**6. Three of the following questions lend themselves well to formal research. Which one does NOT?
a. “How does the organization of mathematical information in long-term memory differ between 3-year-olds and 13-year-olds?”
b. “How do business teams of six or fewer members compare to teams of more than six members in terms of productivity?”
c. “Does message medium, print versus television, impact the effectiveness of public service health messages?”
d. “Which general education course is more interesting, U.S. History or World Music?”

*7. Three of the following are characteristics of a well-written research problem. Which one is NOT?
a. The problem statement includes jargon associated with the field.
b. The problem statement clearly delimits the object(s) of study.
c. The problem statement identifies the important factors to be investigated in the study.
d. The problem statement explicitly identifies assumptions.

*8. A common weakness of research problems is that they:
a. delimit the object(s) of study.
b. constrain the variables to be investigated.
c. implicitly rest on common assumptions.
d. incorporate a number of subproblems.

**9. “What proportion of workers hired by selected factories in the state of Oklahoma between 1995 and 2000 held four-year college degrees?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
b. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
c. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**10. “What do underemployed U.S. workers (i.e., those workers who are employed, but not in positions for which they have specialized training or expertise) identify as the primary reason for their inability to find suitable employment?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
b. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
c. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**11. “What is the correlation between an index of civic-mindedness and years of involvement in local organizations and charities among members of city councils of selected midsized cities in the northeastern United States?”
The chief weakness of this research problem is that:
a. it implies only description of the data, not interpretation.
b. it does not lead to the creation/discovery of new information.
c. it lacks clarity or completeness in the problem statement.
d. studying the question as stated is not feasible.

**12. “Among social workers in selected U.S. urban areas, are the personality characteristics of Need for Structure or In-Group Preference related to prejudicial social judgments about African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans?”
Which of the following is a well-stated subproblem that follows from this research problem?
a. Which group is more discriminated against by the public at large in each of the selected areas: African Americans, Latino Americans, or Asian Americans?
b. What is the most valid existing measure of In-Group Preference?
c. What is the relationship between an index of Need for Structure and an index of prejudice targeting attitudes about Asian Americans among the selected social workers?
d. Which analytic technique is best suited to addressing the research problem, multiple regression or path analysis?

*13. In regard to research questions and hypotheses, a high-quality research study will:
a. articulate only research questions, not hypotheses, so as not to constrain the possible findings.
b. articulate only hypotheses, not research questions, in order to preserve the scientific rigor of the investigation.
c. focus only on those questions that can support the correctness of current hypotheses or theoretical positions.
d. articulate either research questions or hypotheses depending on the nature of the study.

**14. Which of the following represents a null hypothesis?
a. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.
b. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.
c. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?
d. None of the above

**15. Which of the following represents a research hypothesis?
a. Class A high school basketball teams who employ a sports psychologist will have a higher proportion of wins over the course of the season than comparable teams who do not employ a sports psychologist.
b. There will be no difference in rate of skill improvement between college gymnasts who practice meditation and those who do not.
c. Does incorporating relaxation exercises into the daily practice routine of college vocal majors enhance their performance confidence?
d. None of the above

*16. The recommended order of tasks in preparing a research proposal is:
a. state the problem and subproblems, note the assumptions, note the delimitations, define the terms, note the research questions/hypotheses.
b. state the problem and subproblems, note the delimitations, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the assumptions, define the terms.
c. state the problem and subproblems, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the assumptions, define the terms, note the delimitations.
d. state the problem and subproblems, note the research questions/hypotheses, note the delimitations, define the terms, note the assumptions.

*17. Three of the following comprise the setting of the research problem. Which one does NOT?
a. A clear description of all measurement tools to be used in the research project
b. A clear statement of what the researcher will and will not do in the course of the study
c. A clear statement of the assumptions on which the research problem rests
d. A clear definition of all terms related to the research problem that might be misunderstood by a reader

Essay Questions

18. Why is it important that the researcher articulate, as clearly as possible, all assumptions that affect the research problem?

19. Your textbook authors recommend explicitly defining any term that might be misunderstood by someone reading the research proposal. If the research proposal is being written chiefly for use and review by researchers, why is such a step necessary?

20. Daphne has been a member of a research team studying interpersonal aggression among preschoolers for more than a year. In that time, her team has repeatedly employed a consistent set of techniques and procedures to study preschoolers as they interact in a number of settings. The procedures revolve around volunteer mothers bringing their children to the university child development lab for a “play session” that is the basis of the formal observations. Settings they have studied so far include: the university pre-school, affluent local day-care centers, and a pre-kindergarten program being offered in the neighborhood school district. All of these settings were fairly racially homogenous.

Daphne has just learned that a friend of a friend can help her gain research access, in the near future, to preschoolers in an unusually racially diverse though impoverished preschool setting. Daphne decides she has no time to prepare a formal research proposal before embarking on the study. “Besides,” she thinks, “this study should go just like all the others we’ve done.”

Is Daphne leaving herself open to problems in this situation, or is she safe moving ahead with no formal proposal, given how familiar she is with the study techniques and procedures?

Chapter 4

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Generally speaking, the best time to begin the literature review associated with a specific research project is:
a. after the research problem has been clearly articulated.
b. after the data have been collected, but before they are analyzed.
c. based on personal preference; there is no single best time.
d. before or during the formulation of the research problem.

*2. If you want to find information about books available in your local library, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the World Wide Web

*3. If you want to conduct a keyword or author search of research reports published in professional journals, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the World Wide Web

*4. If you want to find statistics on health care spending broken down by state, ______ will probably be your best resource.
a. the library catalog
b. government publications
c. an online database
d. the reference lists of important papers in your area

**5. If an important reference you want to include in your literature review is checked out to another library patron, you might:
a. obtain it through interlibrary loan.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. decide to make do without it.

**6. If an important recent research article that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, you might:
a. cite it anyway for the benefit of the reader.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. decide to make do without it.

**7. If an important book that you want to include in your literature review is not owned by your library, your best move would probably be to:
a. obtain it through interlibrary loan.
b. obtain it by asking the library to recall the reference.
c. obtain it through an online document delivery service.
d. cite it anyway for the benefit of the reader.

*8. ______ is an example of a search engine.
a. Altavista
b. Books in Print
c. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)
d. Humanities Index

*9. ______ is an example of an electronic database.
a. Altavista
b. Books in Print
c. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)
d. Humanities Index

**10. Jane wants to search for information about the variety of attention disorders that are seen in childhood. Which of the following sets of keywords would best get Jane started on an effective and efficient search?
a. “attention disorders”
b. “ADHD,” “ADD,” and “children”
c. “disorders” and “children”
d. “attention disorders” and “children”

*11. If a researcher has completed a thorough search of the World Wide Web:
a. the literature search can be concluded.
b. it may also be fruitful to search an electronic database.
c. it may also be fruitful to search the Internet.
d. he/she will find largely redundant information on an electronic database.

*12. The main purpose of the review of the literature is to:
a. acknowledge the work of others by listing their findings prior to proposing your own project.
b. show how your study is superior to other work done in the area.
c. publicly demonstrate your mastery of the research literature in your area.
d. show how your study is related to, and extends, other work in the area.

*13. A well-structured literature review:
a. contains highly detailed descriptions of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.
b. begins with those studies most closely related to the research problem, then opens up to a broader perspective.
c. begins with broad/general information, then narrows the focus to those studies most closely related to the research problem.
d. contains general summaries of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.

*14. The review of the literature can be curtailed when:
a. you are no longer encountering new ideas or information.
b. all of the work done by top researchers in the area has been reviewed.
c. all published work related to a topic has been reviewed.
d. two to four weeks have been devoted to the search.

*15. A well-written literature review:
a. avoids evaluation or critique of the literature reviewed, so as not to bias the opinion of the reader.
b. emphasizes critique and synthesis of the work of others that is related to your own research problem.
c. avoids summarizing the work of others so that details of the original work are not lost in the reviewing process.
d. emphasizes detailed reporting of each piece of research included in the literature review.

*16. Typically, the literature review should:
a. include few or no works more than five years old to avoid having the work become prematurely obsolete.
b. be limited to work coming out of the very best labs and universities in the country.
c. give a broad overview of the area, without getting bogged down in the details of particular studies or theoretical perspectives.
d. emphasize how the studies being reviewed are related to the research problem under consideration.

Essay Questions

17. Describe three benefits of conducting a thorough review of existing literature before writing a research proposal.

18. Kirby is conducting a literature review in preparation for his study of “expectations regarding the sharing of financial and practical responsibilities among married and cohabiting couples in which both partners are between the ages of 20 and 29.” Conducting a keyword search on “couples” and “responsibility,” Kirby has generated a lengthy list of research articles. He decides to shorten the list of potential articles by eliminating all articles that were not published in prestigious research journals. He will include all the remaining articles in his literature review. What is your opinion of Kirby’s approach to selecting articles for the literature review? Explain.

19. You are reading a literature review written by a novice researcher in your field. You notice that the researcher seems to have relied heavily on the World Wide Web in preparing the literature review. Your hunch is supported when you glance at the reference page and find a long list of Internet addresses. What goes through your mind regarding the quality and adequacy of the literature review in this situation?

Chapter 5

PLANNING YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. A good research plan, according to your textbook, includes:
a. specific procedures and data sources, but does not lock the researcher into an analysis plan.
b. initial procedures and key data sources, but is also open to modification as the project progresses.
c. a specific plan regarding data sources and analyses, although information regarding the specific research sample is best left open.
d. includes specific sampling plan, procedures, data sources, and analysis plan.

*2. The basic format of the quantitative research process includes (in part), in chronological order:
a. pose the question, pose a hypothesis, search the literature, collect the data.
b. clearly state the research question, collect data, review the literature, write up the
findings.
c. review the literature, identify a question, collect data, analyze data.
d. pose a hypothesis, collect data, analyze data, review the literature.

*3. When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, universality refers to the fact that:
a. the research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.
b. another researcher in the same field, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.
c. a well-designed research project could be carried out by any competent researcher; it does not rely on a specific individual.
d. the phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

*4. When considering general criteria for high-quality research projects, replicability refers to the fact that:
a. the research design allows the researcher to control those factors that are central to the success of the project.
b. another researcher, using the same procedures under the same circumstances to research the same question, would obtain comparable results.
c. a well-designed research project could be carried out by a specific individual conducting research in the same field.
d. the phenomena of interest must be quantified in some systematic way.

*5. Three of the following accurately characterize data. Which one does NOT necessarily characterize data?
a. Data may be elusive.
b. Data can be volatile.
c. Data are ever changing.
d. Data reveal truth.

**6. Charlotte, an anthropologist, has been living in an Incan village for three years. During that time Charlotte has become expert in Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers in the community. For Charlotte, observing weaving constitutes:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.
c. informal data.
d. nonempirical data.

**7. Charlotte wrote a book about her experience as an anthropologist living in an Incan village for three years and becoming an expert weaver. Her book was widely read by other anthropologists, including Mira, who is an expert in Navaho weaving. For Mira, Charlotte’s book constitutes:
a. hearsay data.
b. secondary data.
c. informal data.
d. primary data.

**8. Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning. He is left somewhat confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items. Sean’s confusion indicates a lack of ______ regarding the task.
a. construct validity
b. content validity
c. criterion validity
d. face validity

**9. A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-established measure of interpersonal sensitivity. She finds that the two instruments are highly related, which supports the ______ of the new instrument.
a. predictive validity
b. content validity
c. criterion validity
d. face validity

**10. A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism. To test out his new instrument, he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire. Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire. This is an indication of the ______ of the new instrument.
a. criterion validity
b. content validity
c. face validity
d. predictive validity

**11. Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children. Separately, they each watch a videotape of four children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session. They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly similar. This is an example of ______ reliability.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

**12. Dr. Drive is testing a 10-question measure of achievement motivation. He notes that if his respondents agree with the first question, they tend to also agree with the other nine. Likewise, if his respondents disagree with the first question, they tend of disagree with the other nine. This is an indication of good ______ reliability.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

**13. Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group in early April, then again in early May. By comparing the two sets of scores, the professor can assess the ______ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness.
a. interrater
b. internal consistency
c. equivalent form
d. test–retest

*14. Three of the following are associated with quantitative research methods. Which one is NOT?
a. The purpose is to explain or predict.
b. It is assumed that the findings will generalize to similar others.
c. Deductive reasoning is applied to data analysis and interpretation.
d. Statistical analyses are the primary source of findings.

*15. Three of the following are associated with qualitative research methods. Which one is NOT?
a. The purpose is to describe or explain.
b. No data are gathered as part of this approach.
c. Textual data are gathered from a small number of participants.
d. The study is context bound.

*16. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the internal validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
a. Conduct the study in a controlled laboratory setting.
b. Conduct a double-blind experiment.
c. Make participants fully aware of your expected findings.
d. Build in opportunities for triangulation.

*17. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the external validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
a. Conduct the study in a real-life setting.
b. Assure that you have a representative sample.
c. Replicate the study under a variety of relevant conditions.
d. Allow flexibility in procedures and instruments.

*18. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the credibility or dependability of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
a. Spend extensive time in the field studying the phenomenon of interest.
b. Acquire rich and detailed descriptions of the phenomena being studied.
c. Exclude participants who have experiences or opinions that are very different from those of others in the study.
d. Ask participants to comment on the conclusions being drawn from the study.

*19. The requirement to keep information provided by research participants confidential applies:
a. to legal minors (children under the age of 18), but not adults.
b. only in cases where it is specifically requested by the participant.
c. to all persons under almost all conditions.
d. only in cases where participants divulge information that is potentially illegal.

*20. The altering of data is allowable:
a. when it is clear that the participant marked a response in error.
b. when the researcher suspects a participant of being careless.
c. when the researcher suspects a participant of misunderstanding the question.
d. under no circumstances.

**21. Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. Participants will be seniors in local high school history classes. She hopes to publish her findings in the History Teacher Quarterly. Does Dr. Davenport need internal review board (IRB) approval for this study?
a. Yes
b. No
c. Only if the study is accepted for publication

**22. Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. She knows there is a large research literature regarding similar influences on learning, and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of high school history students. Moreover, as a researcher she is uneasy with a lack of structure. You recommend that Dr. Davenport conduct a ______ study.
a. quantitative
b. qualitative

**23. Dr. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early adolescents come to make a connection between their personal lifestyle and environmental problems, while others don’t. Furthermore, among those who see the connection, why do some become committed to environmentalism while others do not? Dr. Greenwald looks forward to probing the thoughts of young teens on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues through “14-year-old eyes.” You recommend that Dr. Greenhill conduct a ______ study.
a. quantitative
b. qualitative

Essay Questions

24. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students. Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a qualitative approach to studying these questions. State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a qualitative research approach. Then explain why your question is better addressed using a qualitative, rather than a quantitative, methodology.

25. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students. Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a quantitative approach to studying these questions. State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a quantitative research approach. Then explain why your question is better addressed using a quantitative, rather than a qualitative, methodology.

26. Sometimes students believe that taking the time to prepare a complete and carefully designed research proposal is something to be preached, but not really practiced. Identify at least two different problems related to research design that are commonly encountered when doing research. For each problem, explain how a complete and detailed research proposal would help the researcher avoid the problem.

Chapter 6

WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. According to the textbook, the most effective research proposals:
a. are a brief outline of the study you intend to conduct without an excess of detail.
b. justify the study to be conducted by explaining how it will contribute to the professional literature.
c. are detailed and straightforward explanations of the research problem and methodology.
d. include an autobiographical section that explains how the researcher became interested in the research topic.

*2. A proposal for a quantitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
a. a statement of the problem, a review of the literature, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of how the study will be conducted.
b. a review of the literature, a statement of the problem, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of how the study will be conducted.
c. a review of the literature, a statement of the problem, a description of how the study will be conducted, an explanation of the means for collecting data.
d. a statement of the problem, an explanation of the means for collecting data, a review of the literature, a description of how the study will be conducted.

*3. A proposal for a qualitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
a. an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, a management plan, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding.
b. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, a management plan.
c. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature, a management plan.
d. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological grounding, a management plan, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature.

*4. Proposals for ______ studies include a methodology section.
a. qualitative
b. quantitative
c. both quantitative and qualitative
d. neither quantitative or qualitative

*5. In ______ research proposal(s), the review of literature comes late in the document in conjunction with interpretation of data.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*6. In ______ research proposal(s), a specific research problem is clearly stated at the outset
of the proposal.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*7. In ______ research proposal(s), a specific plan for how the data will be handled is clearly laid out in the document.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*8. In ______ research proposal(s), specific hypotheses regarding findings are often stated.
a. both quantitative and qualitative
b. neither quantitative or qualitative
c. a quantitative
d. a qualitative

*9. In regard to the style you will use for headings and subheadings in the research proposal:
a. there are no special formatting requirements unless the document is a thesis or dissertation.
b. all disciplines recognize the major formal styles, so it is a matter of personal choice.
c. the writer is free to show creativity as long as s/he is consistent throughout the document.
d. disciplines often dictate the use of specific formal styles, so you must find out what the expectations are.

*10. Experienced writers of research proposals typically:
a. plan to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
b. do not need to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
c. make revisions to the first draft of the proposal only if they are requested by a
reviewer.
d. may need to edit the first draft of the proposal for typos, but not content.

*11. When writing the proposal, you should assume that the reader:
a. will know which data analytic techniques are appropriate for your study without a detailed explanation.
b. is an expert in the area you are addressing and will be familiar with common issues, variables, instruments, etc.
c. can discern for him/herself what the importance of the study is.
d. knows nothing about the proposed project, so all the details must be thoroughly explained.

*12. When explaining how the data are to be analyzed and interpreted:
a. it is best to provide only a general plan as things will probably change over the course of the study anyway.
b. it is best to be as detailed as possible so all contingencies related to analysis and interpretation can be anticipated.
c. it is impossible to be highly detailed until one has the actual data in hand.
d. an overly specific plan may bias the analyses or interpretation, impairing the validity of the study.

*13. Research proposals that ______ are commonly judged to be of higher quality than proposals that do not.
a. favor straightforward vocabulary
b. employ complex sentence structure
c. favor a highly esoteric vocabulary
d. rely on the reader to draw inferences

*14. Three of the following are elements in the proposal revision process. Which one is NOT?
a. Reconsider the feasibility of what you are proposing to do.
b. Carefully assess the logic and organization of the information in the document.
c. Avoid breaks of 24 hours or more as the material will get too “cold” in your mind.
d. Seek feedback from knowledgeable others.

**15. The research proposal is best thought of as:
a. a general and flexible outline of how the research problem is to be investigated.
b. “Plan A,” with the expectation that “Plan B” or even “Plan C” will become necessary as the study unfolds.
c. a detailed and firm contract between the researcher and others who are involved in the research project (participants, supervisors, funding agencies, etc.)
d. a document that is written for others (internal review boards, funding agencies) and is of little value to the researcher.

Essay Questions

16. In regard to quantitative research proposals, novice researchers often find it very challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted in their study. Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section of the proposal.

17. Issues of feasibility are central to a well-planned research project. Discuss how feasibility issues come into play when deciding on the sampling plan.

18. Issues of feasibility are central to a well-planned research project. Discuss how feasibility issues come into play when choosing the measurement instruments or techniques.

19. There are unique challenges associated with conducting research on data that are already in existence (e.g., historical research). Discuss some of these unique challenges, pointing out pitfalls the researcher should be careful to avoid.

Chapter 7

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. In qualitative research the ______ is the most important instrument.
a. questionnaire
b. behavior checklist
c. researcher
d. participant

*2. In qualitative research, the fact that the research methodology may be vaguely described or very general in nature at the outset of the study indicates:
a. a normal and acceptable practice.
b. that the study is poorly designed.
c. that the researcher is inexperienced.
d. a common but unprofessional practice.

*3. Qualitative studies typically serve three of the following purposes. Which purpose do they NOT serve?
a. description of situations, processes, relationships, etc.
b. interpretation of information in order to gain new understanding
c. determining the final truth about a situation or phenomenon
d. evaluation of existing policies, practices, etc.

*4. In ______, a body of material is systematically examined for patterns, themes, or biases.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis

*5. In ______, a particular group of individuals is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. phenomenology
d. grounded theory

*6. In ______, the researcher studies the deep meaning an event or situation holds for other people.
a. phenomenology
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis
*7. In ______, a particular individual, program, or event is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. phenomenology
d. grounded theory

**8. Carl Compost has been living and working on a communal organic farm for the past six months. He wants to understand the political, environmental, and social perspectives shared by the members of the commune. Dr. Compost is probably employing a/an ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. ethnographic
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

**9. Daniel Daring is an emerging playwright whose works have begun to stir great passions in the major U.S. cities where they are staged. Researcher Eugenia Edge is “shadowing” Mr. Daring for six months in an attempt to understand the artistic process. Dr. Edge is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

**10. Helen Heartwell flew to New York City a few weeks after the September 11, 2001, bombing of the World Trade Center. She wanted to know how the victims of the attack were making sense of what had happened to them. Dr. Heartwell is probably employing a/an ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. ethnographic

**11. Richard Relic is carefully examining writings from the time of the U.S. Civil War to determine how each side characterized the position of their opponent. Dr. Relic is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

*12. The constant comparative method of data analysis is most associated with:
a. ethnography.
b. phenomenology.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis.

*13. The technique of participant observation is most associated with:
a. case study.
b. ethnography.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis.

*14. ______ is most useful in situations where current theory regarding the subject of investigation is inadequate or nonexistent.
a. Case study
b. Ethnography
c. Grounded theory
d. Phenomenology

*15. When conducting observations to be used as data in a qualitative study, it is:
a. always necessary to obtain informed consent from those being observed.
b. not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observations are being conducted in a public place.
c. not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observer is in full view of those being observed.
d. only necessary to obtain informed consent if the study will be published.

*16. If you interview two people about the same event and their stories diverge at certain points, you can conclude that:
a. at least one of the interviewees is not being fully honest with you.
b. at least one of the participants was not paying attention to what was going on.
c. they didn’t really both witness the same event.
d. the meaning people draw from an event can vary from person to person.

*17. Three of the following are techniques that strengthen the objectivity of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
a. The researcher should intentionally look for evidence that contradicts his/her hunches or hypotheses.
b. The researcher should collect two or more different kinds of data (e.g., observations and interviews).
c. The researcher should acknowledge personal biases or presumptions in the research report.
d. The researcher should rely as much as possible on a single well-informed respondent.

Essay Questions

18. A goal of qualitative research is to uncover the “multiple truths” that characterize any complex phenomenon or situation. What does the term “multiple truths” refer to in this usage?

19. A fundamental pitfall in qualitative research is to confuse the actual observations with the interpretation of the observations. Why is it important that these two things remain distinctly separate?

20. Dr. D is conducting an interview with Amber, who works as a cocktail waitress. Here is an excerpt:

Dr. D: What shift do you typically work?
Amber: Night. I come in a around 7:00 p.m. and work until 2:00 a.m.
Dr. D: Cocktail waitressing has a bad reputation. How bad is it to work here?
Amber: Not so bad. Most of our customers are pretty nice guys. They’re
regulars and they don’t drink too much and get out of control. In fact, if
one customer is giving me a hard time, another often steps in and helps out.
Dr. D: As the evening progresses, the men give you more and more problems,
don’t they? What do you do about that?
Amber: I ignore it as long as I can. I get the manager to step in if they don’t
straighten up.

Do you notice any problems with the interviewing technique of Dr. D? Describe the problems you see in the excerpts and then explain what Dr. D should do differently.

Chapter 8

HISTORICAL RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Historical research is chiefly concerned with:
a. the study of history.
b. the meaning of past events.
c. creating an accurate chronology of past events.
d. determining an “official” interpretation of a historical event.

*2. Historical research may include:
a. qualitative, but not quantitative, methods.
b. quantitative, but not qualitative, methods.
c. both qualitative and quantitative methods.
d. neither qualitative or quantitative methods.

**3. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, to her sister in Philadelphia represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.

**4. To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Deloris Adams of Philadelphia, describing the life of her sister, Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data.

**5. Professor McGrath is studying the history of African Americans in Oklahoma. Three of the following are primary data sources for Professor McGrath. Which one is NOT?
a. Census reports from the all-Black town of Taft
b. Photographs of Taft
c. Diaries of a school teacher in one of the first integrated schools in Taft
d. Articles from the Taft newspaper published in the late 19th century

*6. In historical research, bias:
a. generally does not exist to a problematic degree.
b. is less of a problem than in other forms of research.
c. is impossible for the researcher to detect.
d. can be used as an advantage to the researcher.

*7. In regard to bias in historical research, the researcher:
a. must be vigilant in regard to bias in secondary data, but it is not a problem with primary data.
b. must be vigilant in regard to bias in primary data, but it is not a problem with secondary data.
c. must be vigilant in regard to bias in both primary and secondary data.
d. can assume that the various biases will cancel each other out without special steps being taken by the researcher.

**8. Perry Prose is in possession of a letter allegedly written by President Theodore Roosevelt during his time in office. He has taken the letter to a number of experts, who have examined the paper, ink, handwriting, and content of the letter in an attempt to establish its authenticity. Dr. Prose is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

**9. Fran Freedom is trying to determine what the phrase “with liberty and justice for all” from the Pledge of Allegiance meant at the time it was penned. She suspects there were actually some limits on “all.” Dr. Freedom is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

**10. The information to the right is an example of:
a. ex post facto research.
b. a historiography.
c. a historic method.
d. a chronology.

*11. ______ is/are an appropriate focus of historical research.
a. Concepts
b. Ideas
c. People
d. all of the above

*12. Historical researchers can count on authoritative sources such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronology or the Cambridge Ancient History as accurate and complete accounts of history.
a. True
b. False

*13. In writing a historical research report, it is best to:
a. avoid mentioning alternative interpretations of events proposed by other scholars.
b. leave most of the interpretation of data to the reader rather than impose your own
point of view.
c. point out the weaknesses in the arguments or assertions you are making.
d. discuss the weaknesses, but not the strengths, of arguments put forth by other
scholars.

*14. A historical research report may differ from other research reports in that presentation of data and interpretation of data:
a. are confined to separate sections of the paper.
b. may not be included.
c. may be intertwined in a technical style of scientific writing.
d. may be intertwined in a flowing narrative style.

Essay Questions

15. One of the most challenging aspects of conducting historical research is systematically organizing the hundreds or thousands of notes that are collected in the course of the research project. Describe one method for handling this organizational challenge, including mention of both the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

16. Conducting rigorous historical research involves more than reading historical documents, taking notes, and organizing those notes. Explain.

17. The authors recommend that chronological data be arrayed in a time line as part of the interpretative process. What type of information can be revealed by this technique?

18. The authors recommend that chronological data be plotted on a map as part of the interpretative process. What type of information can be revealed by this technique?

Chapter 9

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Observational research, as a form of descriptive research,
a. focuses on rich narrative description of the phenomenon of interest.
b. involves counting or rating of behavior in as objective a manner as possible.
c. relies on open-ended techniques that can respond to the evolving situation.
d. allows the researcher to gather behavioral data in a relatively quick and easy
manner.

*2. Three of the following procedures or techniques are integral to observational research. Which one is NOT?
a. Pilot studies are used to test instruments and procedures.
b. Observers are carefully trained to follow specific criteria when recording the
observation data.
c. Multiple observers may independently rate the same behavior.
d. Observation instruments are intentionally general so as not to constrain the
observer.

*3. Correlational research allows the researcher to answer questions such as:
a. what is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B?
b. does change in Variable A cause change in Variable B?
c. is there a significant difference between scores on Variable A and scores on Variable B?
d. does change in Variable B causes change in Variable A?

**4. The scatterplot to the right indicates a ______ relationship between Variable A and Variable B.
a. weak
b. moderate
c. strong
d. indeterminate

**5. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in people’s preference for action movies. The researcher locates 50 people at each of the following ages: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 years. She asks them to rate their preference for action movies in relation to other sorts of movies. This is an example of a ______ design.
a. longitudinal
b. nested
c. cross-sectional
d. panel

**6. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in the music people prefer to listen to. The researcher locates 50 people who are about 20 years old. She sends these people a questionnaire every year for the next 10 years asking about the types of music they prefer to listen to. This is an example of a ______ design.
a. longitudinal
b. nested
c. cross-sectional
d. panel

*7. Among survey methods, _____ generally generate the highest response rate, and ______ generally generate the lowest response rate.
a. face-to-face interviews; telephone interviews
b. telephone interviews; questionnaires
c. face-to-face interviews; questionnaires
d. questionnaires; telephone interviews

*8. Advantages of questionnaires include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. large numbers of people can be contacted for a relatively low cost.
b. data can be gathered from a large number of people in a relatively short period of
time.
c. participants may feel more confident about their anonymity and therefore respond more honestly.
d. because questions are in written form, they are less likely to be misunderstood by respondents.

*9. Regarding the length of questionnaires to be used in survey research, which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. Including a large number of items on the survey assures that you will get useful data for all of your trouble.
b. Keeping the survey short makes it more likely people will be willing to complete it.
c. A relatively lengthy survey communicates your seriousness about the research endeavor so people will be more willing to complete it.
d. Shorter surveys produce data that are ambiguous and therefore not useful.

**10. “How unhappy are you with your current salary?”
This question violates which rule of good survey writing?
a. It is not quantifiable.
b. It makes an unwarranted assumption.
c. It fails to keep the respondent’s task simple.
d. It uses technical language that may not be known to all.

*11. The typical return rate for a survey mailed to strangers is about:
a. 80%
b. 65%
c. 50%
d. 35%

*12. In descriptive research, the researcher typically studies a______, then draws conclusions about the______.
a. sample; population
b. population; sample
c. sample; sample
d. population; population

**13. Polly Petunia is Chief Horticulturalist for the Southwest region, encompassing Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. She wants to survey amateur gardeners in her region to determine what, if any, water conservation practices they employ in their home gardening. Polly sends her survey to 150 randomly selected gardeners in each state. Polly is using:
a. purposive sampling.
b. proportional stratified sampling.
c. systematic sampling.
d. stratified random sampling.

**14. Paul Pollster, a political psychologist, wants to determine whether rates of voter participation in his home state vary between rural, urban, and suburban voters. He notes that there are more rural voters than suburban or urban voters in the state. Paul should use ______ in this study.
a. simple random sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. proportional stratified sampling
d. systematic sampling

**15. Simon Cinema wants to know what the audience thought of tonight’s advanced screening of a heralded psychological thriller called “I Can’t Sleep.” He and his research assistants stand outside the theatre exit and ask every fifth person leaving the theatre to answer several questions about their impression of the movie. Simon is using:
a. systematic sampling.
b. stratified random sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. purposive sampling.

**16. Danny Drive wants to know the relationship between intrinsic motivation and course grade among math students. He contacts a local professor who teaches several general education math classes and asks about the possibility of gathering data in her classes. Danny is using:
a. simple random sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. systematic sampling

**17. Edward Ethics is studying public opinion regarding prayer in public schools. He plans to gather survey data from a number of churches on Sunday mornings. He also wants to include a number of people who are not associated with an organized religion in his sample. Edward is using:
a. stratified random sampling.
b. cluster sampling.
c. convenience sampling.
d. purposive sampling.

Essay Questions

18. Your chapter identifies several weaknesses related to survey data. Note one of these weaknesses and discuss the associated problems and possible ways to minimize them.

19. In writing the cover letter to accompany a mailed survey, novice researchers often stress the immediacy of their need for the data. Is this the best approach to take in the cover letter? If not, what do you recommend instead?

20. The authors of your textbook suggest that sampling bias is virtually unavoidable and that it is important to disclose and discuss possible sources of bias in the study report. Do you agree? Explain your position.

Chapter 10

EXPERIMENTAL AND EX POST FACTO DESIGNS

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. Experimental research differs from descriptive research in that it:
a. is less sensitive to sampling bias.
b. employs statistical analyses.
c. attempts to determine causality.
d. is conducted in a laboratory.

*2. In experimental design, the variable that is manipulated is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

*3. In experimental design, the variable that reflects the outcome of the treatment is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**4. “There will be gender differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy.”
In this hypothesis, gender is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**5. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
In this hypothesis, mood elevation is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. independent variable.
c. confounding variable.
d. constant.

**6. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
In this hypothesis, type of therapy is the:
a. dependent variable.
b. confounding variable.
c. independent variable.
d. constant.

**7. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”
During a test of this hypothesis, it was discovered that some of the participants lived with family members and others lived alone. This variable, living situation, is a/an _____.
a. independent variable.
b. dependent variable.
c. constant.
d. confounding variable.

**8. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of the semester, all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the traditional method constitute the:
a. placebo group.
b. treatment group.
c. sample.
d. control group.

**9. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method. At the end of semester all students complete the same final exam. In this design, students studying under the problem-based method constitute the:
a. placebo group.
b. treatment group.
c. sample.
d. control group.

**10. Dr. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method for Unit 1 of the course. Then all sections switch instructional method for Unit 2. He plans to compare the performance of the two groups of sections on their Unit 1 and Unit 2 exams. This study employs a ______ design.
a. within subjects (repeated measures)
b. quasi-experimental
c. true experimental
d. ex post facto

**11. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for many years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the dependent variable.
a. Doggie Do-Right
b. type of dog training program
c. score on the dog obedience checklist
d. obedience training versus no training

**12. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the independent variable.
a. Doggie Do-Right
b. type of dog training program
c. score on the dog obedience checklist
d. obedience training versus no training

**13. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). This study employed a/an ______ design.
a. one-shot experimental
b. ex post facto
c. posttest-only control group design
d. within subjects

**14. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the independent variable.
a. score on the “attitude toward public schools” measure
b. experience with Indian boarding school
c. gender of participant
d. age of participant

**15. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the dependent variable.
a. score on the “attitude toward public schools” measure
b. experience with Indian boarding school
c. gender of participant
d. age of participant

**16. Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. This study employs a/an ______ design.
a. pre-experimental
b. factorial
c. true experimental
d. ex post facto

*17. Three of the following are examples of true experimental designs. Which one is NOT?
a. Multiple baseline design
b. Solomon four-group design
c. Within subjects design
d. Pretest–posttest control group design

*18. Three of the following are examples of quasi-experimental designs. Which one is NOT?
a. Nonrandomized pretest–posttest control group design
b. Control group time-series design
c. Single-subjects design
d. One-shot experimental design

*19. A meta-analysis is used when:
a. the researcher wishes to analyze the analyses of a number of existing studies.
b. there is little existing literature to use as a launching pad for a new study.
c. the researcher has no access to sophisticated statistical techniques.
d. several researchers jointly conduct a large-scale study.

Essay Questions

20. A researcher is studying the effectiveness of two different resident adolescent drug treatment programs. Program A is used at Summerhill adolescent facility. Program B is used at Winterdale adolescent facility. Because random assignment to treatments is not possible in this situation, what can the researcher do to minimize possible effects of sample bias?

21. Factorial designs allow researchers to study the effects of more than one independent variable simultaneously. Why is this advantageous? What information can factorial designs yield that nonfactorial designs cannot?

Chapter 11

STRATEGIES FOR ANALYZING QUANTITATIVE DATA

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. How are inferential statistics different from descriptive statistics?
a. Descriptive statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.
b. Descriptive statistics verify the accuracy of the inferential statistics.
c. Inferential statistics describe the results of a study.
d. Inferential statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.

*2. ____ are characteristics of samples, wheras _______ are characteristics of populations.
a. Concepts; statistics
b. Parameters; statistics
c. Statistics; parameters
d. Parameters; estimations

*3. In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores falls between one standard deviation below the mean and one standard deviation above the mean?
a. 16%
b. 50%
c. 68%
d. 90%

*4. Dorothy has been surveying the Munchkins to determine their level of life satisfaction. The possible scores on the life satisfaction questionnaire range from 0 to 100. If Dorothy decides to statistically compare the male and female Munchkins on their level of satisfaction, she should use a _______ test.
a. parametric
b. nonparametric

**5. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mean of this set of scores is ______.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 4.25
d. 4.5

**6. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The median of this set of scores is ______.
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 4.5
**7. Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The mode of this set of scores is ______.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 4.22
d. 4.5

*8. The measure(s) of central tendency that is/are appropriate for use with nominal data is/are:
a. the median only.
b. the mode only.
c. the median and the mean.
d. the median and the mode.

*9. When summarizing ordinal data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.
a. arithmetic mean
b. mode
c. median
d. geometric mean

*10. When reporting growth data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.
a. arithmetic mean
b. mode
c. median
d. geometric mean

*11. When the ____ is the measure of central tendency, the _____ is the most appropriate and informative measure of dispersion.
a. median; standard deviation
b. median; interquartile range
c. mean; interquartile range
d. mean; range

**12. An exam was given to two sections of the same course. In Section 1, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 7. In Section 2, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 13. Which of the following conclusions is accurate?
a. Section 1 did better on the exam than Section 2.
b. Section 1 scores were more variable than Section 2.
c. Section 1 scores were less variable than Section 2.
d. Section 1 did less well on the exam than Section 2.

*13. The z-score, or standard score, allows the research to determine:
a. how far a target individual’s score is from the group mean.
b. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored above the target individual.
c. the mean for the population based on the mean for the sample.
d. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual.
*14. The percentile rank allows the researcher to determine:
a. how far a target individual’s score is from the group mean.
b. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored above the target individual.
c. the mean for the population based on the mean for the sample.
d. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual.

**15. Danzell is a purchasing agent for a major grocery store chain. He has noticed over the years that the higher the outdoor temperature, the more likely people are to buy fresh fruit. Based on Danzell’s observations, we would say there is ______ relationship between outdoor temperature and buying of fresh fruit.
a. a positive
b. a negative
c. a causal
d. no

**16. Frank Fitness found a correlation coefficient of –.74 between hours of strenuous exercise each week and a standard measure of body mass. He interprets this to mean that there is a ______ and ______ relationship between hours of strenuous exercise and body mass.
a. strong; positive
b. strong; negative
c. weak; positive
d. weak; negative

*17. Three of the following factors are associated with a relatively small standard error of the mean. Which one is NOT?
a. Sample size is relatively large.
b. Sample standard deviation is relatively small.
c. The variance in the sample is relatively large.
d. The sample is highly representative of the population.

**18. Seamus has determined that there is a 95% chance that the number of people visiting the Blarney Stone in the month of June will be between 1,760 and 2,025. This is a/an ______ estimate.
a. point
b. interval

*19. Statistical hypothesis testing involves testing the:
a. research hypothesis.
b. probability level.
c. significance level.
d. null hypothesis.

**20. On the basis of statistical findings, Ron determines that the differences between males and females on a test of spatial reasoning are not due merely to chance. If, in fact, there are no gender differences in the population, Ron will have made a:
a. Type I error.
b. Type II error.

**21. On the basis of statistical findings, Becky determines that the difference between males and females on a test of abstract mathematical reasoning is merely due to chance. If, in fact, there are gender differences in the population, Becky will have made a:
a. Type I error.
b. Type II error.

Essay Questions

22. A medical researcher is concerned about mistakenly concluding that a new medication is effective when it really is not. What type of error is the researcher concerned about making (Type I or Type II)? Describe what the researcher might do to decrease the likelihood of making that type of error. Discuss ramifications of your suggested approach for other types of error in the study.

23. Note several steps researchers can take to optimize the power of their statistical tests.

24. After completing planned analyses, the researcher must interpret the results of statistical tests. Note several steps that are involved in such interpretation.

Chapter 12

TECHNICAL DETAILS: STYLE, FORMAT, AND ORGANIZATION
OF THE RESEARCH REPORT

Multiple-Choice Questions

*1. When writing the research report, the findings of statistical analyses are typically reported in the ______ section.
a. review of literature
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*2. When writing the research report, the descriptions of instruments used for data gathering are typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*3. When writing the research report, the interpretation of study findings is typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. method
c. results
d. discussion

*4. When writing the research report, the research problem is typically described in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. review of literature
c. method
d. results

*5. When writing the research report, information regarding the study design is typically included in the ______ section.
a. introduction
b. review of literature
c. method
d. results

*6. The reference list is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*7. Copies of the survey instruments are included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*8. The abstract is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

*9. In a quantitative study, the description of participants (subjects) is included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. method section.

*10. The acknowledgments are included in the:
a. front matter.
b. end matter.
c. appendices.
d. body of the report.

**11. “Johnson eliminated three interviews from the data set due to noncompliance on the part of the respondents.”
This sentence is an example of:
a. active voice.
b. passive voice.

**12. “The third subscale was dropped from further consideration due to problems with internal consistency.”
This sentence is an example of:
a. active voice.
b. passive voice.

*13. The style manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that ____ tense be used when writing the method section and ______ tense be used when presenting conclusions.
a. present; present
b. past; past
c. present; past
d. past; present

Essay Questions

14. Throughout your textbook the authors return to the importance of interpreting the findings of a research project. Explain why this is an essential element in a high-quality research report.

15. Imagine that you just completed a research project in which the data failed to support your chief hypothesis. Why might this have happened? Discuss several possibilities.