CIS 210 Week 5 Midterm Exam – Strayer University NEW

CIS/210 Week 5 Midterm Exam – Strayer NEW

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Chapters 1 Through 6

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ____ refers to the combination of hardware, software, and services that people use to manage, communicate, and share information.
a. Information systems
b. Information technology
c. Computer systems
d. Computer technology

PTS: 1 REF: 4

2. ____ software controls the flow of data, provides data security, and manages network operations.
a. Enterprise c. Application
b. System d. Legacy

PTS: 1 REF: 7

3. Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks.
a. enterprise applications c. operating applications
b. network operating systems (NOS) d. legacy systems

PTS: 1 REF: 8

4. Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore’s Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____.
a. 2 months c. 24 months
b. 12 months d. 48 months

PTS: 1 REF: 8

5. When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____.
a. enterprise applications c. operating applications
b. network operating systems (NOS) d. legacy systems

PTS: 1 REF: 7

6. For complex operations, analysts apply computer-based modeling tools that use a standard language called ____.
a. electronic data interchange (EDI)
b. joint application development (JAD)
c. business process modeling notation (BPMN)
d. rapid application development (RAD)

PTS: 1 REF: 14

7. Systems analysts use a ____ to graphically represent company operations and information needs.
a. JAD c. RAD
b. Scrum d. business process model

PTS: 1 REF: 13

8. A business ____ is an overview that describes a company’s overall functions, processes, organization, products, services, customers, suppliers, competitors, constraints, and future direction.
a. matrix c. index
b. profile d. glossary

PTS: 1 REF: 13

9. Which of the following is one of the main sectors of e-commerce?
a. C2C c. C2B
b. B2C d. BBC

PTS: 1 REF: 9

10. ____ enabled computer-to-computer transfer of data between companies, usually over private telecommunications networks.
a. EDI c. TCH
b. ACH d. O-O

PTS: 1 REF: 10

11. Transaction processing (TP) systems ____.
a. provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company
b. simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied
c. process data generated by day-to-day business operations
d. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and integrated mobile computing systems

PTS: 1 REF: 15

12. Business support systems ____.
a. provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a company
b. simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied
c. process data generated by day-to-day business operations
d. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and integrated mobile computing systems

PTS: 1 REF: 16

13. Knowledge management systems use a large database called a(n) ____ that allows users to find information by entering keywords or questions in normal English phrases.
a. inference engine c. knowledge management system
b. knowledge base d. inference manager

PTS: 1 REF: 16

14. User productivity systems ____.
a. provide job-related information to users at all levels of a company
b. simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied
c. process data generated by day-to-day business operations
d. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video and Web conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, desktop publishing, presentation graphics, company intranets, and integrated mobile computing systems

PTS: 1 REF: 17

15. In a typical company organizational model, top managers ____.
a. develop long-range plans, called strategic plans, which define the company’s overall mission and goals
b. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders
c. oversee operation employees and carry out day-to-day functions, coordinating operational tasks and people
d. include users who rely on TP systems to enter and receive the data they need to perform their jobs

PTS: 1 REF: 18

16. In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____.
a. develop long-range plans, called strategic plans, which define the company’s overall mission and goals
b. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders
c. oversee operation employees and carry out day-to-day functions, coordinating operational tasks and people
d. include users who rely on TP systems to enter and receive the data they need to perform their jobs

PTS: 1 REF: 18

17. A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide.
a. process model c. business model
b. data model d. network model

PTS: 1 REF: 19

18. A(n) ____ shows the data that flows in and out of system processes.
a. process model c. business model
b. object model d. network model

PTS: 1 REF: 22

19. ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify.
a. Prototyping c. Scrum
b. Rapid application development d. Modeling

PTS: 1 REF: 19

20. ____ is a systems development technique that tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decisions are made.
a. Scrum c. Modeling
b. Prototyping d. Rapid application development

PTS: 1 REF: 20

21. ____ methods include the latest trends in software development.
a. Object-oriented analysis c. Structured analysis
b. Agile/Adaptive d. Rapid application development

PTS: 1 REF: 21

22. The ____ method of developing systems is well-suited to project management tools and techniques.
a. object-oriented analysis c. structured analysis
b. adaptive d. rapid application development

PTS: 1 REF: 21

23. The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable.
a. object-oriented analysis c. structured analysis
b. adaptive d. rapid application development

PTS: 1 REF: 21

24. The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values.
a. object-oriented analysis c. structured analysis
b. agile/adaptive d. rapid application development

PTS: 1 REF: 21

25. Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system.
a. O-O c. MSF
b. SDLC d. RUP

PTS: 1 REF: 22

26. Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique.
a. iterative c. inferred
b. process-centered d. empowered

PTS: 1 REF: 22

27. In the ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase in the SDLC.
a. interactive model c. waterfall model
b. requirements model d. object model

PTS: 1 REF: 23

28. In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process.
a. systems design phase c. systems support and security phase
b. systems planning phase d. systems analysis phase

PTS: 1 REF: 23

29. In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the purpose of the ____ is to build a logical model of the new system.
a. systems analysis phase c. systems design phase
b. systems implementation phase d. systems support and security phase

PTS: 1 REF: 23

30. In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the purpose of the ____ is to create a physical model that will satisfy all documented requirements for the system.
a. systems implementation phase c. systems analysis phase
b. systems planning phase d. systems design phase

PTS: 1 REF: 24

31. In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during the ____, the new system is constructed.
a. systems planning phase c. systems design phase
b. systems support and security phase d. systems implementation phase

PTS: 1 REF: 24

32. In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during the ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system.
a. systems support and security phase c. systems analysis phase
b. systems implementation phase d. systems planning phase

PTS: 1 REF: 24

33. Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects.
a. the MSF c. RUP
b. the SDLC d. O-O

PTS: 1 REF: 24

34. In object-oriented analysis, an object is a member of a(n) ____, which is a collection of similar objects.
a. property c. message
b. class d. instance

PTS: 1 REF: 24

35. In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object’s properties.
a. methods c. attributes
b. functions d. features

PTS: 1 REF: 25

36. Agile methods typically use a(n) ____model, which represents a series of iterations based on user feedback.
a. gradual c. spiral
b. extreme d. evaluative

PTS: 1 REF: 26

37. The newest development techniques are called ____, which attempt to develop systems incrementally.
a. structured methods c. CASE methods
b. object-oriented methods d. agile/adaptive methods

PTS: 1 REF: 25

38. The ____ group typically provides leadership and overall guidance, but the systems themselves are developed by teams consisting of users, managers, and IT staff members.
a. Web support c. systems support
b. application development d. database administration

PTS: 1 REF: 27

39. ____ provides vital protection and maintenance services for system software and hardware, including enterprise computing systems, networks, transaction processing systems, and corporate IT infrastructure.
a. User support c. Systems support and security
b. Database administration d. Network administration

PTS: 1 REF: 28

40. A(n) ____ investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates, and maintains a company’s information systems.
a. application developer c. network administrator
b. database administrator d. systems analyst

PTS: 1 REF: 29

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. An example of a vertical system is a(n) ____.
a. inventory application c. payroll application
b. medical practice application d. database for an auto dealership

2. An example of a horizontal system is a(n) ____.
a. inventory application c. payroll application
b. application for a Web-based retailer d. medical practice application

3. A business process describes a specific set of ____.
a. transactions c. events
b. employees d. results

4. Product-oriented firms produced ____.
a. retail services c. computers
b. routers d. microchips

5. Database administration involves ____.
a. network administration c. data design
b. user access d. backup

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

1. System software consists of programs that support day-to-day business functions and provide users with the information they require. _________________________

2. Value-added services such as consulting, financing, and technical support can be more profitable than hardware. _________________________

3. Joint application development (JAD) is like a compressed version of the entire development process. _________________________

4. Rapid application development focuses on team-based fact-finding. _________________________

5. User support provides users with technical information, training, and productivity support. _________________________

TRUE/FALSE

1. Most firms give their IT budgets a low priority in bad economic times.

PTS: 1 REF: 4

2. A mission-critical system is one that is unimportant to a company’s operations.

PTS: 1 REF: 6

3. In an information system, data is information that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users.

PTS: 1 REF: 6

4. In an information system, information consists of basic facts that are the system’s raw material.

PTS: 1 REF: 7

5. The success or failure of an information system usually is unrelated to whether users are satisfied with the system’s output and operations.

PTS: 1 REF: 9

6. Although the business-to-business (B2B) sector is more familiar to retail customers, the volume of business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions is many times greater.

PTS: 1 REF: 10

7. TP systems are inefficient because they process a set of transaction-related commands individually rather than as a group.

PTS: 1 REF: 16

8. In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships.

PTS: 1 REF: 16

9. A knowledge management system uses inference rules, which consist of a large database that allows users to find information by entering keywords or questions in normal English phrases.

PTS: 1 REF: 16

10. Most large companies require systems that combine transaction processing, business support, knowledge management, and user productivity features.

PTS: 1 REF: 17

11. Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations.

PTS: 1 REF: 18-19

12. Many companies find that a trend called empowerment, which gives employees more responsibility and accountability, improves employee motivation and increases customer satisfaction.

PTS: 1 REF: 19

13. CASE tools provide an overall framework for systems development and support a wide variety of design methodologies, including structured analysis and object-oriented analysis.

PTS: 1 REF: 20

14. It is unusual for system developers to mix and match system development methods to gain a better perspective.

PTS: 1 REF: 22

15. In the systems planning phase, a key part of the preliminary investigation is a feasibility study that reviews anticipated costs and benefits and recommends a course of action based on operational, technical, economic, and time factors.

PTS: 1 REF: 23

16. In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do to satisfy users is documented.

PTS: 1 REF: 23

17. In object-oriented design, objects possess characteristics called properties, which the object inherits from its class or possesses on its own.

PTS: 1 REF: 24

18. A scalable design can expand to meet new business requirements and volumes.

PTS: 1 REF: 24

19. In object-oriented design, a message requests specific behavior or information from another object.

PTS: 1 REF: 25

20. The structure of the IT department varies among companies, as does its name and placement within the organization.

PTS: 1 REF: 27

21. An IT group provides technical support, which includes application development, systems support and security, user support, database administration, network administration, and Web support.

PTS: 1 REF: 27

22. Network administration includes hardware and software maintenance, support, and security.

PTS: 1 REF: 28

23. Companies typically require that systems analysts have a college degree in information systems, computer science, business, or a closely related field, and some IT experience usually is required.

PTS: 1 REF: 37

24. The responsibilities of a systems analyst at a small firm are exactly the same as those at a large corporation.

PTS: 1 REF: 32

25. A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business.

PTS: 1 REF: 32

COMPLETION

1. _________________________ refers to the combination of hardware, software, and services that companies use to manage, communicate, and share information.

2. _________________________ is a step-by-step process for developing high-quality information systems.

3. A(n) _________________________ combines information technology, people, and data to support business requirements.

4. An IT department team includes _________________________ who plan, develop, and maintain information systems.

5. A(n) _________________________ is a set of related components that produces specific results, such as routing Internet traffic, manufacturing microchips, and controlling complex entities like the Hubbell Telescope.

6. In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, _________________________ consist(s) of everything in the physical layer of the information system.

7. In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, _________________________ refer(s) to the programs that control the hardware and produce the desired information or results.

8. In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, _________________________ is/are the raw material that an information system transforms into useful information.

9. In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, _________________________ describe(s) the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results.

10. In the accompanying figure showing the components of an information system, the people, called _________________________, interact with an information system, both inside and outside the company.

11. The strongest IT companies in the home shopping market are called __________________ because their primary business depends on the Internet rather than a traditional business channel.

12. Traditional companies sometimes are called _________________________ companies because they conduct business primarily from physical locations.

13. Internet-based commerce is called _________________________ and includes two main sectors: B2C (business-to-consumer) and B2B (business-to-business).

14. _________________________ technology uses high-frequency radio waves to track physical objects.

15. A truck fleet dispatcher might run a series of _________________________ scenarios to determine the impact of increased shipments or bad weather.

16. _________________________ programs run on a company intranet and enable users to share data, collaborate on projects, and work in teams.

17. The systems implementation phase of the SDLC includes an assessment, called a(n) _________________________, to determine whether the system operates properly and if costs and benefits are within expectation.

18. A(n) _________________________ uses various symbols and shapes to represent data flow, processing, and storage.

19. _________________________ design and construct Web pages, monitor traffic, manage hardware and software, and link Web-based applications to a company’s information systems.

20. Many hardware and software companies offer _________________________ for IT professionals, which verifies that an individual demonstrated a certain level of knowledge and skill on a standardized test.

MATCHING

Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
a. MIS f. team leaders
b. modeling g. operational employees
c. message h. supply chain
d. spiral model i. scalable design
e. ERP j. prototype

1. In many large companies, these kinds of systems provide cost-effective support for users and managers throughout the company.

2. The name for new business support systems that produced valuable information, in addition to performing manual tasks; their primary users were managers.

3. All companies that provide materials, services, and functions needed to provide a product to a customer.

4. An approach that proponents believe reduces risks and speeds up software development.

5. People who oversee operational employees and carry out day-to-day functions.

6. People who rely on TP systems to enter and receive data they need to perform their jobs.

7. Produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify.

8. Requests specific behavior or information from another object.

9. Can expand to meet new business requirements and volumes.

10. An early working version of an information system.

ESSAY

1. Explain a knowledge worker, and why this kind of worker is required by successful companies.

2. What are the disadvantages of each of the three system development methods?

3. Discuss two advantages and disadvantages of agile methods.

CASE

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 1-1

Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier.

1. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method?
a. structured analysis
b. agile/adaptive methods
c. object-oriented analysis
d. rapid application development

2. It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game — but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development?
a. structured analysis
b. agile/adaptive methods
c. object-oriented analysis
d. rapid application development

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 1-2

Maddy has been performing at a very high level at the firm, and so when two colleagues of hers who are currently leading other development efforts get sick or leave the company, she is asked to step in and help manage these two other efforts.

3. When Maddy sits down at the first meeting at which the first group is gathering, she hears them discussing the feasibility study in which they are currently engaged. She knows, then, in which phase of the SDLC this team currently is. Which phase is it?
a. systems analysis
b. systems design
c. systems planning
d. systems implementation

4. After leaving the first meeting, Maddy goes down the hall to meet with the outgoing manager of the second team. In that meeting, he shares with her the latest draft of the systems requirement document, which is nearly complete. In which phase is the second team currently?
a. systems analysis
b. systems design
c. systems planning
d. systems implementation

Chapter 2 – Analyzing the Business Case

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Systems development typically starts with a ____.
a. feasibility study, followed by a systems request, which includes a preliminary investigation
b. systems request, followed by a preliminary investigation, which includes a feasibility study
c. preliminary investigation, followed by a feasibility study, which includes a systems request
d. feasibility study, followed by a preliminary investigation, which includes a systems request

PTS: 1 REF: 48

2. ____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources.
a. Opportunity c. Strategic
b. Preliminary d. Vertical

PTS: 1 REF: 50

3. During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a ____ analysis because it examines a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
a. CRM c. JIT
b. TCO d. SWOT

PTS: 1 REF: 51

4. Strategic planning starts with a ____ that reflects the firm’s vision, purpose, and values..
a. Relationship Diagram c. Performance Assessment
b. Feasibility Study d. Mission Statement

PTS: 1 REF: 50

5. ____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced.
a. Mission c. Feasibility
b. Relationship d. Performance

PTS: 1 REF: 55

6. Hardware-based security controls include ____.
a. passwords c. coding data
b. various levels of user access d. none of the above

PTS: 1 REF: 56

7. ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking.
a. Mission statement
b. Customer relationship management (CRM)
c. Feasibility study
d. Total cost of ownership (TCO)

PTS: 1 REF: 58

8. Electronic data interchange (EDI) enables ____ inventory systems, which rely on computer-to-computer data exchange to minimize unnecessary inventory.
a. CRM c. JIT
b. TCO d. RFID

PTS: 1 REF: 58

9. Many companies implement ____ systems that integrate all customer-related events and transactions.
a. CRM c. JIT
b. TCO d. RFID

PTS: 1 REF: 58

10. A systems request form should ____.
a. have clear instructions
b. be difficult to understand
c. not include enough space for all required information
d. not indicate what supporting documents are needed

PTS: 1 REF: 59

11. IT Departments today ____ .
a. only consult users if they want input c. are not closely linked to management
b. handle all aspects of systems development d. are more team-oriented

PTS: 1 REF: 54

12. When evaluating systems requests, which of the following is an advantage of a systems review committee ____.
a. action on requests must wait until the committee meets
b. one person’s bias is less likely to affect the decisions
c. members might favor projects requested by their own departments
d. internal political differences could delay important decisions

PTS: 1 REF: 60

13. A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that a proposed system will be used effectively after it has been developed.
a. operational c. schedule
b. technical d. economic

PTS: 1 REF: 62

14. A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system.
a. operational c. schedule
b. technical d. economic

PTS: 1 REF: 62

15. The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs.
a. CRM c. JIT
b. TCO d. RFID

PTS: 1 REF: 63

16. A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs.
a. economic c. operational
b. schedule d. technical

PTS: 1 REF: 63

17. A(n) ____ is an example of an intangible benefit.
a. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction
b. new scheduling system that reduces overtime
c. online package tracking system that decreases the need for clerical staff
d. sophisticated inventory control system that cuts excess inventory

PTS: 1 REF: 63

18. An example of a tangible benefit includes a(n) ____.
a. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction
b. sales tracking system that supplies better information for marketing decisions
c. new Web site that enhances the company’s image
d. online package tracking system that decreases the need for clerical staff

PTS: 1 REF: 63

19. When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____.
a. least benefit, at the highest cost, in the longest period of time
b. least benefit, at the lowest cost, in the longest period of time
c. greatest benefit, at the highest cost, in the shortest period of time
d. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time

PTS: 1 REF: 64

20. Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as “Does management support the project?” and “Will the new system require training for users?”
a. schedule feasibility c. economic feasibility
b. technical feasibility d. operational feasibility

PTS: 1 REF: 62

21. Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers points such as “Does the proposed platform have sufficient capacity for future needs?” and “Will the hardware and software environment be reliable?”
a. schedule feasibility c. economic feasibility
b. technical feasibility d. operational feasibility

PTS: 1 REF: 62

22. Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs.
a. schedule feasibility c. economic feasibility
b. technical feasibility d. operational feasibility

PTS: 1 REF: 63

23. Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, issues that relate to ____ include “Has management established a firm timetable for the project?” and “Will a project manager be appointed?”
a. schedule feasibility c. economic feasibility
b. technical feasibility d. operational feasibility

PTS: 1 REF: 64

24. When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for a high score in which of the following ____.
a. Will the proposed system diminish customer service?
b. Will the proposed system increase costs?
c. Will the proposed system result in less information for the organization?
d. Will the proposed system increase revenue for the company?

PTS: 1 REF: 64 – 65

25. ____ is an example of a discretionary project.
a. Creating a new report for a user
b. Adding a report required by a new federal law
c. Including annual updates to payroll and tax percentages
d. Including quarterly changes in insurance reporting required by law

PTS: 1 REF: 65

26. Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____ projects.
a. discretionary c. appended
b. nondiscretionary d. concatenated

PTS: 1 REF: 65

27. Projects where management has no choice in implementing them are called ____ projects.
a. discretionary c. appended
b. nondiscretionary d. concatenated

PTS: 1 REF: 65

28. A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action.
a. preliminary c. systems
b. appendix d. transitional

PTS: 1 REF: 66

29. A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline.
a. wishbone c. jawbone
b. fishbone d. crossbones

PTS: 1 REF: 67

30. When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes of the problem.
a. wishbone c. jawbone
b. fishbone d. crossbones

PTS: 1 REF: 67

31. To avoid the problem of project creep, ____.
a. define project scope as vaguely as possible
b. leave project scope undefined
c. define project scope as clearly as possible
d. expand the focus beyond the problem at hand

PTS: 1 REF: 68

32. Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project — being as specific as possible.
a. index c. scope
b. matrix d. estimation

PTS: 1 REF: 67

33. Projects with very general scope definitions are at risk of expanding gradually, without specific authorization, in a process called project ____.
a. dilation c. expansion
b. creep d. drift

PTS: 1 REF: 68

34. A(n) ____ is a requirement or condition that a system must satisfy or an outcome that a system must achieve.
a. condition c. impediment
b. constraint d. obstacle

PTS: 1 REF: 68

35. The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____.
a. analyze organization charts c. review documentation
b. conduct interviews d. observe operations

PTS: 1 REF: 69

36. In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview.
a. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview
b. establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview, determine the people to interview
c. develop interview questions, prepare for the interview, determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview
d. prepare for the interview, determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions

PTS: 1 REF: 69

37. A survey is ____, generally takes less time, and can involve a broad cross-section of people.
a. more flexible than a series of interviews, and it is less expensive
b. more flexible than a series of interviews, but it is more expensive
c. not as flexible as a series of interviews, but it is less expensive
d. not as flexible as a series of interviews, and it is more expensive

PTS: 1 REF: 71

38. A(n) _____, sometimes called a(n) _____, is another problem-solving tool often used by an analyst to look for a correlation between two variables..
a. Gantt chart, work breakdown structure
b. Fishbone diagram, Ishikawa diagram
c. Pareto chart, vertical bar graph
d. XY chart, scatter diagram

PTS: 1 REF: 72

39. In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation.
a. introduction c. expected benefits
b. systems request summary d. time and costs estimates

PTS: 1 REF: 74

40. In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project’s scope, constraints, and feasibility.
a. appendix c. case for action
b. introduction d. findings

PTS: 1 REF: 74

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

Modified Multiple Choice

1. A SWOT analysis contributes to the strategic planning process by identifying ____ resources.
a. technical c. financial
b. human d. logistical

2. Common reasons for systems requests are ____.
a. improved services c. better performance
b. weaker controls d. reduced cost

3. ____ is/are an external factor(s) that affect(s) IT systems projects.
a. Technology c. Managers
b. Competitors d. Suppliers

4. ____ is/are an internal factor(s) that affect(s) IT systems projects.
a. The economy c. Strategic plans
b. User requests d. Existing systems and data

5. By questioning users about additional capabilities they would like to have, instead of focusing on difficulties, a systems analyst ____.
a. leaves project scope undefined
b. gets a better understanding of operations
c. highlights ways to improve the user’s job
d. builds better, more positive relationships with users

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

1. It is easier to assign dollar values to intangible benefits. _________________________

2. Regardless of the type, all constraints should be identified as late as possible. _________________________

3. A clear definition of project scope and constraints promotes misunderstandings that arise where managers assume that the system will have a certain feature or support for a project, but later find that the feature is not included. _________________________

4. A Gantt chart is drawn as a vertical bar graph; arranged in descending order, so the team can focus on the most important causes, the bars represent various causes of a problem. _________________________

5. In a preliminary investigation report, the case for action section includes a summary of the project request and a specific recommendation. _________________________

TRUE/FALSE

1. As a project progresses, conditions never change.

PTS: 1 REF: 64

2. A company’s mission statement is unrelated to its major goals, shorter-term objectives, and day-to-day business operations.

PTS: 1 REF: 50

3. Management leadership and information technology are unconnected, and no significant changes have occurred in either area.

PTS: 1 REF: 54

4. Systems requests seldom are aimed at improving service to customers or users within a company.

PTS: 1 REF: 55

5. Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective.

PTS: 1 REF: 56

6. Internal and external factors affect every business decision that a company makes, and IT systems are no exception.

PTS: 1 REF: 56

7. A strategic plan that stresses technology tends to create an unfavorable climate for IT projects that extends throughout an organization.

PTS: 1 REF: 57

8. As users rely more heavily on information systems to perform their jobs, they are likely to request even more IT services and support.

PTS: 1 REF: 57

9. Information systems that interact with customers usually receive low priority.

PTS: 1 REF: 58

10. Competition drives many information systems decisions.

PTS: 1 REF: 59

11. Economic activity has little influence on corporate information management.

PTS: 1 REF: 59

12. Most large companies rely on one person to evaluate systems requests instead of a committee.

PTS: 1 REF: 60

13. If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully.

PTS: 1 REF: 60

14. Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits.

PTS: 1 REF: 62

15. When assessing schedule feasibility, a systems analyst must consider the interaction between time and costs.

PTS: 1 REF: 64

16. The first step in evaluating feasibility is to accept and include all systems requests, even those that are not feasible.

PTS: 1 REF: 64

17. Feasibility analysis is an ongoing task that must be performed throughout the systems development process.

PTS: 1 REF: 64

18. Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values.

PTS: 1 REF: 65

19. Few nondiscretionary projects are predictable.

PTS: 1 REF: 65

20. Before beginning a preliminary investigation, it is important to let people know about the investigation and explain the systems analyst’s role.

PTS: 1 REF: 66

21. A systems project seldom produces significant changes in company operations.

PTS: 1 REF: 66

22. When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have.

PTS: 1 REF: 66

23. Often a change in one system has an unexpected effect on another system.

PTS: 1 REF: 66

24. The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts.

PTS: 1 REF: 70

25. The format of a preliminary investigation report is the same from one company to another.

PTS: 1 REF: 74

COMPLETION

1. The term _________________________ refers to the reasons, or justification, for a systems development proposal.

2. A(n) _________________________ describes a company for its stakeholders and briefly states the company’s overall purpose, products, services, and values.

3. The outcome of the day-to-day business operations, supported by IT and other corporate resources, is a set of business results that affect company _________________________.

4. After composing a mission statement, a company identifies a set of _________________________ that will accomplish the mission.

5. To achieve its goals, a company develops a list of shorter-term _________________________, which translate into day-to-day business operations.

6. _________________________ are vital objectives that must be achieved for an enterprise to fulfill its mission.

7. The starting point for a systems development project is called a(n) _________________________, which is a formal way of asking for IT support.

8. Some common security controls include passwords, various levels of user access, and _________________________, or coding of data to keep it safe from unauthorized users.

9. Hardware-based security controls include _________________________ that can identify a person by a retina scan or by mapping a facial pattern.

10. In the accompanying figure showing factors that affect IT systems projects, a company’s _________________________ sets the overall direction for the firm and has an important impact.

11. In the accompanying figure showing factors that affect IT systems projects, many systems project requests come from the _________________________, which often makes recommendations based on its knowledge of business operations and technology trends.

12. In the accompanying figure showing factors that affect IT systems projects, changing _________________________ is a major force affecting business and society in general.

13. In the accompanying figure showing factors that affect IT systems projects, the growth of electronic data interchange (EDI) has made relationships with _________________________ critically important.

14. Many companies call the group of key managers and users responsible for evaluating systems requests a(n) _________________________.

15. A systems request must pass several tests, called a(n) _________________________, to see whether it is worthwhile to proceed further.

16. _________________________ are benefits that can be measured in dollars, resulting from a decrease in expenses, an increase in revenues, or both.

17. _________________________ are advantages that are difficult to measure in dollars but are important to a company.

18. A feasibility study includes tests for _________________________, which means that a project can be implemented in an acceptable time frame.

19. At some point in the systems development process, a(n) _________________________ is presented, which is a summary of the project request and a specific recommendation.

20. A(n) _________________________ is included in the report to management if you need to attach supporting information (e.g., the interviews you conducted, the documentation you reviewed).

MATCHING

Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
a. schedule feasibility f. systems request
b. EPC g. control
c. JIT h. preliminary investigation
d. systems development i. organization chart
e. EPOD j. case for action

1. Today, it is much more team-oriented than in the past.

2. This might propose enhancements for an existing system, the correction of problems, or the development of an entirely new information system.

3. A system needs this to ensure that data is secure and accurate.

4. Technology that is expected to overshadow bar code technology in the future.

5. System whose purpose is to provide the right product at the right place at the right time.

6. With this technology, a supplier uses RFID tags on each crate, case, or shipping unit to create a digital shipping list.

7. When assessing this, a systems analyst must consider the interaction between time and costs.

8. Its end product is a report to management.

9. Can be obtained during fact-finding to understand how a department functions.

10. The part of a preliminary investigation report that summarizes the project request and makes a specific recommendation.

ESSAY

1. Discuss in detail at least four of the main reasons for systems requests, including examples where appropriate.

2. Describe in detail at least four of the internal factors that affect the business decisions a company makes.

3. Outline the steps typically conducted during the preliminary investigation.

CASE

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 2-1

As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external.

1. Lara has just finished writing a short blurb about the internal factors that impacted the major decisions made by the company last fiscal year. Which of the following factors does NOT appear on that list?
a. Users were not satisfied by the current tracking database because it was difficult to learn and lacked flexibility.
b. The bar code technology that they have always used to monitor the movement of their products from the factory floor to the retail checkout counter has begun to be replaced by RFID tags.
c. In-house database users wanted information systems support for new features that did not exist when the system was first developed five years earlier.
d. The current systems have, over time, become a patchwork of changes and corrections that cannot support the company’s overall sales volume.

2. Which of the following does not appear on Lara’s list of external factors?
a. The economy experienced a period of expansion, requiring the company to respond with a scalable system that could handle the additional volume and growth.
b. Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report.
c. The firm’s closest competitor launched a new sales incentive with which Lara’s firm needed to compete.
d. Congress instituted an Internet sales tax.

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 2-2

Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

3. Which of the following is NOT an area in which Sam must estimate costs to determine TCO?
a. licenses
b. facility costs
c. cost of competitors’ systems
d. equipment

4. Sam’s boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam?
a. The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.
b. The new scheduling system requires overtime.
c. The new inventory control feature cuts excess inventory and eliminates production delays.
d. The new online package tracking feature improves service and decreases the need for clerical staff.

Chapter 3 – Managing Systems Projects

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following are metrics of a successful project ____.
a. late completion
b. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset
c. completion over budget
d. delivery of a product that satisfies users

PTS: 1 REF: 90

2. A project manager’s planning _____.
a. involves guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload
b. includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target
c. consists of staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members
d. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

PTS: 1 REF: 91

3. A project manager’s scheduling function _____.
a. involves guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload
b. includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target
c. involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members
d. includes identifying and arranging project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

PTS: 1 REF: 92

4. For a project manager, monitoring _____.
a. requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload
b. involves controlling capital
c. consists of staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members
d. includes identifying and arranging project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

PTS: 1 REF: 92

5. For a project manager, reporting _____.
a. involves controlling capital
b. includes informing management, users, and the project team about the progress of the project
c. consists of staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members
d. includes identifying and arranging project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

PTS: 1 REF: 92

6. Effective project reporting requires ____.
a. strong communication skills c. creating Gantt charts
b. staffing the project team d. assigning specific tasks to team members

PTS: 1 REF: 92

7. The accompanying figure shows task ____, which simplify a complex task by combining several activities.
a. groups c. aggregates
b. clusters d. links

PTS: 1 REF: 92

8. PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks.
a. top-down c. indexed
b. bottom-up d. cataloging

PTS: 1 REF: 93

9. The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____.
a. determine the logical order of project tasks
b. identify the graphical planning aids to use
c. identify all the project tasks
d. determine the status of all tasks

PTS: 1 REF: 93

10. Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects.
a. Gantt c. index
b. PERT/CPM d. task

PTS: 1 REF: 93

11. A(n) ____ chart displays complex task patterns and relationships.
a. Gantt c. PERT/CPM
b. index d. task

PTS: 1 REF: 93

12. The first step in creating a WBS is to ____.
a. mark all recognizable events c. identify all tasks
b. determine time requirements d. estimate task completion time and cost

PTS: 1 REF: 94

13. A event is a recognizable reference point that you can use to ____.
a. monitor progress c. manage time
b. assign people d. allocate money

PTS: 1 REF: 94

14. In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project.
a. targets c. members
b. milestones d. workloads

PTS: 1 REF: 94

15. A ____ might involve maximums for one or more resources.
a. successor task c. constraint
b. task group d. bottom-up technique

PTS: 1 REF: 97

16. In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has which of the following ____.
a. references to successor tasks c. start day/date
b. references to predecessor tasks d. resources allocated

PTS: 1 REF: 98

17. When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a(n) ____ task.
a. synchronous c. baseline
b. asynchronous d. concurrent

PTS: 1 REF: 99

18. Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n) ____ task.
a. predecessor c. antecedent
b. a priori d. ancestor

PTS: 1 REF: 99

19. When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks.
a. descendent c. children
b. successor d. antecedent

PTS: 1 REF: 99

20. A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule.
a. vital c. critical
b. baseline d. foundational

PTS: 1 REF: 102

21. Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track.
a. vital c. foundational
b. baseline d. critical

PTS: 1 REF: 102

22. When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly.
a. success indices c. milestones
b. critical paths d. all of the above

PTS: 1 REF: 104

23. ____ is open-source software that is supported by a community of users and developers.
a. GanttProject c. Microsoft Project Professional
b. Microsoft Project Standard d. Both b and c

PTS: 1 REF: 109

24. GanttProject can open files created with ____.
a. Apptivo c. Microsoft Word
b. HTML d. Microsoft Project

PTS: 1 REF: 109

25. The Apptivo ____ is free of charge with unlimited duration.
a. Full Plan c. Expanded Plan
b. Enhanced Plan d. Standard Plan

PTS: 1 REF: 111

26. _____ is a full-featured program that holds the dominant share of the project management software market.
a. Apptivo c. Microsoft Project
b. GanttProject d. OpenProject

PTS: 1 REF: 107

27. A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed.
a. dependent task c. predecessor task
b. concurrent task d. all of the above

PTS: 1 REF: 99

28. A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.
a. menace c. doubt
b. threat d. risk

PTS: 1 REF: 111

29. A risk management plan includes a review of ____.
a. employees c. program code
b. project scope d. open source

PTS: 1 REF: 111

30. Most risk identifications include a brief description of ____.
a. the team member who might cause a risk to occur
b. who would be responsible for responding to a given risk
c. the project manager most vulnerable to a given risk
d. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk

PTS: 1 REF: 111

31. A(n) ____ chart can be used to display the qualitative risk analysis matrix.
a. pie c. bar
b. XY d. line

PTS: 1 REF: 112

32. A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it.
a. identification c. response
b. management d. balancing

PTS: 1 REF: 112

33. A continuous risk-tracking process can ____.
a. identify new risks
b. prevent human resource turnover issues
c. increase employee satisfaction
d. encourage team building

PTS: 1 REF: 112

34. Microsoft claims that Microsoft Project has the capability of ____.
a. linking risks with specific vendors
b. assign ownership of risks
c. eliminating risk
d. preventing fraud

PTS: 1 REF: 112

35. Microsoft’s risk management model includes ____.
a. category, which specifies the risk type
b. probability, which indicates the degree of adverse effect should the risk occur, on a scale of 1 to 10
c. impact plan, which identifies plans to control or limit the risk
d. contingency, which identifies a condition that would initiate the contingency plan

PTS: 1 REF: 112-113

36. When an information system does not meet business requirements, causes might include ____.
a. identified requirements c. imprecise targets
b. adequately defined scope d. sufficient testing

PTS: 1 REF: 113

37. ____ is a possible cause of cost overruns related to human resource issues.
a. unrealistic estimates c. inaccurate TCO forecast
b. poor monitoring of progress d. turnover

PTS: 1 REF: 114

38. Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____.
a. recognition of task dependencies
b. continuity of project personnel
c. good control methods
d. personality conflicts among team members

PTS: 1 REF: 114

39. When a project manager first recognizes that a project is in trouble, the options available to her include ____.
a. expanding the project requirements c. reducing the project resources
b. delaying the project deadline d. eliminating controls and procedures

PTS: 1 REF: 114

40. A project triangle shows three legs: _____.
a. project cost, scope, and time
b. project cost, size, and scope
c. project size, scope, and time
d. project size, cost, and time

PTS: 1 REF: 90

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

Modified Multiple Choice

1. In the end, every successful information system must ____.
a. support business requirements c. be completed on time
b. stay within budget d. not have any errors

2. Project managers typically perform the tasks of ____.
a. project planning c. project scheduling
b. project reconciliation d. project monitoring

3. Which of the following is an example of an event?
a. the start of user training c. project creep
b. conversion of system data d. completion of interviews

4. ____ is a time estimate the project manager makes for a task.
a. The weight c. The best-case estimate
b. The worst-case estimate d. The probable-case estimate

5. Structured walk-throughs take place throughout the SDLC and are called ____ reviews, depending on the phase in which they occur.
a. technical c. design
b. code d. testing

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

1. A PERT/CPM chart does not show the project as a network diagram with tasks connected
by arrows.

2. Critical time is the amount of time that a task would be late without pushing back the completion date of the entire project. _________________________

3. Gantt charts often are included in progress reports to show project status graphically. _________________________

4. Quantitative risk analysis evaluates each risk by estimating the probability that it will occur and the degree of impact. _________________________

5. The purpose of quantitative risk analysis is to understand the actual impact in terms of dollars, time, project scope, or quality. _________________________

TRUE/FALSE

1. System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur.

PTS: 1 REF: 90

2. A project manager, or project leader, usually is a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager if the project is large.

PTS: 1 REF: 91

3. Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task.

PTS: 1 REF: 93

4. PERT/CPM and Gantt charts are mutually exclusive techniques.

PTS: 1 REF: 94

5. Gantt charts are an ideal tool for controlling a complex project because they provide plenty of detailed information.

PTS: 1 REF: 93

6. Using a WBS allows you to manage a project as one large task.

PTS: 1 REF: 94

7. If it will take one person 20 days to perform a particular task, it is true that two people could complete the same task in 10 days or that 10 people could perform the task in two days.

PTS: 1 REF: 95-96

8. In most systems analysis tasks, time and people are interchangeable.

PTS: 1 REF: 96

9. If you do not have previous experience to measure a project in a given environment, you could design a prototype or pilot system to gain technical and cost estimating experience.

PTS: 1 REF: 97

10. Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects.

PTS: 1 REF: 97

11. In a PERT/CPM chart, each rectangular box, called a task box, has five sections that contain important information about a task.

PTS: 1 REF: 98

12. In any project, large or small, tasks depend on each other and must be performed in a sequence.

PTS: 1 REF: 99

13. When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks.

PTS: 1 REF: 99

14. When several tasks can take place at the same time, each is called a sequential task.

PTS: 1 REF: 99

15. Often, two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, which is called a successor task.

PTS: 1 REF: 99

16. When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task.

PTS: 1 REF: 99

17. Project management software can highlight the series of tasks that form the critical path.

PTS: 1 REF: 102

18. If any task along the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project is delayed.

PTS: 1 REF: 102

19. Generally, systems analysts review the work of other systems analysts, and programmers review the work of other programmers, as a form of peer review, in structured walk-throughs.

PTS: 1 REF: 103

20. Tasks that are not on the critical path cannot be ignored.

PTS: 1 REF: 104

21. Project status meetings give project managers an opportunity to seek input and conduct brainstorming sessions.

PTS: 1 REF: 104

22. Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later.

PTS: 1 REF: 105

23. In GanttProject, unlike in Microsoft Project, you create tasks and durations, indicate dependencies, and assign resources.

PTS: 1 REF: 108

24. Project management is dynamic and challenging, regardless of which software you use..

PTS: 1 REF: 111

25. If team members lack experience with certain aspects of the required technology, temporary help might be obtained from IT consultants or part-time staff.

PTS: 1 REF: 115

COMPLETION

1. The ____________________ handles administrative responsibilities for a project development team and negotiates with users who might have conflicting requirements or want changes that would require additional time or expense.

2. To schedule a project, a project manager can use a(n) ____________________ like the one in the accompanying figure, which is a horizontal bar chart that represents a series of tasks.

3. To simplify a Gantt chart for a large project, a project manager can combine related activities into ____________________ that represent several activities.

4. In the project planning process, a(n) ____________________ is any work that has a beginning and an end and requires the use of company resources.

5. A(n) ____________________ is a recognizable reference point that can be used to monitor progress and manage a project.

6. Instead of training a project as one large task, you break the project down into a series of smaller tasks, called a(n) ____________________.

7. A(n) ____________________ represents the amount of work that one person can complete in one day.

8. When estimating the duration of a task, the project manager makes three time estimates for the task and then assigns a(n) ____________________, which is an importance value, to each estimate.

9. ____________________ can involve dependent tasks, multiple successor tasks, and multiple predecessor tasks.

10. The ____________________ is the time that a task is scheduled to begin.

11. A project is based on a pattern of ____________________.

12. The ____________________ is the time that a task is scheduled to be completed.

13. A(n) ____________________ is a review of a project team member’s work by other members of the team.

14. ____________________ is software that can assist in project planning, estimating, scheduling, monitoring, and reporting.

15. In Microsoft Project, a(n) ____________________ is similar to a PERT chart.

16. Projects with general scope definitions are risky, because they tend to expand gradually, without specific authorization, in a process called ____________________.

17. According to the concept called ____________________, adding manpower to a late software project only makes it later.

18. A(n) ____________________ is a series of tasks with no slack time.

19. Over time, the distinctions between the Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) and the Critical Path Method (CPM) have disappeared, and today the scheduling technique is called ____________________, as represented in the accompanying figure.

20. The PERT chart called a network diagram in the accompanying figure represents a bottom-up technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual ____________________.

MATCHING

Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
a. project management f. weight
b. project coordinator g. bottom-up technique
c. project leader h. dependent
d. milestone i. concurrent
e. constraint j. predecessor

1. Usually a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager, if the project is large.

2. A condition, restriction, or requirement that the system must satisfy.

3. The process of planning, scheduling, monitoring, and reporting on the development of an information system.

4. Handles the administrative responsibilities for the development team.

5. An importance value assigned to an estimate.

6. PERT/CPM is an example.

7. The kind of tasks that must be completed one after another.

8. A recognizable reference point that can be used to monitor progress and manage the project.

9. Tasks that can start at the same time are this kind of task.

10. Tasks that must be completed before another task can start.

ESSAY

1. Project managers typically perform four main tasks. Identify these and explain what they are.

2. As you enter the start and finish times for tasks in the process of transforming a task list into a PERT/CPM chart, you move through the tasks, adding the task duration for each task to its start time to determine its finish time. As you move through the tasks, there are three important rules to keep in mind. What are they?

3. What would a basic list of risk management steps include?

CASE

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 3-1

Mauricio needs to develop a project plan for a new software release that he and his team will develop. He turns to you for assistance in developing the plan.

1. You begin by reviewing some of the key points of project planning. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the process of developing a project plan?
a. You should break the project down into a series of smaller tasks, called a work breakdown structure.
b. Projects with general scope definitions tend to expand gradually in a process called project creep.
c. A project that is twice as large as another project will typically be twice as complex.
d. Adding manpower to a late software project only makes it later.

2. You show Mauricio the formula that project managers often use for estimating the duration of a task. Which of the following is NOT one of factors in that formula?
a. the best-case estimate
b. the initial-case estimate
c. the worst-case estimate
d. the probable-case estimate

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 3-2

Alicia needs to develop a schedule for a project that her team of software engineers is about to begin. You suggest that she consider one of the graphical planning aids that can help a project manager in the scheduling process, and you give her a description of two of those tools.

3. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about Gantt charts?
a. It is a horizontal bar chart that represents a series of tasks.
b. The position of a bar shows the planned start and end of the task, and the length of the bar indicates its duration.
c. They can show task status in several ways, including the use of a vertical line to represent the current date.
d. They provide the detailed information that is necessary when managing a complex project.

4. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B?
a. They are predecessor tasks of each other.
b. They are concurrent tasks.
c. They each depend on task C.
d. They are multiple successor tasks of task C.

Chapter 4 – Requirements Modeling

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies.
a. systems planning c. systems design
b. systems analysis d. systems implementation

PTS: 1 REF: 132

2. One of the main activities in the systems analysis phase is ____ modeling, which involves fact-finding to describe the current system and identification requirements for the new system.
a. objective c. goal-based
b. requirements d. user-based

PTS: 1 REF: 132

3. ____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution.
a. Analytical skills c. Interpersonal skills
b. Artistic skills d. Confrontational skills

PTS: 1 REF: 133

4. Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in ____.
a. poorer communication c. slower development times
b. more satisfied users d. lower quality deliverable

PTS: 1 REF: 133

5. ____ are especially important to a systems analyst who must work with people at all organizational levels, balance conflicting needs of users, and communicate effectively.
a. Analytical skills c. Interpersonal skills
b. Artistic skills d. Confrontational skills

PTS: 1 REF: 133

6. RAD relies heavily on ____.
a. prototyping c. agile methods
b. management direction d. Scrum

PTS: 1 REF: 136

7. The primary advantage of RAD is that ____.
a. systems can be developed more quickly with significant cost savings
b. the company’s strategic business needs are emphasized and the mechanics of the system are not stressed
c. the decelerated time cycle allows more time to develop quality, consistency, and design standards
d. systems are developed more slowly with fewer bugs

PTS: 1 REF: 137

8. In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives.
a. dodge c. scrum
b. resequencing d. adaptation

PTS: 1 REF: 138

9. Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes.
a. UML c. FDD
b. TCO d. REJ

PTS: 1 REF: 140

10. A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process.
a. UML c. FDD
b. TCO d. REJ

PTS: 1 REF: 140

11. The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design.
a. UML c. FDD
b. TCO d. REJ

PTS: 1 REF: 141

12. A ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system.
a. TCO c. use case diagram
b. data schematic d. user-based flowchart

PTS: 1 REF: 141

13. In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system.
a. agent c. interlocutor
b. actor d. master

PTS: 1 REF: 141

14. A(n) ____ diagram shows the timing of interactions between objects as they occur.
a. timing c. orientation
b. ordering d. sequence

PTS: 1 REF: 142

15. Which of the following is a general category of system requirements?
a. daily reports c. response time
b. inputs d. login security

PTS: 1 REF: 143

16. ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the output category.
a. Manufacturing employees must swipe their ID cards into data collection terminals that record labor costs
b. The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps
c. The student records system must allow record access by either the student name or the student number
d. The system must support 25 users simultaneously

PTS: 1 REF: 143

17. ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the input category.
a. As a final step in year-end processing, the payroll system must update employee salaries, bonuses, and benefits
b. Response time must not exceed four seconds
c. The system must provide log-on security at the operating system level and at the application level
d. Student grades must be entered on machine-scannable forms prepared by the instructor

PTS: 1 REF: 144

18. ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the process category.
a. The Web site must report online volume statistics every four hours and hourly during peak periods
b. The system must be operated seven days a week, 365 days a year
c. The equipment rental system must not execute new rental transactions for customers who have overdue tapes
d. All transactions must have audit trails

PTS: 1 REF: 144

19. ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category.
a. The purchasing system must provide suppliers with up-to-date specifications
b. Each input form must include date, time, product code, customer number, and quantity
c. The manager of the sales department must approve orders that exceed a customer’s credit limit
d. The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration

PTS: 1 REF: 144

20. ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the control category.
a. The customer analysis system must produce a quarterly report that identifies changes in ordering patterns
b. The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator
c. The data entry screens must be uniform, except for background color, which can be changed by the user
d. The warehouse distribution system must analyze daily orders and create a routing pattern for delivery trucks

PTS: 1 REF: 144

21. To evaluate ____, a systems analyst needs information about projected future volume for all outputs, inputs, and processes.
a. scalability c. compatibility
b. reliability d. applicability

PTS: 1 REF: 145

22. The term ____ refers to a system’s ability to handle increased business volume and transactions in the future.
a. scalability c. compatibility
b. reliability d. applicability

PTS: 1 REF: 145

23. In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____.
a. TCO c. FDD
b. REJ d. UML

PTS: 1 REF: 145

24. Microsoft has developed a method for measuring a system’s total costs and benefits, called ____, which is a framework to help IT professionals analyze and optimize IT investments.
a. TCO c. FDD
b. REJ d. UML

PTS: 1 REF: 146

25. In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart.
a. spontaneous c. informal
b. unstructured d. open-ended

PTS: 1 REF: 149

26. In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses.
a. open-ended questions c. leading questions
b. closed-ended questions d. range-of-response questions

PTS: 1 REF: 150

27. In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response.
a. open-ended questions c. leading questions
b. closed-ended questions d. range-of-response questions

PTS: 1 REF: 150

28. In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale.
a. open-ended questions c. leading questions
b. closed-ended questions d. range-of-response questions

PTS: 1 REF: 150

29. Supporters of neutral locations for interviews believe that it ____.
a. makes the interviewee feel comfortable during the meeting
b. gives the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed
c. keeps interruptions to a minimum so people can concentrate fully
d. gives the interviewee opportunity to take calls during the interview

PTS: 1 REF: 151

30. If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do which of the following ____.
a. switch to closed-ended questions
b. give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed
c. continue using open-ended questions
d. rudely conclude the meeting

PTS: 1 REF: 153

31. When studying an information system, examples of actual documents should be collected using a process called ____.
a. stratification c. indexing
b. randomization d. sampling

PTS: 1 REF: 158

32. When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review.
a. systematic sample c. random sample
b. stratified sample d. comprehensive sample

PTS: 1 REF: 158

33. When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes.
a. systematic sample c. random sample
b. stratified sample d. comprehensive sample

PTS: 1 REF: 158

34. When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers.
a. systematic sample c. random sample
b. stratified sample d. comprehensive sample

PTS: 1 REF: 158

35. A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____.
a. flowchart c. agile method
b. histogram d. Venn diagram

PTS: 1 REF: 161

36. Some ____, such as Microsoft Outlook, include a personal calendar, a to-do list, and powerful contact management features.
a. PIMs c. PDAs
b. laptops d. Visios

PTS: 1 REF: 163

37. A category of information management software or programs designed for the large amount of information generated by an IT project is called _____.
a. PIM c. PDA
b. Project data management d. Personal data management

PTS: 1 REF: 162

38. Software such as Microsoft OneNote is a type of ____ software.
a. PIM c. Project data management
b. Personal data management d. PDA

PTS: 1 REF: 163

39. In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool.
a. interview c. sample
b. questionnaire d. research report

PTS: 1 REF: 156

40. The kind of document shown in the accompanying figure starts with a heading, which should include all except which of the following ____.
a. a brief statement of purpose
b. your suggestions
c. your signature
d. your observations

PTS: 1 REF: 157

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

Modified Multiple Choice

1. Compared with traditional methods, when properly used, JAD can result in ____.
a. less expense and greater manageability if the group is too large
b. more accurate statement of system requirements
c. better understanding of common goals
d. stronger commitment to the success of the new system

2. When preparing a checklist of specific tasks to observe and questions to ask, a systems analyst should consider ____.
a. asking sufficient questions to ensure a complete understanding of the present system operation
b. observing all steps in a transaction and noting the documents, inputs, outputs, and processes involved
c. talking to the people who receive current reports to see whether the reports are complete, timely, accurate, and in a useful form
d. examining each form, record, and report

3. When designing a questionnaire, all of the following are ideas to keep in mind: ____.
a. providing clear instructions that will answer all anticipated questions
b. arranging questions in a logical order
c. trying to lead the response or use questions that give clues to expected answers
d. phrasing all questions to avoid misunderstandings, and use simple terms and wording

4. When recording facts, a systems analyst should document the work by ____.
a. recording information as soon as it is obtained
b. recording findings in such a way that they can be understood by someone else
c. organizing documentation so related material is located easily
d. using the most complex recording method possible

5. When recording and documenting information, Microsoft Word can create _____.
a. reports c. tables
b. summaries d. forms

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

1. JAD provides a fast-track approach to a full spectrum of system development tasks, including planning, design, construction, and implementation. _________________________

2. An agile approach emphasizes continuous feedback, and each incremental step is affected by what was learned in the prior steps. _________________________

3. In a sequence diagram, vertical arrows represent messages from one object to another. _________________________

4. The personal interview usually is the least expensive fact-finding technique. _________________________

5. A graphic modeling program allows you to manage details of a complex project, create queries to retrieve specific information, and generate custom reports. _________________________

TRUE/FALSE

1. Each activity within the systems analysis phase has an end product and one or more milestones.

PTS: 1 REF: 133

2. Because it is linked to a specific development methodology, systems developers use JAD whenever group input and interaction is not desired.

PTS: 1 REF: 133

3. IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development.

PTS: 1 REF: 134

4. Because of the limited range of input and interaction among participants, few companies believe that a JAD group produces the best definition of a new system.

PTS: 1 REF: 134

5. Compared with traditional methods, the entire RAD process is expanded and, as a result, the new system is built, delivered, and placed in operation much later.

PTS: 1 REF: 137

6. The main objective of all RAD approaches is to extend development time and expense by excluding users from every phase of systems development.

PTS: 1 REF: 137

7. Because use cases depict a system through the eyes of a user, common business language can be used to describe the transactions.

PTS: 1 REF: 141

8. System requirements serve as benchmarks to measure the overall acceptability of a finished system.

PTS: 1 REF: 143

9. System requirements fall into five general categories: outputs, inputs, processes, performance, and controls.

PTS: 1 REF: 143

10. In addition to helping to gather and analyze facts, many programs also perform fact-finding for systems analysts.

PTS: 1 REF: 146

11. When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done.

PTS: 1 REF: 147

12. Knowledge of a company’s formal and informal structures helps a systems analyst determine the people to interview during the systems analysis phase.

PTS: 1 REF: 149

13. In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general.

PTS: 1 REF: 149

14. Creating a standard list of interview questions helps a systems analyst to keep on track and avoid unnecessary tangents.

PTS: 1 REF: 149

15. A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting.

PTS: 1 REF: 150

16. When conducting an interview, after asking a question, allow the person enough time to think about the question and arrive at an answer.

PTS: 1 REF: 152

17. Although taking notes during an interview has both advantages and disadvantages, the accepted view is that note taking should be extensive.

PTS: 1 REF: 152

18. System documentation always is up to date.

PTS: 1 REF: 154

19. Personal observation allows a systems analyst to verify statements made in interviews and determine whether procedures really operate as they are described.

PTS: 1 REF: 154

20. When designing a questionnaire, the most important rule of all is to make sure that questions collect the right data in a form that can be used to further fact-finding.

PTS: 1 REF: 157

21. When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics.

PTS: 1 REF: 157

22. Before publishing a form on the Internet or a company intranet, a systems analyst should protect it so users can change the layout or design but cannot fill it in.

PTS: 1 REF: 157

23. The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately.

PTS: 1 REF: 158

24. A single site visit usually gives true pictures, so it is unnecessary to visit more than one installation.

PTS: 1 REF: 159

25. The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals.

PTS: 1 REF: 160

COMPLETION

1. The deliverable, or end product, of the systems analysis phase is a(n) ____________________, which is an overall design for the new system.

2. A common technique that allows users to participate in various development tasks is called ____________________, which is a user-oriented technique for fact-finding and requirements modeling.

3. In addition to joint application development, another popular user-oriented method is ____________________, which resembles a condensed version of the entire SDLC with users involved every step of the way.

4. In the RAD model in the accompanying figure, during the ____________________ phase users interact with systems analysts and develop models and prototypes that represent all system processes, outputs, and inputs.

5. In the RAD model in the accompanying figure, the ____________________ phase focuses on program and application development tasks similar to the SDLC.

6. In the RAD model in the accompanying figure, the ____________________ phase resembles the final tasks in the SDLC implementation phase.

7. A(n) ____________________ is a characteristic or feature that must be included in an information system to satisfy business requirements and be acceptable to users.

8. The ____________________ is a model that asks the traditional fact-finding questions in a systems development context.

9. A(n) ____________________ is a planned meeting during which a systems analyst obtains information from another person.

10. When phrasing interview questions, a systems analyst should avoid ____________________ that suggest or favor a particular reply.

11. The process of concentrating on what is said in an interview and noticing any nonverbal communication that takes place is called ____________________.

12. ____________________ is a fact-finding technique that can help a systems analyst understand how the current system is supposed to work.

13. The ____________________ of current operating procedures is a fact-finding technique that gives a systems analyst additional perspective and a better understanding of system procedures.

14. When observing people at work, a systems analyst should consider the ____________________, which suggests that worker productivity improves during observation.

15. A(n) ____________________ is a document containing a number of standard questions that can be sent to many individuals.

16. A questionnaire can be a traditional paper form, or a(n) ____________________ can be created and data collected on the Internet or a company intranet.

17. ____________________ is an important fact-finding technique that can include the Internet, IT magazines, and books to obtain background information, technical material, and news about industry trends and developments.

18. Online forums and ____________________ are good resources for exchanging information with other professionals, seeking answers to questions, and monitoring discussions of interest.

19. Research can involve a visit to a physical location, called a(n) ____________________, where the objective is to observe a system in use at another location.

20. In the RAD model in the accompanying figure, the ____________________ phase combines elements of the systems planning and systems analysis phases of the SDLC.

MATCHING

Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
a. TCO f. open-ended
b. closed-ended g. CASE tool
c. agile method h. pool
d. FDD i. UML
e. RAD j. scalable

1. These methods develop a system incrementally, by building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user requirements.

2. One of its risks is that a system might work well in the short term, but the corporate and long-term objectives for the system might not be met.

3. In BPMN terminology, the overall diagram.

4. Creating one of these is similar to drawing an organization chart.

5. Provides various graphical tools, such as use case diagrams and sequence diagrams.

6. This kind of system offers a better return on initial investment because it will have a longer useful life.

7. In determining this, one problem is that cost estimates tend to understate costs such as user support and downtime productivity losses.

8. Kinds of questions that are useful when a systems analyst wants to understand a larger process or draw out the interviewee’s opinions, attitudes, or suggestions.

9. Systems analysts use this kind of question when they want information that is more specific or to verify facts.

10. If one of these is available, analysts can use it to develop models and enter documentation from the JAD session.

ESSAY

1. Briefly describe the four phases of the RAD model.

2. JAD, RAD, and agile methods all have advantages and disadvantages. What are they?

3. What are the issues to consider as you compile your checklist of specific tasks you want to observe and questions you want to ask during an observation of current operating procedures?

CASE

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 4-1

Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder.

1. As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of documenting the results of the JAD session and preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members?
a. Devon
b. Malia
c. Shakira
d. his own

2. There have been some rumblings within the firm that this development project is not necessary so Kieran and others feel it is important to explain the reason for the project at the outset. Whose name goes next to this point on the agenda?
a. his own
b. Simon
c. Max
d. Malia

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 4-2

Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team’s new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categories—or in some cases failed to categorize them correctly—so he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly.

3. Perry knows that there were supposed to be three performance examples but he finds four in the spreadsheet. Which one of these is mislabeled as a performance example?
a. The system must automatically generate an insurance claim form.
b. Response time must not exceed four seconds.
c. The online inventory control system must flag all low-stock items within one hour after the quantity falls below a predetermined minimum.
d. The records system must produce key reports within five hours of the end of each fiscal quarter.

4. Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department?
a. performance
b. control
c. process
d. input

Chapter 5 – Data and Process Modeling

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically.
a. operational c. logical
b. physical d. relational

PTS: 1 REF: 178

2. DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name.
a. capital c. italicized
b. lowercase d. boldfaced

PTS: 1 REF: 180

3. A DFD shows ____.
a. how data are related
b. what key fields are stored in the system
c. how a system transforms input data into useful information
d. what data is stored in the system

PTS: 1 REF: 180

4. In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____.
a. rectangle with rounded corners
b. line with a single or double arrowhead
c. flat rectangle that is open on the right side and closed on the left side
d. rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional

PTS: 1 REF: 181

5. In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____.
a. rectangle with rounded corners
b. line with a single or double arrowhead
c. flat rectangle that is open on the right side and closed on the left side
d. rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional

PTS: 1 REF: 182

6. A spontaneous generation process is a process that has ____.
a. no input
b. at least one output and one input, but the output obviously is insufficient to generate the input shown
c. no output
d. at least one input and one output, but the input obviously is insufficient to generate the output shown

PTS: 1 REF: 183

7. A black hole is a process that has ____.
a. no input
b. at least one output and one input, but the output obviously is insufficient to generate the input shown
c. no output
d. at least one input and one output, but the input obviously is insufficient to generate the output shown

PTS: 1 REF: 183

8. A gray hole is a process that has ____.
a. no input
b. at least one output and one input, but the output obviously is insufficient to generate the input shown
c. no output
d. at least one input and one output, but the input obviously is insufficient to generate the output shown

PTS: 1 REF: 183

9. ____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow.
a. Spontaneous combustion c. Black holes
b. Gray matter d. Black boxes

PTS: 1 REF: 183

10. In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data store is a ____.
a. rectangle with rounded corners
b. line with a single or double arrowhead
c. flat rectangle that is open on the right side and closed on the left side
d. rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional

PTS: 1 REF: 184

11. In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for an entity is a ____.
a. rectangle with rounded corners
b. line with a single or double arrowhead
c. flat rectangle that is open on the right side and closed on the left side
d. rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional

PTS: 1 REF: 185

12. If processes must be performed in a specific sequence, you document the information in the ____.
a. leveling guide c. data dictionary
b. process descriptions d. DFD

PTS: 1 REF: 191

13. Because diagram 0 is a(n) ____ version of process 0, it shows considerably more detail than a context diagram.
a. contracted c. condensed
b. exploded d. extrapolated

PTS: 1 REF: 191

14. Leveling ____.
a. uses a series of increasingly detailed DFDs to describe an information system
b. ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD
c. uses a series of increasingly sketchy DFDs to describe an information system
d. ensures that the input and output data flows of the child DFD are maintained on the parent DFD

PTS: 1 REF: 192

15. ____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified.
a. Leveling c. Indexing
b. Balancing d. Exploding

PTS: 1 REF: 192

16. ____ maintains consistency among DFDs by ensuring that input and output data flows align properly.
a. Balancing c. Leveling
b. Indexing d. Exploding

PTS: 1 REF: 192

17. Using ____, an analyst starts with an overall view, which is a context diagram with a single process symbol, and then the analyst creates diagram 0, which shows more detail.
a. balancing c. exploding
b. indexing d. leveling

PTS: 1 REF: 192

18. Balancing ____.
a. uses a series of increasingly detailed DFDs to describe an information system
b. ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD
c. uses a series of increasingly sketchy DFDs to describe an information system
d. ensures that the input and output data flows of the child DFD are maintained on the parent DFD

PTS: 1 REF: 194

19. A data ____ is a central storehouse of information about a system’s data.
a. glossary c. content bank
b. knowledgebase d. repository

PTS: 1 REF: 197

20. In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system.
a. field c. record
b. index d. pixel

PTS: 1 REF: 197

21. In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores.
a. fields c. records
b. columns d. decimals

PTS: 1 REF: 197

22. The data dictionary usually records and describes a default value, which is the ____.
a. specification of the set of values permitted for the data element
b. identification of the user(s) responsible for changing values for the data element
c. specification for the origination point for the data element’s value
d. value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it

PTS: 1 REF: 199

23. In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____.
a. clone c. alias
b. cipher d. index

PTS: 1 REF: 199

24. In a data dictionary, ____ refers to whether the data element contains numeric, alphabetic, or character values.
a. value c. valence
b. type d. domain

PTS: 1 REF: 199

25. In a data dictionary, ____ is the maximum number of characters for an alphabetic or character data element or the maximum number of digits and number of decimal positions for a numeric data element.
a. domain c. length
b. valence d. index

PTS: 1 REF: 199

26. A data dictionary specifies a data element’s ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element.
a. range c. array
b. domain d. any of the above

PTS: 1 REF: 200

27. In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee’s salary must be within the range defined for the employee’s job classification.
a. domain c. validity
b. range d. mastered

PTS: 1 REF: 200

28. ____ is based on combinations of the three logical structures, or control structures (one of which is shown in the accompanying figure), which serve as building blocks for the process.
a. Modular design c. Global design
b. General design d. Total design

PTS: 1 REF: 204

29. In the accompanying figure, the sequence structure is the completion of ____.
a. one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition
b. steps in a chronological order, one after another
c. a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes
d. a specific condition that is repeated until a process changes

PTS: 1 REF: 204

30. The selection structure is the completion of ____.
a. one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition
b. steps in a chronological order, one after another
c. a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes
d. a specific condition that is repeated until a process changes

PTS: 1 REF: 204

31. Typical process description tools include ____.
a. context diagrams c. pseudocode
b. decision trees d. database tables

PTS: 1 REF: 204

32. A ____ description documents the details of a functional primitive, which represents a specific set of processing steps and business logic.
a. logic c. process
b. primitive d. function-based

PTS: 1 REF: 204

33. The iteration structure is the completion of ____.
a. one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition
b. steps in a chronological order, one after another
c. a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes
d. a specific condition that is repeated until a process changes

PTS: 1 REF: 205

34. Structured English might look familiar to programming students because it resembles ____, which is used in program design.
a. pseudocode c. iterative code
b. a decision tree d. decision code

PTS: 1 REF: 205

35. ____ also is called looping.
a. Sequence c. Iteration
b. Selection d. Process description

PTS: 1 REF: 205

36. A ____ table shows a logical structure, with all possible combinations of conditions and resulting actions.
a. pseudo c. decision
b. logic d. validity

PTS: 1 REF: 206

37. Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____.
a. vertical form that resembles a tree with the roots at the bottom and the branches at the top
b. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right
c. vertical form that resembles a tree with the roots at the top and the branches at the bottom
d. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the right and the branches to the left

PTS: 1 REF: 210

38. A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table.
a. base c. icon
b. tree d. index

PTS: 1 REF: 210

39. The major benefit of ____ is that it gives a clear picture of current system functions before any modifications or improvements are made.
a. the four-model approach c. leveling
b. balancing d. looping

PTS: 1 REF: 211

40. The disadvantage of the four-model approach is ____.
a. it gives an unclear picture of the current system functions before any modifications or improvements are made
b. the requirements of a new information system always are different from the current information system
c. the added time and cost needed to develop a logical and physical model of the current system
d. it results in unhappy users

PTS: 1 REF: 211

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

Modified Multiple Choice

1. When DFDs are drawn, which of the following conventions should be followed?
a. each context diagram must fit on one page
b. use the same names within each set of symbols
c. do not cross lines
d. use a unique reference number for each process symbol

2. Leveling also is called ____.
a. exploding c. decomposing
b. partitioning d. indexing

3. Many valuable reports can be obtained from a data dictionary, including a(n) ____.
a. alphabetized list of all data elements by name
b. report by user departments of data elements that must be updated by each department
c. report of all data flows that use a particular data element
d. detailed report showing all characteristics of data elements

4. An auto parts store inventory record might include ____.
a. part number c. description
b. supplier code d. minimum stock levels

5. When structured English is used, which of the following rules must be conformed to?
a. use only the three building blocks of sequence, selection, and iteration
b. use indentation for readability
c. use a limited vocabulary
d. avoid standard terms used in the data dictionary

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

1. Later in the systems design phase, you build a logical model that describes how a system will be constructed. _________________________

2. Using Gane and Sarson symbols, a DFD represents processes as rectangles with rounded corners. _________________________

3. The primary purpose of pseudocode is to describe the underlying business logic of code. _________________________

4. Systems analysts call an entity that supplies data to the system a sink. _________________________

5. A decision tree is read from left to right, with the conditions along the various branches and the actions at the far left. _________________________

TRUE/FALSE

1. In a DFD, processes contain the business logic, also called business rules, that transform the data and produce the required results.

PTS: 1 REF: 181

2. A DFD shows the structure and detailed contents of a data flow.

PTS: 1 REF: 182

3. In a DFD, a process symbol can have only one outgoing data flow.

PTS: 1 REF: 182

4. In a DFD, a data flow must have a process symbol on at least one end.

PTS: 1 REF: 183

5. Two data stores can be connected by a data flow without an intervening process.

PTS: 1 REF: 184

6. A DFD does not show the external entities that provide data to the system or receive output from the system.

PTS: 1 REF: 185

7. Systems analysts call an entity that receives data from the system a source.

PTS: 1 REF: 185

8. Data stores are shown in a context diagram because data stores are external to the system.

PTS: 1 REF: 188

9. What makes one system more complex than another is the number of components, the number of levels, and the degree of interaction among its processes, entities, data stores, and data flows.

PTS: 1 REF: 189

10. When a context diagram is expanded into DFD diagram 0, all the connections that flow into and out of process 0 must be retained.

PTS: 1 REF: 189

11. Deciding whether to explode a process further or determine that it is a functional primitive is a matter of experience, judgment, and interaction with programmers who must translate the logical design into code.

PTS: 1 REF: 191

12. When a DFD is exploded, the higher-level diagram is called the child diagram, and the lower-level diagram is referred to as the parent diagram.

PTS: 1 REF: 191

13. More complex systems have fewer processes, and analysts need only work through very few levels to identify the functional primitives.

PTS: 1 REF: 193

14. When drawing DFDs, a data store is shown only when two or more processes use that data store.

PTS: 1 REF: 193-194

15. Two DFDs are leveled, for example, if the child diagram at the bottom has the same input and output flows as the parent process at the top of the diagram.

PTS: 1 REF: 194

16. DFDs are balanced if each internal process is numbered to show that it is a child of the parent process.

PTS: 1 REF: 196

17. In most data dictionaries, records are defined together with the data flows and data stores.

PTS: 1 REF: 200

18. When documenting a process, the documentation includes a description of the process’s characteristics and, for functional primitives, a process description, which is a model that documents the processing steps and business logic.

PTS: 1 REF: 202

19. In addition to describing each data element, data flow, data store, record, entity, and process, the data dictionary documents the relationships among these components.

PTS: 1 REF: 203-204

20. In modular design, each logical structure must have multiple entry and exit points.

PTS: 1 REF: 204

21. In modular design, a rectangle represents a condition or decision, a diamond shape represents a step or a process, and the logic follows the lines in the direction indicated by the arrows.

PTS: 1 REF: 204

22. Whether to use a decision table or a decision tree often is a matter of personal preference.

PTS: 1 REF: 210

23. During the systems design phase, a physical model of the new information system is created that follows from the logical model and involves operational tasks and techniques.

PTS: 1 REF: 211

24. Many systems analysts create a physical model of the current system and then develop a logical model of the current system before tackling a logical model of the new system.

PTS: 1 REF: 211

25. A disadvantage of the four-model approach is that the requirements of a new information system always are quite different from the current information system, especially when the proposal is based on new computer technology rather than a large number of new requirements.

PTS: 1 REF: 211

COMPLETION

1. Analysts use ____________________ modeling techniques to show how a system transforms data into useful information.

2. A(n) ____________________ uses various symbols to show how the system transforms input data into useful information.

3. In addition to the Gane and Sarson symbol set, another popular symbol set is ____________________.

4. In DFDs, a process resembles a(n) ____________________, where the inputs, outputs, and general functions of the process are known, but the underlying details are not shown.

5. In a typical company, ____________________ might include calculating sales trends, filing online insurance claims, ordering inventory from a supplier’s system, or verifying e-mail addresses for Web customers.

6. Another term for business logic is business ____________________.

7. In the Gane and Sarson symbol set, the symbol for a(n) ____________________ is a rectangle with rounded corners.

8. By showing processes as ____________________, an analyst can create DFDs that show how the system functions, but avoid unnecessary detail and clutter.

9. Among the symbols in the accompanying figure, a(n) ____________________ receives input data and produces output that has a different content, form, or both.

10. The accompanying figure illustrates symbols used in a(n) ____________________, which shows how data moves through an information system but does not show program logic or processing steps.

11. Among the symbols in the accompanying figure, a(n) ____________________ is a path for data to move from one part of the information system to another.

12. Among the symbols in the accompanying figure, a(n) ____________________ is used to represent data that a system stores because one or more processes need to use the data at a later time.

13. DFD entities also are called ____________________, because they are data origins or final data destinations.

14. The first step in constructing a set of DFDs is to draw a(n) ____________________, which is a top-level view of an information system that shows the system’s boundaries and scope.

15. To draw a context diagram, you start by placing a single process symbol in the center of the page, which you identify as ____________________.

16. To show the detail inside a black box, create DFD ____________________, which zooms in on the system and shows major processes, data flows, and data stores.

17. A(n) ____________________ is a data flow in which the same data travels to two or more different locations.

18. When a set of DFDs is created for a system, a(n) ____________________ is a process that consists of a single function that is not exploded further.

19. ____________________ is a subset of standard English that describes logical processes clearly and accurately.

20. Many analysts follow a(n) ____________________, which means that they develop a physical model of the current system, a logical model of the current system, a logical model of the new system, and a physical model of the new system.

MATCHING

Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
a. balancing f. data dictionary
b. structured analysis g. decision table
c. leveling h. logical
d. DFD i. data flow
e. physical j. record

1. Model that describes how a system will be constructed.

2. Model that shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented.

3. Shows how a system transforms input data into useful information.

4. DFD component that represents one or more data items.

5. A data structure that contains a set of related data elements that are stored and processed together.

6. Ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD.

7. With this, an analyst starts with an overall view, which is a context diagram with a single process symbol.

8. In addition to documenting each data element, all data flows must be documented here.

9. A set of DFDs produces a logical model of the system, but the details within those DFDs are documented separately in a data dictionary, which is the second component of this.

10. In addition to multiple conditions, this can have more than two possible outcomes.

ESSAY

1. What are the guidelines to follow when you draw a context diagram and other DFDs?

2. Explain what a data dictionary is, making sure to include definitions of the terms data element and record in your explanation. Provide examples of each of these terms as you include them.

3. On what structure(s) is modular design based? Briefly define each of the structure types.

CASE

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 5-1

Evan is an expert on all of the different kinds of process description tools, so when his colleagues have questions, they know where to turn.

1. One of the firm’s beginner analysts is working on a financial process that will continue to print vendor payments until it reaches the end of the file. Which of the following processes will Evan suggest that the analyst use?
a. sequence
b. selection
c. concatenation
d. iteration

2. Another of the firm’s analysts has been pounding his head against his desk for 10 minutes because he cannot figure out what is wrong with some structured English he has been using to describe the processing logic. Evan walks over and spots the problem in an instant. Which of the following can be what Evan identifies as the problem?
a. The structured English is indented.
b. The structured English is not using a sequence, selection, or iteration structure.
c. The structured English uses a limited vocabulary.
d. The structured English is used as a shorthand notation for actual code by programmers

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 5-2

The analysts at Novel Systems Worldwide are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client.

3. Which of the following will NOT be developed if they decide to use the four-model approach?
a. A physical model of the current system.
b. A logical model of the current system.
c. A teleological model of the current system.
d. A physical model of the new system.

4. If they pursue the four-model approach, which of the following is a likely outcome?
a. Users will be unhappy.
b. Costs may be high.
c. It will not be possible to get a clear picture of the current system functions before modifications are made.
d. Costs may be low.

Chapter 6 – Object Modeling

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting an information system.
a. UML c. UNIX
b. Java d. DFD

PTS: 1 REF: 226

2. An object has certain ____, like the make, model, and color of a car.
a. keys c. indices
b. attributes d. packets

PTS: 1 REF: 226

3. An object’s ____ are the tasks or functions the object performs.
a. messages c. instances
b. commands d. methods

PTS: 1 REF: 226

4. Your car performs a(n) ____ called OPERATE WIPERS when you send a message by moving the proper control.
a. method c. command
b. instance d. objective

PTS: 1 REF: 226

5. A(n) ____ represents a real person, place, event, or transaction.
a. object c. command
b. instance d. method

PTS: 1 REF: 226

6. ____ are characteristics that describe the object.
a. Indices c. Packets
b. Attributes d. Keys

PTS: 1 REF: 226

7. A(n) ____ is a group of similar objects.
a. aggregate c. class
b. concatenation d. packet

PTS: 1 REF: 226

8. A(n) ____ is a specific member of a class.
a. key c. lifeline
b. index d. instance

PTS: 1 REF: 226

9. Your red Mustang is a(n) ____ of the CAR class.
a. index c. metric
b. key d. instance

PTS: 1 REF: 226

10. The UML represents an object as a(n) ____ with the object name at the top, followed by the object’s attributes and methods.
a. circle c. triangle
b. rectangle d. oval

PTS: 1 REF: 227

11. The number of ____ needed to describe an object depends on the business requirements of the information system and its users.
a. attributes c. indices
b. packets d. keys

PTS: 1 REF: 229

12. If ____ are similar to adjectives that describe the characteristics of an object, objects are similar to nouns.
a. packets c. indices
b. attributes d. keys

PTS: 1 REF: 229

13. In an object-oriented system, objects can ____ certain attributes from other objects.
a. relate c. inherit
b. concatenate d. reformat

PTS: 1 REF: 230

14. The ____ of an object is an adjective that describes the object’s current status.
a. polymorphism c. resemblance
b. encapsulation d. state

PTS: 1 REF: 230

15. Objects can have a specific attribute called a(n) ____.
a. state c. instance
b. cycle d. status

PTS: 1 REF: 230

16. A(n) ____ defines specific tasks that an object can perform.
a. attribute c. command
b. method d. message

PTS: 1 REF: 230

17. ____ resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something.
a. Methods c. Messages
b. Commands d. Attributes

PTS: 1 REF: 230

18. A ____ is a command that tells an object to perform a certain method.
a. dictum c. statement
b. message d. baseline

PTS: 1 REF: 231

19. The concept that a message gives different meanings to different objects is called ____.
a. encapsulation c. polymorphism
b. dynamic addressing d. linear addressing

PTS: 1 REF: 231

20. A major advantage of O-O designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using ____ objects.
a. dynamic c. modular
b. feasible d. linear

PTS: 1 REF: 232

21. ____ allows objects to be used as modular components anywhere in the system.
a. Dynamic addressing c. Encapsulation
b. Technical feasibility d. Linear addressing

PTS: 1 REF: 232

22. As shown in the accompanying figure, objects within a class can be grouped into ____, which are more specific categories within a class.
a. schedules c. subclasses
b. units d. clusters

PTS: 1 REF: 232

23. An object belongs to a group or category called a(n) ____.
a. catalog c. index
b. roster d. class

PTS: 1 REF: 232

24. All objects within a(n) ____ share common attributes and methods.
a. catalog c. index
b. roster d. class

PTS: 1 REF: 232

25. A class can belong to a more general category called a ____.
a. superclass c. subclass
b. roster d. catalog

PTS: 1 REF: 233

26. ____ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functions and transactions required by the system.
a. Aggregates c. Clusters
b. Relationships d. Linkages

PTS: 1 REF: 234

27. ____ describe what objects need to know about each other, how objects respond to changes in other objects, and the effects of membership in classes, superclasses, and subclasses.
a. Aggregates c. Clusters
b. Relationships d. Linkages

PTS: 1 REF: 234

28. ____ enables an object to derive one or more of its attributes from another object.
a. Concatenation c. Inheritance
b. Encapsulation d. Polymorphism

PTS: 1 REF: 234

29. Inheritance enables a ____ to derive one or more of its attributes from a parent.
a. child c. package
b. user d. class

PTS: 1 REF: 234

30. An object ____ diagram shows the objects and how they interact to perform business functions and transactions.
a. relationship c. antecedent
b. precedent d. parent

PTS: 1 REF: 234

31. In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____.
a. benefit c. domain
b. cost d. actor

PTS: 1 REF: 235

32. The UML symbol for a use case is a(n) ____ with a label that describes the action or event.
a. rectangle c. dashed line
b. triangle d. oval

PTS: 1 REF: 235

33. The line from the actor to a use case is called a(n) ____.
a. association c. lifeline
b. highlight d. linkage

PTS: 1 REF: 235

34. A use case ____ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or subsystem.
a. description c. schematic
b. diagram d. outline

PTS: 1 REF: 237

35. When you create a use case diagram, the first step is to identify the system boundary, which is represented by a ____.
a. triangle c. rectangle
b. circle d. square

PTS: 1 REF: 238

36. In a class diagram, each class appears as a(n) ____, with the class name at the top, followed by the class’s attributes and methods.
a. rectangle c. oval
b. circle d. triangle

PTS: 1 REF: 238

37. When you construct a ____, you review the use case and identify the classes that participate in the underlying business process.
a. class diagram c. use case schematic
b. sequence diagram d. DFD

PTS: 1 REF: 238

38. The UML notation ____ identifies a zero or many relation.
a. 0..1 c. 0..*
b. 1..* d. 0..0

PTS: 1 REF: 239

39. Which of the following is not represented by a symbol in a sequence diagram?
a. Classes c. Lifelines
b. Indices d. Messages

PTS: 1 REF: 240

40. In a sequence diagram, a lifeline is identified by a ____ line.
a. solid c. red
b. dashed d. curved

PTS: 1 REF: 240

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

Modified Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is an attribute of a car?
a. make c. parking
b. model d. color

2. The UML uses a set of symbols to represent graphically the ____ within a system.
a. feasibility c. components
b. summaries d. relationships

3. A use case description documents (among other things) ____.
a. a description of alternative courses of action
b. postconditions
c. preconditions
d. assumptions

4. In structured analysis, ____ are transformed into data structures and program code.
a. processes c. entities
b. data stores d. TCOs

5. A sequence diagram ____.
a. is a dynamic model of a use case
b. is like a blueprint for all the objects within a class
c. is another term for a state transition diagram
d. shows the interaction among classes during a specified time period

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

1. A(n) method is like a blueprint, or template, for all the objects within a class. _________________________

2. A class can belong to a more general category called a(n) subclass. _________________________

3. In a sequence diagram, a(n) lifeline is identified by a line showing direction that runs between two objects. _________________________

4. In a state transition diagram, the circle at the right with a hollow border is the initial state. _________________________

5. After you identify a system’s objects, classes, and relationships, you should develop a(n) object relationship diagram that provides an overview of the system. _________________________

TRUE/FALSE

1. An object treats data and processes separately.

PTS: 1 REF: 226

2. Customer objects can perform specific tasks, such as placing an order or paying a bill.

PTS: 1 REF: 226

3. Some objects might have a few attributes; others might have dozens.

PTS: 1 REF: 229

4. Just as objects are similar to adjectives, attributes resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something.

PTS: 1 REF: 229

5. System analysts define an object’s attributes during the systems design process.

PTS: 1 REF: 230

6. The same message to two different objects produces the same results.

PTS: 1 REF: 231

7. A gas pump is an example of a black box.

PTS: 1 REF: 232

8. By limiting access to internal processes, an object prevents its internal code from being altered by another object or process.

PTS: 1 REF: 232

9. A major advantage of O-O designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using modular objects.

PTS: 1 REF: 232

10. All relationships have equal weight; none is stronger than any other.

PTS: 1 REF: 234

11. After you identify the objects, classes, and relationships, you are ready to prepare an object relationship diagram that will provide an overview of the system.

PTS: 1 REF: 234

12. When you create an object relationship diagram, it will serve as a guide as you continue to develop additional diagrams and documentation.

PTS: 1 REF: 234

13. Use cases cannot interact with other use cases.

PTS: 1 REF: 235

14. When the outcome of one use case is incorporated by another use case, we say the second use case uses the first case.

PTS: 1 REF: 235

15. To create use cases, you start by reviewing the information that you gathered during the requirements modeling phase.

PTS: 1 REF: 236

16. When you identify use cases, it is important to keep all related transactions separate.

PTS: 1 REF: 237

17. Unlike a DFD, a class diagram is a logical model, which evolves into a physical model and finally becomes a functioning information system.

PTS: 1 REF: 238

18. Class diagrams evolve into code modules, data objects, and other system components.

PTS: 1 REF: 238

19. In a sequence diagram, classes that send or receive messages are shown at the bottom of the diagram.

PTS: 1 REF: 240

20. In a sequence diagram, a message is identified by a narrow vertical shape that covers the lifeline.

PTS: 1 REF: 241

21. In a state transition diagram, the states appear as rounded rectangles with the state names inside.

PTS: 1 REF: 241

22. In a state transition diagram, the circle to the left is the final state.

PTS: 1 REF: 241

23. A class diagram resembles a horizontal flowchart that shows the actions and events as they occur.

PTS: 1 REF: 242

24. Sequence diagrams, state transition diagrams, and activity diagrams are dynamic modeling tools that can help a systems analyst understand how objects behave and interact with the system.

PTS: 1 REF: 242

25. If you do not use a CASE-generated model, it is not necessary that a diagram or object definition be supported by documentation.

PTS: 1 REF: 244

COMPLETION

1. You can view an object as a(n) ____________________, because a message to the object triggers changes within the object without specifying how the changes must be carried out.

2. The black box concept is an example of ____________________, which means that all data and methods are self-contained.

3. Object-oriented designs typically are implemented with ____________________ programming languages.

4. A(n) ____________________ represents the steps in a specific business function or process.

5. In a use case, the ____________________ is shown as a stick figure.

6. With a(n) ____________________, the objective is to identify the actors and the functions or transactions they initiate.

7. For each use case, you develop a use case ____________________ in the form of a table that documents the name of the use case, the actor, a description of the use case, and so forth.

8. As shown in the accompanying figure, the system ____________________ shows what is included in the system (inside the rectangle) and what is not included in the system (outside the rectangle).

9. A(n) ____________________ shows the object classes and relationships involved in a use case.

10. In a class diagram, the class is listed with the class name at the top, followed by the class’s attributes and ____________________.

11. ____________________ describes how instances of one class relate to instances of another class.

12. A(n) ____________________ diagram graphically documents the use case by showing the classes, the messages, and the timing of the messages.

13. In a sequence diagram, a(n) ____________________ is identified by a rectangle with the name inside.

14. In a sequence diagram, a(n) ____________________ represents the time during which the object above it is able to interact with the other objects in the use case.

15. In a sequence diagram, a(n) ____________________ is identified by a line showing direction that runs between two objects.

16. The ____________________ indicates when an object sends or receives a message.

17. A(n) ____________________ diagram shows how an object changes from one state to another, depending on events that affect the object.

18. A(n) ____________________ resembles a horizontal flowchart that shows the actions and events as they occur.

19. In a typical BPM diagram, the outside rectangle is called a(n) ____________________.

20. In a typical BPM diagram, designated ____________________ show specific actions and events.

MATCHING

Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
a. class diagram f. activity diagram
b. BPM g. CASE tools
c. lifeline h. black box
d. object relationship diagram i. UML
e. state transition diagram j. system boundary

1. Does not want or need outside interference.

2. Shows objects and how they interact to perform business functions and transactions.

3. This is mainly used to support O-O system analysis and to develop object models.

4. After you identify this, you place the use cases on the diagram, add the actors, and show the relationships.

5. In this, lines show relationships between classes and have labels identifying the action that relates the two classes.

6. In a sequence diagram, an X marks the end of this.

7. In this, reading from left to right, the lines show direction and describe the action or event that causes a transition from one state to another.

8. Shows the order in which the actions take place and identify the outcomes.

9. Works well with object modeling because both methods focus on the actors and the way they behave.

10. Ensure consistency and provide common links so that once objects are described and used in one part of the design, they can be reused multiple times without further effort.

ESSAY

1. Explain what a message is, using examples to demonstrate your understanding, and use the terms black box and encapsulation in your response.

2. What do relationships enable objects to do? What is the strongest kind of relationship? Walk through an example that demonstrates your understanding of the concept.

3. Explain what a class diagram is and in your answer, be sure to explain how a class diagram is like a DFD.

CASE

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 6-1

Alex is getting a little confused by the terminology in the object-oriented world, so he consults his roommate, who has been doing a lot of work in object modeling in previous coursework.

1. Which of the following does Alex’s roommate use as an example of an instance of the APPLIANCE class?
a. heat food
b. kitchen
c. refrigeration
d. microwave oven

2. The following examples — bake cakes, self-clean, and reheat pasta — are all what with regard to the oven object, according to Alex’s roommate?
a. classes
b. methods
c. messages
d. instances

Critical Thinking Questions
Case 6-2

Jaime, the newest analyst at Novel Systems Worldwide, is responsible for assigning the appropriate UML notations to a given class diagram.

3. In a given diagram, Jaime is marking up a relationship in which a given employee can have no payroll deductions or she can have many deductions. Which of the following notations will Jaime write to mark this relationship?
a. 0..1
b. 1
c. 0..*
d. 1..*

4. Jaime has just written the following UML notation on the class diagram: 0..1. Which of the following relationships corresponds to what he has just noted?
a. An employee can have no direct reports or many direct reports.
b. An employee can have no spouse or one spouse.
c. An office manager manages one and only one office.
d. One order can include one or many items ordered.