ECO 410 Week 2 Quiz 1 Chapter 1 and 2 – Strayer University NEW

ECO 410 Week 2 Quiz – Strayer

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Chapter 1

Current Multinational Challenges and the Global Economy

True/False

1) BRICs is a term used in international finance to represent assets that are considered to be inexpensive and sturdy, but fundamentally unsound and and incapable of coping with the upheavals now apparent in international financial markets.

2) Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are firms, both for profit companies and not-for-profit organizations, that have operations in more than one country, and conduct their business through foreign subsidiaries,
branches, or joint ventures with host country firms.

3) Ownership, control, and governance changes radically across the world. The publicly traded company is not the dominant global business organization—the privately held or family-owned business is the prevalent structure—and their goals and measures of performance differ dramatically.

Multiple Choice

1) A well-established, large U.S.-based MNE will probably NOT be able to overcome which of the following obstacles to maximizing firm value?
A) an open market place
B) high quality strategic management
C) access to capital
D) none of the above

2) A well-established, large China-based MNE will probably be most adversely affected by which of the following elements of firm value?
A) an open marketplace
B) high-quality strategic management
C) access to capital
D) access to qualified labor pool

3) A well-established, large, Brazil-based MNE will probably be most adversely affected by which of the following elements of firm value?
A) an open marketplace
B) high-quality strategic management
C) access to capital
D) access to qualified labor pool

True/False

1) Comparative advantage is one of the underlying principles driving the growth of global business.

2) Your authors suggest that one way to characterize the global financial marketplace is through its assets, institutions, and linkages.

3) Eurocurrencies are domestic currencies of one country on deposit in a second country.

4) A eurodollar deposit is a demand deposit.

5) Eurocurrency markets serve two valuable purposes: 1) Eurocurrency deposits are an efficient and convenient money market device for holding excess corporate liquidity; and 2) the Eurocurrency market is a major source of short-term bank loans to finance corporate working capital needs, including the financing of imports and exports.

6) The key factor attracting both depositors and borrowers to the Eurocurrency loan market is the narrow interest rate spread within that market.

7) The Eurocurrency market continues to thrive because it is a large international money market relatively free from governmental regulation and interference. Recent events may lead to greater regulation.

Essay

1) List and explain three strategic motives why firms become multinationals and give an example of each.

Multiple Choice

1) The theory that suggests specialization by country can increase worldwide production is:
A) the theory of comparative advantage.
B) the theory of foreign direct investment.
C) the international Fisher effect.
D) the theory of working capital management.

2) Which of the following is NOT a reason governments interfere with comparative advantage?
A) Governments attempt to achieve full employment.
B) Governments promote economic development.
C) national self-sufficiency in defense-related industries
D) All are reasons governments interfere with comparative advantage.

3) Which of the following factors of production DO NOT flow freely between countries?
A) raw materials
B) financial capital
C) (non-military) technology
D) All of the above factors of production flow freely among countries.

4) Which of the following would NOT be a way to implement comparative advantage?
A) IBM exports computers to Egypt.
B) Computer hardware is designed in the United States but manufactured and assembled in Korea.
C) Water of the greatest purity is obtained from wells in Oregon, bottled, and exported worldwide.
D) All of the above are examples of ways to implement comparative advantage.

5) Of the following, which would NOT be considered a way that government interferes with comparative advantage?
A) tariffs
B) managerial skills
C) quotas
D) other non-tariff restrictions

True/False

1) The theory of comparative advantage owes it origins to Ben Bernanke as described in his book The Wealth of Bankers.

2) International trade might have approached the comparative advantage model in the 19th century, and it does so even more today.

3) Comparative advantage shifts over time as less developed countries become more developed and realize their latent opportunities.

4) Comparative advantage in the 21st century is based more on services and their cross border facilitation by telecommunications and the Internet.

5) Comparative advantage was once the cornerstone of international trade theory, but today it is archaic, simplistic, and irrelevant for explaining investment choices made by MNEs.

6) When discussing comparative advantage, it is apparent that today at least two of the factors of production, capital and technology, now flow directly and easily between countries, rather than only indirectly through traded goods and services.

7) It would be safe to make the statement that modern telecommunications now take business activities to labor rather than moving labor to the places of business.

Multiple Choice

1) Which of the following domestic financial instruments have NOT been modified for use in international financial management?
A) currency options and futures
B) interest rate and currency swaps
C) letters of credit
D) All of the above are domestic financial instruments that have also been modified for use in international financial markets.

True/False

1) MNEs must modify finance theories like cost of capital and capital budgeting because of foreign complexities.

2) Relative to MNEs, purely domestic firms tend to have GREATER political risk.

3) Domestic firms tend to make GREATER use of financial derivatives than MNEs because they can bear the greater risk presented by these financial instruments.

4) Because countries have different financial regulations and customs, it is common for MNEs to apply their domestic rules and regulations when doing financial business in a foreign country.

5) A number of financial instruments that are used in domestic financial management have been modified for use in international financial management. Examples are foreign currency options and futures, interest rate and currency swaps, and letters of credit.

Multiple Choice

1) In determining why a firm becomes multinational there are many reasons. One reason is that the firm is a market seeker. Which of the following is NOT a reason why market-seeking firms produce in foreign countries?
A) satisfaction of local demand in the foreign country
B) satisfaction of local demand in the domestic markets
C) political safety and small likelihood of government expropriation of assets
D) All of the above are market-seeking activities.

2) ________ investments are designed to promote and enhance the growth and profitability of the firm. ________ investments are designed to deny those same opportunities to the firm’s competitors.
A) Conservative; Aggressive
B) Defensive; Proactive
C) Proactive; Defensive
D) Aggressive; Proactive

True/False

1) For firms competing in a world characterized by oligopolistic competition, strategic motives can be subdivided into proactive and defensive investments.

2) Defensive measures are designed to enhance growth and profitability of the firm itself.

Multiple Choice

1) The phase of the globalization process characterized by imports from foreign suppliers and exports to foreign buyers is called the:
A) domestic phase.
B) multinational phase.
C) international trade phase.
D) import-export banking phase.

2) The authors describe the multinational phase of globalization for a firm as one characterized by the:
A) ownership of assets and enterprises in foreign countries.
B) potential for international competitors or suppliers even though all accounts are with domestic firms and are denominated in dollars.
C) imports from foreign suppliers and exports to foreign buyers.
D) requirement that all employees be multilingual.

3) A firm in the International Trade Phase of Globalization:
A) makes all foreign payments in foreign currency units and all foreign receipts in domestic currency units.
B) receives all foreign receipts in foreign currency units and makes all foreign payments in domestic currency units.
C) bears direct foreign exchange risk.
D) none of the above

4) Of the following, which was NOT mentioned by the authors as an increase in the demands of financial management services due to increased globalization by the firm?
A) evaluation of the credit quality of foreign buyers and sellers
B) foreign consumer method of payment preferences
C) credit risk management
D) evaluation of foreign exchange risk

5) Of the following, which was NOT mentioned by the authors as an increase in the demands of financial management services due to increased globalization by the firm?
A) evaluation of the credit quality of foreign buyers and sellers
B) foreign consumer method of payment preferences
C) credit risk management
D) evaluation of foreign exchange risk

6) The authors describe the multinational phase of globalization for a firm as one characterized by the:
A) ownership of assets and enterprises in foreign countries.
B) potential for international competitors or suppliers even though all accounts are with domestic firms and are denominated in dollars.
C) imports from foreign suppliers and exports to foreign buyers.
D) requirement that all employees be multilingual.

7) The twin agency problems limiting financial globalization are caused by these two groups acting in their own self-interests rather than the interests of the firm.
A) rulers of sovereign states and unsavory customs officials
B) corporate insiders and attorneys
C) corporate insiders and rulers of sovereign states
D) attorneys and unsavory customs officials

True/False

1) Typically, a firm in its domestic stage of globalization has all financial transactions in its domestic currency.

2) Typically, a “greenfield” investment abroad is considered a greater foreign investment having a greater foreign presence than a joint venture with a foreign firm.

3) The authors argue that financial inefficiency caused by influential insiders may prove to be an increasingly troublesome barrier to international finance.

4) The authors describe a process for development of a MNE that begins with a purely domestic phase, followed by the multinational phase, and topping out with the international trade phase.

5) Today it is widely assumed that there are NO LIMITS to financial globalization.

6) The growth in the influence and self-enrichment of organizational insiders is seen as an impediment to the growth of financial globalization in general.

7) The actions of corporate insiders and the actions of rulers of sovereign states are both agency costs that act as an impediment to the growth of globalization.

Chapter 2 Corporate Ownership, Goals, and Governance

Multiple Choice

1) Foreign stock markets are frequently characterized by controlling shareholders for the individual publicly traded firms. Which of the following is NOT identified by the authors as typical controlling shareholders?
A) the government (for example, privatized utilities)
B) institutions (such as banks in Germany)
C) family (such as in France)
D) All of the above were identified by the authors as controlling shareholders.

2) Which of the following is NOT typically associated with the public ownership of business organizations?
A) the state
B) the government
C) families
D) civil society

3) Which of the following is NOT typically associated with the private ownership of business organizations?
A) the government
B) families
C) individuals
D) publicly traded, widely-held organizations

4) State Owned Enterprises (SOEs):
A) are a form of public ownership.
B) are created for commercial activities rather than civil or social activities.
C) are the dominant form of business organization in some countries.
D) are all of the above.

5) The problems that may arise due to the separation of ownership and management in large business organizations is know as:
A) separation anxiety.
B) the agency problem.
C) corporate disconnect theory.
D) none of the above

6) Privatization is a term used to describe:
A) firms that are purchased by the government.
B) government operations that are purchased by corporations and other investors.
C) firms that do not use publicly available debt.
D) non-public meetings held by members of interlocking directorates.

True/False

1) In the U.S. and U.K. stock markets are characterized by ownership of firms concentrated in the hands of a few controlling shareholders. In contrast, the rest of the world tends to have more widespread ownership of shares.

2) State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) by their very name cannot be traded on stock exchanges because they are government owned.

3) In recent years the trend has been for markets to increasing focus on the shareholder wealth form of wealth maximization.

4) Non-Anglo-American markets are dominated by the “one-vote-one-share” rule.

5) According to recent research, family-owned firms in some highly-developed economies typically outperform publicly-owned firms.

Essay/Short Answer

1) What are the most important distinctions that make state owned enterprises (SOEs) different from other forms of government organizations?

Multiple Choice

1) “Maximize corporate wealth”:
A) is the primary objective of the non-Anglo-American model of management.
B) as a management objective treats shareholders on a par with other corporate stakeholders such as creditors, labor, and local community.
C) has a broader definition than just financial wealth.
D) all of the above

2) The Shareholder Wealth Maximization Model (SWM):
A) combines the interests and inputs of shareholders, creditors, management, employees, and society.
B) is being usurped by the Stakeholder Capitalism Model as those types of MNEs dominate their global industry segments.
C) clearly places shareholders as the primary stakeholder.
D) is the dominant form of corporate management in the European-Japanese governance system.

3) The Stakeholder Capitalism Model (SCM):
A) clearly places shareholders as the primary stakeholder.
B) combines the interests and inputs of shareholders, creditors, management, employees, and society.
C) has financial profit as its goal and is often termed impatient capital.
D) is the Anglo-American model of corporate governance.

4) In the Anglo-American model of corporate governance, the primary goal of management is to:
A) maximize the wealth of all stakeholders.
B) maximize shareholder wealth.
C) minimize costs.
D) minimize risk.

5) In finance, an efficient market is one in which:
A) prices are assumed to be correct.
B) prices adjust quickly and accurately to new information.
C) prices are the best allocators of capital in the macro economy.
D) all of the above

6) Systematic risk can be defined as:
A) the total risk to the firm.
B) the risk of the individual security.
C) the risk of the market in general.
D) the risk that can be systematically diversified away.

7) Unsystematic risk can be defined as:
A) the total risk to the firm.
B) the risk of the individual security.
C) the added risk that a firm’s shares bring to a diversified portfolio.
D) the risk of the market in general.

8) The study of how shareholders can motivate management to accept the prescriptions of the shareholder wealth maximization model is called:
A) market efficiency.
B) the SWM model.
C) agency theory.
D) the SCM model.

9) Under the Shareholder Wealth Maximization Model (SWM) of corporate governance, poor firm performance is likely to be faced with all but which of the following?
A) sale of shares by disgruntled current shareholders
B) shareholder activism to attempt a change in current management
C) as a maximum threat, initiation of a corporate takeover
D) prison time for executive management

10) Which of the following is a reason why managers act to maximize shareholder wealth in Anglo-American markets?
A) the use of stock options to align the goals of shareholders and managers
B) the market for corporate control that allows for outside takeover of the firm
C) performance based compensation for executive management
D) all of the above

11) Which of the following is NOT true regarding the stakeholder capitalism model?
A) Banks and other financial institutions are less important creditors than securities markets.
B) Labor unions are more powerful than in the Anglo-American markets.
C) Governments interfere more in the marketplace to protect important stakeholder groups.
D) All of the above are TRUE.

12) The stakeholder capitalism model:
A) typically avoids the flaw of impatient capital.
B) tries to meet the desires of multiple stakeholders.
C) may leave management without a clear signal about tradeoffs among the several stakeholders.
D) all of the above

13) Which of the following is generally NOT considered to be a viable operational goal for a firm?
A) maintaining a strong local currency
B) maximization of after-tax income
C) minimization of the firm’s effective global tax burden
D) correct positioning of the firm’s income, cash flows and available funds as to country and currency

14) Which of the following operational goals for the international firm may be incompatible with the others?
A) maintaining a strong local currency
B) maximization of after-tax income
C) minimization of the firm’s effective global tax burden
D) Each of these goals may be incompatible with one or more of the others.

15) The primary operational goal for the firm is to:
A) maximize after-tax profits in each country where the firm is operating.
B) minimize the total financial risk to the firm.
C) maximize the consolidated after-tax profits of the firm.
D) maximize the total risk to the firm.

16) Which of the following broad topics is NOT identified as an area to be established as good corporate governance practice by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)?
A) protect the rights of shareholders
B) disclosure and transparency
C) the proper role of stakeholders in the governance of the firm
D) All of the above should be a concern of good corporate governance.

17) The relationship among stakeholders used to determine and control the strategic direction and performance of an organization is termed:
A) corporate governance.
B) Anglo-American activism.
C) capital structure.
D) working capital management.

18) When discussing the structure of corporate governance, the authors distinguish between internal and external factors. ________ is an example of an internal factor, and ________ is an example of an external factor.
A) Equity markets; executive management
B) Debt markets; board of directors
C) Executive management; auditors
D) Auditors; regulators

19) Which of the following is NOT commonly associated with a government affiliated form of corporate governance regime?
A) no minority influence
B) lack of transparency
C) state ownership of enterprise
D) All are associated with this type of corporate governance regime.

20) Generally speaking, which of the following is NOT considered an important factor in the composition and control of corporate boards of directors?
A) the number of insider vs outside directors
B) the total number of directors on the board
C) the composition of the compensation committee
D) All of the above are important factors of board composition.

21) Signed into law on July 30, 2002, the ________ Act requires CEOs of publicly traded companies to vouch for the veracity of the firm’s published financial statements.
A) Smoot-Hawley
B) Humphrey-Hawkins
C) McCain-Merrill
D) Sarbanes-Oxley

22) The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in July 2002, was designed to:
A) reinstitute heavy tariffs on international trade.
B) reform corporate governance.
C) limit the Federal Reserve Board’s ability to engage in the buying and selling of gold.
D) limit trade with countries deemed lenient on terrorism.

23) Anglo-American markets is a term used to describe business markets in:
A) North, Central, and South America.
B) the United States, Canada, and Western Europe.
C) the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
D) the United States, France, Britain, and Germany.

24) The deliberation of the of the process demonstrated in the European-Japanese system of corporate governance has sometimes been termed:
A) socialism.
B) impatient capital.
C) patient capital.
D) communism.

25) With shareholder wealth maximization as the manager’s goal, capital may be termed:
A) impatient.
B) patient.
C) borrowed.
D) bought.

26) Which of the following is NOT an important concept when distinguishing between international and domestic financial management?
A) corporate governance
B) culture, history, and institutions
C) political risk
D) All of the above are important distinguishing concepts.

27) The Board of Directors:
A) consists exclusively of the officers of the corporation.
B) is the legal body which is accountable for the governance of the corporation.
C) are not subject to the external forces of the marketplace.
D) is appointed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

28) If share price rises from $12 to $15 per share, and pays a dividend of $1 per share, what was the rate of return to shareholders?
A) 26.67%
B) -13.33%
C) 33.33%
D) 16.67%

29) PolyProduction Inc. has two classes of common stock. Class A has 5 million shares with 10 votes per share. Class B has 5 million shares with 1 vote per share. If the dividends per share are equal for both class A and B stock, then Class A shareholders have ________ of the votes and ________ of the dividends.
A) 90.91%; 90.91%
B) 90.91%; 50.00%
C) 50.00%; 50.00%
D) 83.33%; 33.33%

30) The number of publicly traded firms:
A) peaked in the U.S. in 1996.
B) peaked worldwide in 1996.
C) increased significantly in 2009 as a result of the international financial crisis.
D) all of the above

31) Which of the following is NOT a possible and appropriate response by shareholders dissatisfied with existing firm management of a publicly traded firm?
A) Shareholders could sell their shares of stock.
B) Shareholders could remain quietly disgruntled.
C) Shareholders, perhaps with the help of others, could attempt to initiate a takeover.
D) All of these responses may be possible and appropriate.

True/False

1) The stakeholder capitalism model (SCM) holds that total risk (operational and financial) is more important than just systematic risk.

2) In recent years the trend has been for markets to increasing focus on the shareholder wealth form of wealth maximization.

3) Patient Capitalism is characterized by short-term focus by both management and investors.

4) Agency theory states that unsystematic risk can be eliminated through diversification.

5) The stakeholder capitalism model does not assume that equity markets are either efficient or inefficient.

6) The stakeholder capitalism model assumes that only systematic risk “counts” or is a prime concern for management.

7) Dividend yield is the change in the share price of stock as traded in the public equity markets.

8) Regarding comparative corporate governance regimes: Bank-based regimes characterized by government influence in bank lending and a lack of transparency is often found in countries such as Korea and Germany.

9) Investor protection is typically better in countries with codified civil law (the Code Napoleon) than in countries with a legal system based in English common law.

10) The relatively low cost of compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) has been a surprising benefit of the act.

11) According to recent research, family-owned firms in some highly-developed economies typically outperform publicly-owned firms.

12) The goal of all international corporations is to maximize shareholder wealth.

13) Systematic risk can be eliminated through portfolio diversification.

14) According to the authors, dual classes of voting stock are the norm in non-Anglo-American markets.

15) A recent study shows that privately held firms use less financial leverage and enjoy lower costs of debt than publicly traded firms.

16) U.S. listings of publicly traded firms as a percentage of worldwide listings of such firms INCREASED from 11% in 1996 to approximately 33% in 2010.

17) Having Anglo-Americans as members of the board of directors of a non-Anglo-American firm signals poor corporate governance in the firm.

18) In the stakeholder capitalism model (SCM) the assumption of market efficiency is absolutely critical.

Short Answer/ Essay

1) Describe the management objectives of a firm governed by the shareholder wealth maximization model and one governed by the stakeholder wealth maximization model. Give an example of how these two models may lead to different decision-making by executive management.

2) Define patient and impatient capitalism and discuss how each may lead to different decision-making in the shareholder wealth maximization model.