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ECO 410 Week 7 Quiz – Strayer

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Chapter 11

Translation Exposure

11.1 Overview of Translation

Multiple Choice

1) Translation exposure may also be called ________ exposure.
A) transaction
B) operating
C) accounting
D) currency

2) ________ exposure is the potential for an increase or decrease in the parent company’s net worth and reported net income caused by a change in exchange rates since the last transaction.
A) Transaction
B) Operating
C) Currency
D) Translation

3) Translation exposure measures:
A) changes in the value of outstanding financial obligations incurred prior to a change in exchange rates.
B) the potential for an increase or decrease in the parent company’s net worth and reported net income caused by a change in exchange rates since the last consolidation of international operations.
C) an unexpected change in exchange rates impact on short run expected cash flows.
D) none of the above

4) According to your authors, the main purpose of translation is:
A) to prepare consolidated financial statements.
B) to help management assess the performance of foreign subsidiaries.
C) to act as an interpreter for managers without foreign language skills.
D) none of the above

5) Historical exchange rates may be used for ________, while current exchange rates may be used for ________.
A) fixed assets and current assets; income and expense items
B) equity accounts and fixed assets; current assets and liabilities
C) current assets and liabilities; equity accounts and fixed assets
D) equity accounts and current liabilities; current assets and fixed assets

6) If an imbalance results from the accounting method used for translation, the imbalance is taken either to ________ or ________.
A) the bank; the post office
B) depreciation; the market for foreign exchange swaps
C) current income; equity reserves
D) current liabilities; equity reserves

7) Generally speaking, translation methods by country define the translation process as a function of what two factors?
A) size; location
B) a firm’s functional currency; location
C) location; foreign subsidiary independence
D) foreign subsidiary independence; a firm’s functional currency

8) A/An ________ subsidiary is one in which the firm operates as an extension of the parent company with cash flows highly interrelated with the parent.
A) self-sustaining foreign
B) integrated foreign entity
C) foreign
D) none of the above

9) Consider two different foreign subsidiaries of Georgia-Pacific Wood Products Inc. The first subsidiary mills trees in Canada and ships its entire product to the Georgia-Pacific U.S. The second subsidiary is also owned by the parent firm but is located in Japan and retails tropical hardwood furniture that it buys from many different sources. The first subsidiary is likely a/an ________ foreign entity with most of its cash flows in U.S. dollars, and the second subsidiary is more of a/an ________ foreign entity.
A) domestic; integrated
B) self-sustaining; domestic
C) integrated; self-sustaining
D) self-sustaining; integrated

10) A foreign subsidiary’s ________ currency is the currency used in the firm’s day-to-day operations.
A) local
B) integrated
C) notational dollar
D) functional

11) The ________ determines accounting policy for U.S. firms.
A) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
B) Federal Reserve System (Fed)
C) Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
D) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

True/False

1) It is possible to use different exchange rates for different line items on a financial statement.

2) If the same exchange rate were used to remeasure every line on a financial statement, then there would be no imbalances from remeasuring.

3) A foreign subsidiary”s functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the subsidiary operates and in which it generates cash flows.

4) It is highly unusual for a multinational firm to have both integrated foreign entities AND self-sustaining foreign entities.

11.2 Translation Methods

Multiple Choice

1) The two basic methods for the translation of foreign subsidiary financial statements are the ________ method and the ________ method.
A) current rate; temporal
B) temporal; proper timing
C) current rate; future rate
D) none of the above

2) Gains or losses caused by translation adjustments when using the current rate method are reported separately on the:
A) consolidated statement of cash flow.
B) consolidated income statement.
C) consolidated balance sheet.
D) none of the above

3) The basic advantage of the ________ method of foreign currency translation is that foreign nonmonetary assets are carried at their original cost in the parent’s consolidated statement while the most important advantage of the ________ method is that the gain or loss from translation does not pass through the income statement.
A) monetary; current rate
B) temporal; current rate
C) temporal; monetary
D) current rate; temporal

4) Under the U.S. method of translation procedures, if the financial statements of the foreign subsidiary of a U.S. company are maintained in U.S. dollars:
A) translation is accomplished through the current rate method.
B) translation is accomplished through the temporal method.
C) translation is not required.
D) the translation method to be used is not obvious.

5) Under the U.S. method of translation procedures, if the financial statements of the foreign subsidiary of a U.S. company are maintained in the local currency, and the local currency is the functional currency, then:
A) the translation method to be used is not obvious.
B) translation is accomplished through the temporal method.
C) translation is not required.
D) translation is accomplished through the current rate method.

6) Under the U.S. method of translation procedures, if the financial statements of the foreign subsidiary of a U.S. company are maintained in the local currency, and the U.S. dollar is the functional currency, then:
A) translation is not required.
B) translation is accomplished through the current rate method.
C) translation is accomplished through the temporal method.
D) none of the above

7) If the European subsidiary of a U.S. firm has net exposed assets of €750,000, and the euro drops in value from $1.30/euro to $1.20/€ the U.S. firm has a translation:
A) gain of $75,000.
B) loss of $75,000.
C) gain of $625,000.
D) loss of €576,923.

8) If the European subsidiary of a U.S. firm has net exposed assets of €200,000, and the euro increases in value from $1.22/€ to $1.26/€ the U.S. firm has a translation:
A) gain of $8,000.
B) loss of $8,000.
C) gain of $252,000.
D) loss of €252,000.

9) If the British subsidiary of a European firm has net exposed assets of £125,000, and the pound increases in value from €1.40/£ to €1.44/£, the European firm has a translation:
A) gain of €5,000.
B) loss of €5,000.
C) gain of £5,000.
D) loss of £5,000.

10) If the British subsidiary of a European firm has net exposed assets of £250,000, and the pound drops in value from €1.35/£ to €1.30/£, the European firm has a translation:
A) gain of €12,500.
B) loss of €12,500.
C) loss of £12,500.
D) gain of £12,500.

True/False

1) Exchange rate imbalances that are passed through the balance sheet affect a firm’s reported income, but imbalances transferred to the income statement do not.

2) The current rate method is the most prevalent method today for the translation of financial statements.

3) The temporal rate method is the most prevalent method today for the translation of financial statements.

4) The biggest advantage of the current rate method of reporting translation adjustments is the fact that the gain or loss goes directly to the reserve account on the consolidated balance sheet and does not pass through the consolidated income statement.

5) Under the temporal rate method, specific assets and liabilities are translated at exchange rates consistent with the timing of the item’s creation.

6) The temporal method of foreign currency translation gains or losses resulting from remeasurement are carried directly to current consolidated income and thus introduces volatility to consolidated earnings.

7) : The current rate method and the temporal method are two basic methods for translation that are employed worldwide

Essay

1) The two methods for the translation of foreign subsidiary financial statements are the current rate and temporal methods. Briefly, describe how each of these methods translates the foreign subsidiary financial statements into the parent company’s consolidated statements. Identify when each technique should be used and the major advantage(s) of each.

11.3 U.S. Translation Procedures

Multiple Choice

1) Under U.S. accounting and translation practices, use of the current rate method is termed ________ while use of the temporal method is termed ________.
A) translation; the same
B) translation; remeasurement
C) remeasurement; the same
D) remeasurement; translation

2) Which of the following primary principles of U.S. translation procedures in NOT true?
A) If the financial statements of the foreign subsidiary of a U.S. company are maintained in U.S. dollars, translation is not required.
B) If the financial statements of the foreign subsidiary are maintained in the local currency and the local currency is the functional currency, they are translated by the temporal method.
C) If the financial statements of the foreign subsidiary are maintained in the local currency and the U.S. dollar is the functional currency, they are remeasured by the temporal method.
D) All of the above are true.

True/False

1) Under U.S. accounting and translation practices, use of the current rate method is termed “translation” while use of the temporal method is termed “remeasurement.”

2) If the financial statements of the foreign subsidiary are maintained in the local currency and the U.S. dollar is the functional currency, they are remeasured by the temporal method.

11.4 Trident Corporation’s Translation Exposure

Multiple Choice

1) ________ occur as a result of changes in the value of currency, whereas ________ occur as a result of ongoing business activities.
A) Operating gains or losses; translation gains or losses
B) Swap losses; translation gains or losses
C) Translation gains or losses; operating gains or losses
D) all of the above

True/False

1) Translation gains or losses can be quite different from operating gains or losses not only in magnitude but also in sign.

11.5 Trident Corporation’s Translation Exposure: Income

Multiple Choice

1) The main technique to minimize translation exposure is called a/an ________ hedge.
A) balance sheet
B) income statement
C) forward
D) translation

2) A balance sheet hedge requires that the amount of exposed foreign currency assets and liabilities:
A) have a 2:1 ratio of assets to liabilities.
B) have a 2:1 ratio of liabilities to assets.
C) have a 2:1 ratio of liabilities to equity.
D) be equal.

3) If a firm’s balance sheet has an equal amount of exposed foreign currency assets and liabilities and the firm translates by the temporal method, then:
A) the net exposed position is called monetary balance.
B) the change is value of liabilities and assets due to a change in exchange rates will be of equal but opposite direction.
C) Both A and B are true.
D) none of the above

4) If a firm’s subsidiary is using the local currency as the functional currency, which of the following is NOT a circumstance that could justify the use of a balance sheet hedge?
A) The foreign subsidiary is about to be liquidated, so that the value of its Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA) would be realized.
B) The firm has debt covenants or bank agreements that state the firm’s debt/equity ratio will be maintained within specific limits.
C) The foreign subsidiary is operating is a hyperinflationary environment.
D) All of the above are appropriate reasons to use a balance sheet hedge.

5) If the parent firm and all subsidiaries denominate all exposed assets and liabilities in the parent’s reporting currency this will ________ exposure but each subsidiary would have ________ exposure.
A) maximize translation; no transaction
B) eliminate translation; transaction
C) maximize transaction; no translation
D) eliminate transaction; translation

6) A Canadian subsidiary of a U.S. parent firm is instructed to bill an export to the parent in U.S. dollars. The Canadian subsidiary records the accounts receivable in Canadian dollars and notes a profit on the sale of goods. Later, when the U.S. parent pays the subsidiary the contracted U.S. dollar amount, the Canadian dollar has appreciated 10% against the U.S. dollar. In this example, the Canadian subsidiary will record a:
A) 10% foreign exchange loss on the U.S. dollar accounts receivable.
B) 10% foreign exchange gain on the U.S. dollar accounts receivable.
C) Since the Canadian firm is a U.S. subsidiary, neither a gain nor loss will be recorded.
D) Any gain or loss will be recorded only by the parent firm.

7) ________ gains and losses are “realized” whereas ________ gains and losses are only “paper.”
A) Translation; transaction
B) Transaction; translation
C) Translation; operating
D) none of the above

True/False

1) It is possible that efforts to decrease translation exposure may result in an increase in transaction exposure.

2) One possible reason for a balance sheet hedge could be because the foreign subsidiary is about to be liquidated, so that value of its Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA)would be realized.

3) One possible reason for a balance sheet hedge could be because the firm has debt covenants or bank agreements that state the firm”s debt/equity ratios will be maintained within specific limits.

4) If management expects a foreign currency to depreciate, it could minimize translation exposure by increasing net exposed assets.

5) If management anticipates an appreciation of the foreign currency, it should decrease net exposed assets to benefit from a gain.

Essay

1) Describe a balance sheet hedge and give at least two examples of when such a hedge could be justified.
balance sheet hedge attempts to equalize the amount of assets and liabilities of a foreign subsidiary exposed to translation risk. Thus, the gain to the firm from a change in exchange rates will be perfectly offset by an equal and opposite loss. Firms may engage in balance sheet hedges under conditions of hyperinflation, or when the subsidiary is about to be liquidated and the value of the CTA account would be realized. The author on page 16 lists other examples.

Chapter 12 Operating Exposure

12.1 Trident Corporation: A Multinational’s Operating Exposure

Multiple Choice

1) Another name for operating exposure is ________ exposure.
A) economic
B) competitive
C) strategic
D) all of the above

2) What type of international risk exposure measures the change in present value of a firm resulting from changes in future operating cash flows caused by any unexpected change in exchange rates?
A) transaction exposure
B) accounting exposure
C) operating exposure
D) translation exposure

3) ________ cash flows arise from intracompany and intercompany receivables and payments, while ________ cash flows are payments for the use of loans and equity.
A) Financing; operating
B) Operating; financing
C) Operating; accounting
D) Accounting; financing

4) Which of the following is NOT an example of a financial cash flow?
A) parent invested equity capital
B) interest on intrafirm lending
C) payment for goods and services
D) intrafirm principal payments

5) Which of the following is NOT an example of an operating cash flow?
A) management fees and distributed overhead
B) royalties and license fees
C) rent and lease payments
D) dividend paid to parent company

6) ________ exposure is far more important for the long-run health of a business than changes caused by ________ or ________ exposure.
A) Operating; translation; transaction
B) Transaction; operating; translation
C) Accounting; translation; transaction
D) Translation; operating; transaction

7) Simpson Sign Company based in Frostbite Falls, Minnesota has a 6-month C$100,000 contract to complete sign work in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The current spot rate is $1.02/C$ and the forward rate is $1.01/C$. Under conditions of equilibrium, management would use ________ today when preparing operating budgets.
A) $102,000
B) $101,000
C) $100,000
D) none of the above

8) When considering the phases of adjustment and response to operating exposure in the LONG RUN, price changes tend to be ________ and volume changes tend to be ________.
A) fixed/contracted; contracted.
B) fixed/contracted; completely flexible.
C) completely flexible; completely flexible.
D) completely flexible; contracted.

True/False

1) The goal of operating exposure analysis is to identify strategic operating techniques the firm might adopt to enhance value in the face of unanticipated exchange rate changes.

2) Operating cash flows may occur in different currencies and at different times, but financing cash flows may occur only in a single currency.

Comment: Financing of cash flows may also be in several currencies.

3) Expected changes in foreign exchange rates should already be factored into anticipated operating results by management and investors.

4) Moral hazard may occur when a firm or individual takes on more risk when it knows that someone else will “pick up the tab.”

5) Even though contracts are often fixed in the short run, as time passes, prices and costs can be changed to reflect the new competitive realities caused by a change in exchange rates.

12.2 Measuring Operating Exposure: Trident Germany

Multiple Choice

1) Recently the British Pound suffered an unexpected depreciation in value. Which of the following actions being considered by Coventry Furniture of London, a purely domestic furniture manufacturer and retailer, would be considered a highly unlikely response to the depreciation of the pound?
A) Coventry might choose to maintain its domestic sales prices constant in pound terms.
B) Coventry might try to raise domestic prices because competing imports are now priced higher in England.
C) Coventry might try to lower domestic prices because competing imports are now priced higher in England.
D) none of the above

2) Recently the Canadian dollar realized an unexpected appreciation in value. Which of the following actions being considered by Tall Timber Exports, a Canadian logging firm specializing in exporting raw forest products, would be considered a highly unlikely response to the appreciation of the Canadian dollar?
A) Tall Timber Exports might lower export prices in an effort to maintain market share.
B) Tall Timber Exports might raise export prices only slightly in an effort to increase market share.
C) Tall Timber Exports might leave export prices as they are and wait to determine what actions to take if any in the future.
D) all of the above

3) For a firm that competes internationally to sell its products, a depreciation of its domestic currency relative to markets where the firm exports goods, should eventually result in ________ sales at home and ________ sales abroad, other things equal.
A) fewer; greater
B) fewer; fewer
C) greater; greater
D) greater; fewer

4) Brimmo Motorcycles Inc., a U.S.-based firm, manufactures and sells electric motorcycles both domestically and internationally. A sudden and unexpected appreciation of the U.S. dollar should allow sales to ________ at home and ________ abroad. (Assume other factors remain unchanged.)
A) increase; increase
B) decrease; decrease
C) increase; decrease
D) decrease; increase

True/False

1) The strategy management undertakes in response to unexpected changes in exchange rates depends to a large measure on their opinion about the price elasticity of demand.

2) Unexpected changes in exchange rates is never good news for a firm’s operating income.

12.3 Strategic Management of Operating Exposure

Multiple Choice

1) Which of the following is NOT an example of diversifying operations?
A) diversifying sales
B) diversifying location of operations
C) raising funds in more than one country
D) sourcing raw materials in more than one country

2) Which of the following is NOT an example of diversification in financing?
A) raising funds in more than one market
B) raising funds in more than one country
C) diversifying sales
D) All of the above qualify.

3) When disequilibria in international markets occur, management can take advantage by:
A) doing nothing if they are already diversified and able to realize beneficial portfolio effects.
B) recognizing disequilibria faster than purely domestic competitors.
C) shifting operational of financing activities to take advantage of the disequilibria.
D) all of the above

4) Purely domestic firms will be at a disadvantage to MNEs in the event of market disequilibria because:
A) domestic firms lack comparative data from its own sources.
B) international firms are already so large.
C) all of the domestic firm’s raw materials are imported.
D) None of the above; domestic firms are not at a disadvantage.

5) Which of the following is probably NOT an advantage of foreign exchange risk management?
A) the reduction of the variability of cash flows due to domestic business cycles
B) increased availability of capital
C) reduced cost of capital
D) All of the above are potential advantages of foreign exchange risk management.

6) Which of the following is NOT an example of a form of political risk that might be avoided or reduced by foreign exchange risk management?
A) expropriation of assets
B) destruction of raw materials through natural disaster
C) war
D) unfavorable legal changes

True/False

1) Management must be able to predict disequilibria in international markets to take advantage of diversification strategies.

2) If a firm diversifies its financing sources, it will be pre-positioned to take advantage of temporary deviations from the International Fisher Effect.

3) Diversifying the financing base means diversifying sales, location of production facilities, and raw material sources.

4) The variability of a firm’s operating cash flows is probably reduced by international diversification of its production, sourcing, and sales because exchange rate changes under disequilibrium conditions are likely to increase the firm”s competitiveness in some markets while reducing it in others.

Essay

1) Diversification is possibly the best technique for reducing the problems associated with international transactions. Provide one example each of international financial diversification and international operational diversification and explain how the action reduces risk.

12.4 Proactive Management of Operating Exposure

Multiple Choice

1) Which of the following is NOT identified by your authors as a proactive management technique to reduce exposure to foreign exchange risk?
A) matching currency cash flows
B) cross-currency swaps
C) remaining a purely domestic firm
D) parallel loans

2) Which one of the following management techniques is likely to best offset the risk of long-run exposure to receivables denominated in a particular foreign currency?
A) Borrow money in the foreign currency in question.
B) Lend money in the foreign currency in question.
C) Increase sales to that country.
D) Increase sales in this country.

3) Which one of the following management techniques is likely to best offset the risk of long-run exposure to payables denominated in a particular foreign currency?
A) Borrow money in the foreign currency in question.
B) Lend money in the foreign currency in question.
C) Rely on the Federal Reserve Board to enact monetary policy favorable to your exposure risk.
D) none of the above

4) The particular strategy of trying to offset stable inflows of cash from one country with outflows of cash in the same currency is known as:
A) hedging.
B) diversification.
C) matching.
D) balancing.

5) Which of the following is NOT an acceptable hedging technique to reduce risk caused by a relatively predictable long-term foreign currency inflow of Japanese yen?
A) Import raw materials from Japan denominated in yen to substitute for domestic suppliers.
B) Pay suppliers from other countries in yen.
C) Import raw materials from Japan denominated in dollars.
D) Acquire debt denominated in yen.

6) An MNE has a contract for a relatively predictable long-term inflow of Japanese yen that the firm chooses to hedge by seeking out potential suppliers in Japan. This hedging strategy is referred to as:
A) a natural hedge.
B) currency-switching.
C) matching.
D) diversification.

7) An MNE has a contract for a relatively predictable long-term inflow of Japanese yen that the firm chooses to hedge by paying for imports from Canada in Japanese yen. This hedging strategy is known as:
A) a natural hedge.
B) currency-switching.
C) matching.
D) diversification.

8) A U.S. timber products firm has a long-term contract to import unprocessed logs from Canada. To avoid occasional and unpredictable changes in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Canadian dollar, the firms agree to split between the two firms the impact of any exchange rate movement. This type of agreement is referred to as:
A) risk-sharing.
B) currency-switching.
C) matching.
D) a natural hedge.

9) A ________ occurs when two business firms in separate countries arrange to borrow each other’s currency for a specified period of time.
A) natural hedge loan
B) forward loan
C) currency switch loan
D) back-to-back loan

10) A Canadian firm with a U.S. subsidiary and a U.S. firm with a Canadian subsidiary agree to a parallel loan agreement. In such an agreement, the Canadian firm is making a/an ________ loan to the ________ subsidiary while effectively financing the ________ subsidiary.
A) indirect; U.S.; Canadian
B) indirect; Canadian; U.S.
C) direct; U.S.; Canadian
D) direct; Canadian; U.S.

11) Which of the following is NOT an important impediment to widespread use of parallel loans?
A) difficulty in finding an appropriate counterparty
B) the risk that one of the parties will fail to return the borrowed funds when agreed
C) the process does not avoid exchange rate risk
D) All of the above are significant impediments.

12) A ________ resembles a back-to-back loan except that it does not appear on a firm’s balance sheet.
A) forward loan
B) currency hedge
C) counterparty
D) currency swap

13) A ________ is the term used to describe a foreign currency agreement between two parties to exchange a given amount of one currency for another, and after a period of time, to give back the original amounts.
A) matched flow
B) currency swap
C) back-to-back loan
D) none of the above

14) A British firm and a U.S. Corporation each wish to enter into a currency swap hedging agreement. The British firm is receiving U.S. dollars from sales in the U.S. but wants pounds. The U.S. firm is receiving pounds from sales in Britain but wants dollars. Which of the following choices would best satisfy the desires of the firms?
A) The British firm pays dollars to a swap dealer and receives pounds from the dealer. The U.S. firm pays pounds to the swap dealer and receives dollars.
B) The U.S. firm pays dollars to a swap dealer and receives pounds from the dealer. The British firm pays pounds to the swap dealer and receives dollars.
C) The British firm pays pounds to a swap dealer and receives pounds from the dealer. The U.S. firm pays dollars to the swap dealer and receives dollars.
D) The British firm pays dollars to a swap dealer and receives dollars from the dealer. The U.S. firm pays pounds to the swap dealer and receives pounds.

15) Reinvoicing centers provide the following benefit(s):
A) aid in the management of foreign exchange exposure.
B) effectively guarantee the exchange rate for future orders.
C) help manage intra-subsidiary cash flows.
D) all of the above

16) NorthRim Inc. (NRI), imports extreme condition outdoor wear and equipment from the Allofit Territories Company (ATC) located in Canada. With the steady decline of the U.S dollar against the Canadian dollar NRI is finding a continued relationship with ATC to be an increasingly difficult proposition. In response to NRI’s request, ATC has proposed the following risk-sharing arrangement. First, set the current spot rate as the base rate. As long as spot rates stay within 5% (up or down) NRI will pay at the base rate. Any rate outside of the 5% range, ATC will share equally with NRI the difference between the spot rate and the base rate. If the current spot rate is C$1.20/$, what are the upper and lower limits for trading to take place at C$1.20?
A) C$1.205/$ – C$1.195/$
B) C$1.15/$ – C$1.25/$
C) C$1.14/$ – C$1.26/$
D) none of the above

17) NorthRim Inc. (NRI), imports extreme condition outdoor wear and equipment from The Allofit Territories Company (ATC) located in Canada. With the steady decline of the U.S dollar against the Canadian dollar NRI is finding a continued relationship with ATC to be an increasingly difficult proposition. In response to NRI’s request, ATC has proposed the following risk-sharing arrangement. First, set the current spot rate as the base rate. As long as spot rates stay within 5% (up or down) NRI will pay at the base rate. Any rate outside of the 5% range, ATC will share equally with NRI the difference between the spot rate and the base rate. If NRI has a payable of C$100,000 due today and the current spot rate is C$1.17/$, how much does LBC owe in U.S. dollars?
A) $83,333
B) $85,470
C) $85,837
D) $117,000

18) Costs associated with the purchase of sizeable put options positions include each of the following EXCEPT:
A) the purchase price of the options.
B) the opportunity cost of buying the options rather than diversifying operations to reduce risk.
C) executive salaries of having corporate offices in more than one country.
D) none of the above

True/False

1) Currency swaps are exclusively for periods of time under one year.

2) Most swap dealers arrange swaps so that each firm that is a party to the transaction does not know who the counterparty is.

3) Most swap dealers arrange swaps so that each firm that is a party to the transaction knows who the counterparty is.

4) Swap agreements are treated as off-balance sheet transactions via U.S. accounting methods.

5) Swap agreements are treated as line items on the balance sheet via U.S. accounting methods.

6) After being introduced in the 1980s, currency swaps have remained a relatively insignificant financial derivative instrument.

7) After being introduced in the 1980s, currency swaps have gained increasing importance as financial derivative instruments.

8) The empirical evidence strongly supports the proposition that contractual hedges can effectively eliminate operating exposure.

Essay

1) A British firm has a subsidiary in the U.S., and a U.S. firm, known to the British firm, has a subsidiary in Britain. Define and then provide an example for each of the following management techniques for reducing the firm’s operating cash flows. The following are techniques to consider:
a) matching currency cash flows
b) risk-sharing agreements
c) back-to-back or parallel loans