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FIN 317 Week 11 Final Exam – Strayer University New

FIN/317 Week 11 Final Exam – Strayer

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Chapters 7 Through 15

Part 1: Chapters 7 Through 11
Part 2: Chapters 12 Through 15

CHAPTER 7

TYPES AND COSTS OF FINANCIAL CAPITAL

True-False Questions

1. The accounting emphasis on accrued revenue and expenses and depreciation is the same emphasis as that of finance managers.

2. Traditional accounting does not focus on the implicit cost of equity that is the required capital gains to complement dividends. However, evaluation methods exist to determine this value by financial managers.

3. Formal historical accounting procedures include explicit records of debt (interest and principal) and dividend capital costs.

4. Public financial markets are markets for the creation, sale and trade of illiquid securities having less standardized negotiated features.

5. A venture’s “riskiness” in terms of poor performance or failure is usually very high during the maturity stage of its life cycle.

6. A venture’s “riskiness” in terms of poor performance or failure is usually high to moderate during the rapid-growth stage of its life cycle.

7. First-round financing during a venture’s survival stage comes primarily from venture capitalists and investment banks.

8. Startup financing usually comes from entrepreneurs, business angels, and investment bankers.

9. Commercial banks provide liquidity-stage financing for ventures in the rapid-growth stage of their life cycles.

10. A venture’s “riskiness” in terms of the likelihood of poor performance or failure decreases as it moves from its development stage through to its rapid-growth stage.

11. A nominal interest rate is an observed or stated interest rate.

12. The “real interest rate” (RR) is the interest one would face in the absence of inflation, risk, illiquidity, and any other factors determining the appropriate interest rate.

13. The risk-free interest rate is the interest rate on debt that is virtually free of inflation risk.

14. Inflation premium is the rising prices not offset by increasing quality of goods being purchased.

15. “Default-risk” is the risk that a borrower will not pay the interest and/or the principal on a loan.

16. The “prime rate” is the interest rate charged by banks to their highest default risk business customers.

17. Bond ratings reflect the inflation risk of a firm’s bonds.

18. The relationship between real interest rates and time to maturity when default risk is constant is called the term structure of interest rates.

19. The graph of the term structure of interest rates, which plots interest rates to time to maturity is called the yield curve.

20. Liquidity premiums reflect the risk associated with firms that possess few liquid assets.

21. Subordinated debt is secured by a venture’s assets, while senior debt has an inferior claim to a venture’s assets.

22. Early-stage ventures tend to have large amounts of senior debt relative to more mature ventures.

23. Investment risk is the chance or probability of financial loss on one’s venture investment, and can be assumed by debt, equity, and founding investors.

24. A venture with a higher expected return relative to other ventures will necessarily have a higher standard deviation or returns.

25. Historically, large-company stocks have averaged higher long-term returns than small-company stocks.

26. The coefficient of variation measures the standard deviation of a venture’s return relative to its expected return.

27. Closely held corporations are those companies whose stock is traded over-the-counter.

28. Typically, the stocks of closely held corporations aren’t publicly traded.

29. Organized exchanges have physical locations where trading takes place, while the over-the-counter market is comprised of a network of brokers and dealers that interact electronically.

30. Market cap is determined by multiplying a firm’s current stock price by the number of shares outstanding.

31. The excess average return of long-term government bonds over common stock is called the market risk premium.

32. The weighted average cost of capital is simply the blended, or weighted cost of raising equity and debt capital.

33. Venture capital holding period returns (all stages) for the 10-year period ending in 2012 were about the same as the returns on the S&P 500 stocks.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which one of the following markets involve liquid securities with standardized contract features such as stocks and bonds?
a. private financial market
b. derivatives market
c. commodities market
d. real estate market
e. public financial market

2. Which of the following markets involve direct two-party negotiations over illiquid, non-standardized contracts such as bank loans and direct placement of debt?
a. primary market
b. secondary market
c. options market
d. private financial market
e. public financial market

3. Which of the following is an example of rent on financial capital?
a. interest on debt
b. dividends on stock
c. collateral on equity
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

4. Which of the following describes the observed or stated interest rate?
a. real rate
b. nominal rate
c. risk-free rate
d. prime rate
e. inflation rate

5. Which of the following describes the interest rate in addition to the inflation rate expected on a risk-free loan?
a. real rate
b. nominal rate
c. risk-free rate
d. prime rate
e. inflation rate

6. Which of the following describes the interest rate on debt that is virtually free of default risk?
a. real rate
b. nominal rate
c. risk-free rate
d. prime rate
e. inflation rate

7. Which of the following describes the interest rate charged by banks to their highest quality customers?
a. real rate
b. nominal rate
c. risk-free rate
d. prime rate
e. inflation rate

8. Which of the following is not a component in determining the cost of debt?
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. interest rate premium

9. The additional interest rate premium required to compensate the lender for the probability that a borrower will not be able to repay interest and principal on a loan is known as?
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. investment risk premium

10. The additional premium added to the real interest rate by lenders to compensate them for a debt instrument which cannot be converted to cash quickly at its existing value is called?
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. investment risk premium

11. The added interest rate charged due to the inherent increased risk in long-term debt is called?
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. investment risk premium

12. Suppose the real risk free rate of interest is 4%, maturity risk premium is 2%, inflation premium is 6%, the default risk on similar debt is 3%, and the liquidity premium is 2%. What is the nominal interest rate on this venture’s debt capital?
a. 13%
b. 14%
c. 15%
d. 16%
e. 17%

13. A venture has raised $4,000 of debt and $6,000 of equity to finance its firm. Its cost of borrowing is 6%, its tax rate is 40%, and its cost of equity capital is 8%. What is the venture’s weighted average cost of capital?
a. 8.0%
b. 7.2%
c. 7.0%
d. 6.2%
e. 6.0%

14. Your venture has net income of $600, taxable income of $1,000, operating profit of $1,200, total financial capital including both debt and equity of $9,000, a tax rate of 40%, and a WACC of 10%. What is your venture’s EVA?
a. $400,000
b. $200,000
c. $ 0
d. ($180,000)
e. ($300,000)

15. The “risk-free” interest rate is the sum of:
a. a real rate of interest and an inflation premium
b. a real rate of interest and a default risk premium
c. an inflation premium and a default risk premium
d. a default risk premium and a liquidity premium
e. a liquidity premium and a maturity premium

16. Venture investors generally use which one of the following target rates to discount the projected cash flows of ventures in the “startup” stage of their life cycles:
a. 20%
b. 25%
c. 40%
d. 50%

17. Which one of the following components is not used when estimating the cost of risky debt capital?
a. real interest rate
b. inflation premium
c. default risk premium
d. market risk premium
e. liquidity premium

18. Which of the following components is not typically included in the rate on short-term U.S. treasuries?
a. liquidity premium
b. default risk premium
c. market risk premium
d. b and c
e. a, b, and c

19. The word “risk” developed from the early Italian word “risicare” and means:
a. don’t care
b. take a chance
c. to dare
d. to gamble

20. The difference between average annual returns on common stocks and returns on long-term government bonds is called a:
a. default risk premium
b. maturity premium
c. risk-free premium
d. liquidity premium
e. market risk premium

21. What has been the approximate average annual rate of return on publicly traded small company stocks since the mid-1920s?
a. 10%
b. 16%
c. 25%
d. 30%
e. 40%

22. Venture investors generally use which one of the following target rates to discount the projected cash flows of ventures in the “development” stage of their life cycles:
a. 15%
b. 20%
c. 25%
d. 40%
e. 50%

23. Corporate bonds might involve which of the following types of “premiums.”
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. all of the above
none of the above

24. Which of the following venture life cycle stages would involve seasoned financing rather than venture financing?
a. Development stage
b. Startup stage
c. Survival stage
d. Rapid-growth stage
e. Maturity stage

25. A venture’s “riskiness” in terms of possible poor performance or failure would be considered to be “very high” in which of the following life cycle stages:
a. Startup stage
b. Survival stage
c. Rapid-growth stage
d. Maturity stage

26. Which of the following types of financing would be associated with the highest target compound rate of return?
a. public and seasoned financing
b. second-round and mezzanine financing
c. first-round financing
d. startup financing
e. seed financing

27. The cost of equity for a firm is 20%. If the real interest rate is 5%, the inflation premium is 3%, and the market risk premium is 2%, what is the investment risk premium for the firm?
a. 10%
b. 12%
c. 13%
d. 15%

28. Use the SML model to calculate the cost of equity for a firm based on the following information: the firm’s beta is 1.5; the risk free rate is 5%; the market risk premium is 2%.
a. 4.5%
b. 8.0%
c. 9.5%
d. 10.5%

29. Calculate the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) based on the following information: the capital structure weights are 50% debt and 50% equity; the interest rate on debt is 10%; the required return to equity holders is 20%; and the tax rate is 30%.
a. 7%
b. 10%
c. 13.5%
d. 17.5%
e. 20%

30. Calculate the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) based on the following information: the equity multiplier is 1.66; the interest rate on debt is 13%; the required return to equity holders is 22%; and the tax rate is 35%.
a. 11.5%
b. 13.9%
c. 15.0%
d. 16.6%

31. Calculate the after-tax WACC based on the following information: nominal interest rate on debt = 16%; cost of common equity = 30%; equity to value = 60%; debt to value = 40%; and a tax rate = 25%.
a. 10%
b. 16%
c. 19.8%
d. 22.8%
e. 30%

32. Calculate the after-tax WACC based on the following information: nominal interest rate on debt = 12%; cost of common equity = 25%; common equity = $700,000; interest-bearing debt = $300,000; and a tax rate = 25%.
a. 15%
b. 16.4%
c. 20.2%
d. 22.8%
e. 30%

33. Venture capital holding period returns (all stages) for the 20-year period ending in 2012, had a compound average return of approximately:
a. 35%
b. 28%
c. 21%
d. 14%
e. 7%

Supplemental Problems related to Chapter 7 Appendix A (and Chapter 4 Appendix A)

1. Estimate a firm’s NOPAT based on: Net sales = $2,000,000; EBIT = $600,000; Net income = $20,000; and Effective tax rate = 30%.
a. $600,000
b. $420,000
c. $150,000
d. $70,000
e. $40,000

2. Estimate a firm’s economic value added (EVA) based on: NOPAT = $400,000; amount of financial capital used = $1,600,000; and WACC = 19%.
a. $26,000
b. $36,000
c. $96,000
d. $54,000
e. $64,000

3. Find a venture’s “economic value added” (EVA) based on the following information: EBIT = $200,000; financial capital used = $500,000; WACC = 20%; effective tax rate = 30%.
a. $20,000
b. $25,000
c. $30,000
d. $40,000
e. $50,000

CHAPTER 8

SECURITIES LAW CONSIDERATIONS WHEN OBTAINING VENTURE FINANCING

True-False Questions

1. The securities Exchange act of 1934 provides for the regulation of securities exchanges and over-the-counter markets.

2. The Investment Company Act of 1940 defines investment companies and excludes them from using some of the registration exemptions originating in the 1933 Ac

3. The Investment Advisers Act of 1940 provides a definition of an investment company.

4. According to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, a bank would not be classified as an “investment advisor”.

5. The Securities Act of 1933 is the main body of federal law governing the creation and sale of securities in the U.S.

6. The Securities Exchange Act was passed in 1933 and the Securities Act was passed in 1934.

7. The trading of securities is regulated under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1954.

8. Regulation of investment companies (including professional venture capital firms) is carried out under the Investment Company Act of 1940.

9. State laws designed to protect high net-worth investors from investing in fraudulent security offerings are known as blue-sky laws.

10. Offerings and sales of securities are regulated under the Securities Act of 1933 and state blue-sky laws.

11. Blue-sky laws are federal laws designed to protect individuals from investing in fraudulent security offerings.

12. The typical business organization for a venture in its rapid-growth stage is a partnership or LLC.

13. Investor liability in a limited liability company (LLC) is limited to the owners’ investments.

14. Investor liability in a proprietorship or corporation is unlimited.

15. The life of a proprietorship is determined by the owner.

16. It is usually easier to transfer ownership in a proprietorship relative to a corporation.

17. The two basic types of exemptions from having to register securities with the SEC are security and transaction exemptions.

18. The Securities Act of 1933 provides a very narrow definition as to what constitutes a security.

19. SEC Rule 147 provides guidance on the issuer’s diligent responsibilities in assuring that offerees are in-state and that securities don’t move across state lines.

20. A private placement, or transactions by an issuer not involving any public offering, is exempt from registering the security.

21. Accredited investors are specifically protected by the Securities Act of 1933 from investing in unregistered securities issues.

22. The typical business organization for a venture in its rapid-growth stage is a partnership or LLC.

23. In SEC v. Ralston Purina (1953), the U.S. Supreme Court took an important step toward defining a public offering for the purposes of Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933.

24. SEC Regulation D requires the registration of securities with the SEC.

25. An early stage venture that is not an investment company and has written compensation agreements can structure compensation-related securities issues so they are exempt from SEC registration requirements.

26. SEC Regulation D took effect in 1932 and provides the basis for “safe harbor” as a private placemen

27. Rule 504 under Regulation D has a $2 million financing limit (i.e., applies to sales of securities not exceeding $2 million).

28. A Rule 504 exemption under Regulation D has no limit in terms of the number and qualifications of investors.

29. A Regulation D Rule 505 offering cannot exceed $5 million in a twelve-month period.

30. A Regulation D Rule 505 offering is limited to 35 accredited investors.

31. A Regulation D Rule 506 offering has no limit in terms of the dollar amount of the offering but is limited to 35 unaccredited investors.

32. Regulation A, while technically considered an exemption from registration, is a public offering rather than a private placemen

33. Regulation A allows for registration exemptions on private security offerings so long as all investors are considered to be financially sophisticated.

34. Regulation A issuers are allowed to “test the waters” before preparing the offering circular (unlike almost all other security offerings).

35. Regulation A offerings are allowed up $10 million and do not have limitations on the number or sophistication of offerees.

36. The objective of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 is to stimulate the initiation, growth, and development of small business companies.

37. Title II of the JOBS Act of 2012 eliminates the general solicitation and advertising restriction for Regulation D 506 offerings.

Note: Following are true-false questions relating to materials presented in Appendix B of Chapter 8.

1. The definition of an “accredited investor,” initially defined in the Securities Act of 1933, was expanded in Rule 501 of Reg D.

2. One of the monetary requirements for individuals or natural persons as accredited investors as defined in Regulation D Rule 501 is a net worth greater than $1,000,000.

3. One of the monetary requirements for individuals or natural persons as accredited investors as defined in Regulation D Rule 501 is individual annual income greater than $500,000.

4. Regulation D Rule 502 focuses, in part, on resale restrictions imposed on privately-placed securities.

5. Rule 503 of Regulation D states that a Form D should be filed with the SEC within six months after the first sale of securities.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is not true regarding the Securities Act of 1933?
a. it was passed in response to abuses thought to have contributed to the financial catastrophes of the Great Depression
b. it covers securities fraud
c. it requires securities to be registered formally with the federal government
d. it set of the nature and authority of the Securities and Exchange Commission
e. it focuses on those who provide investment advice

2. The U.S. federal law that impacts the creation and sales of securities is:
a. Securities Exchange Act of 1934
b. Securities Act of 1933
c. Investment Company Act of 1940
d. Investment Advisers Act of 1940

3. The efforts to regulate the trading of securities takes place under which of the following securities laws?
a. Securities Act of 1933
b. state “blue-sky” laws
c. Securities and Exchange Act of 1934
d. Investment Company Act of 1940
e. Investment Advisers Act of 1940

4. Efforts to regulate the offerings and sales of securities take place under which of the following securities laws?
a. Securities Act of 1933
b. state “blue-sky” laws
c. Securities and Exchange Act of 1934
d. Investment Company Act of 1940
e. Investment Advisers Act of 1940
Both a and b
g. Both a and c

5. In securities law, which of the following is (are) true?
a. ignorance is no defense
b. security regulators may alter your investment agreement to the benefit of the investors
c. Securities Act of 1933 gives the SEC broad civil procedures to use in enforcement
d. Securities Act of 1933 gives the SEC some criminal procedures to use in enforcement
e. a, b, and c above
a, b, c, and d above

6. Which of the following is not a security?
a. treasury stock
b. debenture
c. put option
d. real property
e. call option

7. State securities regulations are referred to as:
a. Regulation A legislation
b. “stormy day” laws
c. “blue sky” laws
d. SEC oversight legislation

8. Which of the following is not true about registering securities with the SEC?
a. it is a time consuming process
b. it required the disclosure of accounting information
c. it is usually done with the help of an investment bank
d. it is an inexpensive process
e. it provides information to prospective investors

9. All of the following do not create any securities registration responsibilities except?
a. Treasury securities
b. Municipal bonds
c. securities issued by publicly held companies
d. securities issued by banks
e. securities issued by the government

10. Ventures that reach their survival stage of their life cycles and seek first-round financing are typically organized as:
a. proprietorships or partnerships
b. LLCs or corporations
c. corporations
d. partnerships or LLCs
e. proprietorships or corporations

11. Investor liability is “unlimited” under which of the following types of business organizational forms?
a. proprietorship
b. limited liability company (LLC)
c. corporation
d. S corporation
e. S limited liability company (SLLC)

12. Which one of the following is not a requirement for registration of securities with the SEC?
a. the name under which the issuer is doing business
b. the name of the state where the issuer is organized
c. the names of all products sold by the issuer
d. the names and addresses of the directors
e. the names of the underwriters

13. The returning of all funds to equity investors as a common “remedy” for a “fouled up” securities offering is called:
a. just action
b. fraud
c. second round financing
d. a rescission
e. mezzanine financing

14. “Security” exemptions from registration with the SEC include which of the following:
a. securities issued by banks and thrift institutions
b. government securities
c. intrastate offerings
d. securities issued by large, high quality corporations
e. a, b, and c above
f. a, b, c, and d above

15. The basic types of “transaction” exemptions for registration with the SEC are:
a. private placement exemption
b. “too big to fail” exemption
c. accredited investor exemption
d. intrastate offering exemption
e. a and c above
b and d above

16. In the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals decision on SEC v. Murphy, all of the following were considerations in determining an offering to be a private placement except:
a. there must be an arm’s length relationship between the issuer of the security and the prospective purchaser
b. the number of offerees must be limited
c. the size and the manner of the offering must not indicate widespread solicitation
d. the offerees must be sophisticated
e. some relationship between the offerees and the issuer must be present

17. Which SEC Regulation took effect in 1982 and provides the basis for “safe harbor” as a private placement?
a. Regulation A
b. Regulation B
c. Regulation C
d. Regulation D
e. Regulation E

18. Unless your security is exempted, what Section of the Securities Act of 1933 requires you to file a registration statement with the SEC?
a. Section 1
b. Section 2
c. Section 3
d. Section 4
e. Section 5

19. Which one of the following is not an exemption method for making an offering exempt from SEC registration?
a. 4(2) private offering
b. accredited investor
c. Regulation D
d. Regulation A
e. Regulation Z

20. Exemptions for private placement offerings and sales of securities in the amount of $2 million are handled under which one of the follow rules under Regulation D?
a. Rule 501
b. Rule 502
c. Rule 503
d. Rule 504
e. Rule 505

21. Which one of the following SEC registration exemptions has a financing limit in a 12-month period and permits a maximum of 35 unaccredited investors?
a. Section 4(2)
b. Reg D: Rule 504
c. Reg D: Rule 505
d. Reg D: Rule 506
e. Regulation A

22. Rule 504 of Regulation D limits the total number of investors to:
a. 35
b. 100
c. 35 unaccredited investors and any number of accredited investors
d. there is no limit on the number of accredited or unaccredited
investors

23. Offerings exempted from registration under rule 505 of Regulation D may raise up to $5 million in a:
a. 6-month period
b. 9-month period
c. 12-month period
d. 18-month period
e. 24-month period

24. Rule 506 of Regulation D is limited in terms of the number of unaccredited investors to:
a. 20
b. 25
c. 30
d. 35
e. 40

25. Which one of the following “rules” under Regulation D has a $5 million financing limit?
a. Rule 504
b. Rule 505
c. Rule 506
d. Rule 507
e. Rule 508

26. While Section 4(2) does not limit the dollar amount of an offering, the interpretation of the law has stipulated that:
a. the investors must be sophisticated
b the number of investors must be limited to 35
c. the funds must be raised within a 12-month period
d. the offering must be extended to the public, and not only investors
who have a relationship with the issuer

27. An offering that raises $2,500,000 over a 12-month period, involving 35 unaccredited investors and 5 accredited investors, might be exempt from registration under:
a. Section 4(6)
b. Regulation D: Rule 504
c. Regulation D: Rule 505
d. none of the above

28. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of Regulation A?
a. An offering is limited to $5 million
b. the number offerees or investors is limited to 35
c. the offering is a public offering
d. the securities issued can generally be freely resold

29. Of the following, which is not true about Regulation A?
a. it is shorter and simpler than the full registration
b. it does not have limitations on the number or sophistication of offerees.
c. it is a public offering rather than a private placement
d. it can generally be freely sold
e. it requires no offering statement be filed with the SEC

30. Which of the following exemptions involves a public, and not a private, offering?
a. Section 4(2)
b. Rule 501
c. Rule 505
d. Rule 506
e. Regulation A

31. Under Regulation A, which one of the following is not true?
a. issuers are allowed to test the waters prior to preparing the offering circular
b. after filing a SEC statement, the issuer can communicate with perspective investors orally, in writing, by advertising in newspapers, radio, television, or via the mail to determine investor interest
c. issuers can take commitments or funds
d. there is a formal delay of 20 calendar days before sales are made
e. if the interest level is insufficient, the issuer can drop Regulation A filing

32. The JOBS Act of 2012 provides for which of the following:
a. establishes a new business classification called “Emerging Growth Company”
b. lifts restrictions on general solicitation and advertising for Reg D 506 accredited investor offerings
c. establishes a small offering registration exemption and calls for SEC rules relating to the sales of securities to an Internet :crowd” (security crowd funding)
d. a and b above
e. a, b, and c

Note: Following are multiple-choice questions relating to materials presented in Appendix B of Chapter 8.

1. Rule 501 of Regulation D expands the categories of accredited investors. Which is not one of the categories?
a. any organization formed for the specific purpose of acquiring securities with assets in excess of $5 million
b. any director or executive officer of the issuer of securities being sold
c. any individual whose net worth exceeds $1 million
d. any partnership
e. any trust with total assets greater the $5 million

2. Which of the following is not a condition of a Regulation D offering under Rule 502?
a. integration
b. offering
c. information
d. solicitation
e. resale

3. Which of the following are requirements of natural persons to be accredited investors under Regulation D Rule 501?
a. net worth greater than $5 million
b. total assets greater than $1 million
c. individual (single) annual income greater than $200,000
d. stock market portfolio greater than $2 million
e. all of the above

4. Rule 502 of Regulation D deals with:
a. integration
f. information
g. solicitation
h. resale
i. a and b above
e. a, b, c, and d above

5. Rule 503 dictates that for all Reg D exemptions, a Form D should be filed within how many days after the first sale of securities?
a. 1 day
b. 15 days
c. 30 days
d. six months
e. one year

6. The primary exemption from the prohibition of resale of unregistered securities (including, but not limited to, securities safely harbored in Rules 505 and 506 offerings) is:
a. Rule 111
b. Rule 122
c. Rule 133
d. Rule 144
e. Rule 147

CHAPTER 9

PROJECTING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

True-False Questions

1. Long-term financial planning begins with a forecast of annual working capital needs.

2. In a typical venture’s life cycle, the rapid-growth stage involves creating and building value, obtaining additional financing, and examining exit opportunities.

3. Forecasting for firms with operating histories is generally much easier than forecasting for early-stage ventures.

4. Sales forecasts usually are based on either a single specific scenario or weighted averages of several possible realizations.

5. The weighted average of a set of possible outcomes or scenarios is known as expected values.

6. A customer-driven or “bottom-up” approach to forecasting sales is used primarily to forecast industry sales growth rates.

7. Sales forecasting accuracy is usually highest during a venture’s startup stage in its life cycle.

5. “Public or seasoned financing” typically occurs during the survival stage of a venture’s life cycle.

8. The volatility of a firm’s cash balance will steadily decreases as the firm progresses from the survival stage to the rapid-growth stage.

9. “First-round financing” usually occurs during a venture’s rapid-growth life cycle stage.

10. Sales forecasting accuracy is usually lowest during a venture’s development stage in its life cycle.

11. “Internally generated funds” is the cash produced from operating a firm over a specified time period.

12. The rate at which a firm can grow sales based on the retention of business profits is known as sustainable sales growth rate.

13. A firm’s maximum sustainable sales growth rate occurs at a retention ratio of 100%.

14. When using the beginning of period equity base, the sustainable sales growth rate is equal to ROE times the retention ratio.

15. The sustainable sales growth rate is equal to ROA times the retention ratio.

16. “Financial capital needed” (FCN) is the amount of funds needed to acquire assets necessary to support a firm’s sales growth.

17. The cost of obtaining additional funds, such as additional interest expenses from borrowing funds, may be explicit and impact AFN.

18. The added costs associated with obtaining equity capital are based on investor expected rates of return and are explicit costs which affect AFN.

19. “Additional funds needed” (AFN) is the gap remaining between the financial capital needed and that funded by spontaneously generated funds and retained earnings.

20. Increases in accounts receivable and accounts payable that accompany sales increases are called “spontaneously generated funds”.

21. “Spontaneously generated funds” are increases in accounts receivable and accounts payable that accompany sales increases.

22. Increases in accounts payable and notes payable are examples of spontaneously generated funds.

23. A firm with a positive growth rate in sales will require some additional funds, assuming the existing ratios will not be changed.

24. An increase in accounts receivable will require additional financing unless the increase is offset by an equal decrease in another asset accoun

25. The percent of sales forecasting method must project all cost and balance sheet items at the same growth rate as sales.

26. The “constant-ratio forecasting method” is a variant of the “percent-of- sales forecasting method.”

27. The constant ratio forecasting method makes projections based on the assumption that certain costs and some balance sheet items are best expressed as a percentage of sales.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is not a step in forecasting sales for a seasoned firm?
a. forecast future growth rates based on possible scenarios and the probabilities of those scenarios.
b. attempt to corroborate the projected sales growth rates analyzing both industry growth rates and the firm’s own past market share.
c. refine the sales forecast by using the sales force as a direct contact with both existing and potential customers.
d. take into consideration the likely impact of major operating changes within the firm on the sales forecas
e. consider the effects of changes in the firm’s debt/equity blend on the sales forecasts.

2. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. forecasting sales is the first step in creating projected financial
statements
b. financial forecasting tends to be more accurate for mature ventures
than for early-stage ventures
c. forecasting is relatively unimportant for early-stage ventures with
little historical financial data
d. a and b
e. a and c

3. During which round of financing is a venture typically most accurate in forecasting sales?
a. seasoned financing
b. mezzanine financing
c. first round financing
d. startup financing
e. seed financing

4. During which life cycle stage is a venture typically most accurate in forecasting sales?
a. rapid growth stage
b. startup stage
c. development stage
d. early-maturity stage
e. survival stage
5. Public or seasoned financing is generally associated with which one of the following life cycle stages:
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. rapid-growth stage
e. early-maturity stage

6. A “new” venture usually begins its sales forecast by first:
a. forecasting industry sales and expressing the venture’s sales as a percent of industry sales
b. using a “bottom-up” market-driven approach
c. extrapolating past sales
d. working with existing and potential customers

7. An “expected value” is:
a. a simple average of a set of scenarios or possible outcomes
b. a weighted average of a set of scenarios or possible outcomes
c. the highest scenario value or outcome
d. the lowest scenario value or outcome

8. Lola is in the process of forecasting the sales growth rate for an early-stage venture specializing in the production of durable running shoes. Lola predicts a .2 probability of an 80% growth in sales, a .3 probability of a 60% growth in sales, a .4 probability of a 40% growth in sales, and a .1 probability of a 10% decrease in sales. What is the expected sales growth rate of the venture?
a. 47%
b. 49%
c. 51%
d. 53%

9. Which one of the following life cycle stages would generally be associated with the second lowest sales forecasting accuracy?
a. early-maturity
b. rapid-growth
c. survival
d. start-up
e. development

10. Internally generated funds which are available for distribution to owners of for reinvestment back into the business to support future growth can be characterized by which of the following?
a. operating income
b. operating cash flow
c. net income
d. net cash flow
e. pre-tax income

11. Which of the following is not part of the financial forecasting process used to project financial statements?
a. forecast sales
b. forecast tax rates
c. project the income statement
d. project the balance sheet
e project the statement of cash flows

12. A firm projects net income to be $500,000, intends to pay out $125,000 in dividends, and had $2 million of equity at the beginning of the year. The firm’s sustainable growth rate is:
a. 5%
b. 18.75%
c. 6.25%
d. 4.69%
e. none of the above

13. A firm has net income of $320,000 on sales of $3,200,000. Its assets total $2,000,000; the equity at the beginning of the year was $1,600,000 and dividends paid were $80,000. What is the sustainable growth rate?
a. 5%
b. 15%
c. 6.25%
d. 4.69%
e. none of the above

14. A sales growth rate based on the retention of profits is referred to as the:
a. real sales growth rate
b. sustainable sales growth rate
c. spontaneous sales growth rate
d. nominal sales growth rate
e. weighted average sales growth rate

15. Which one of the following ratios is not part of the “standard” return on equity (ROE) model?
a. net profit margin
b. asset turnover
c. equity multiplier
d. retention rate

16. If beginning of period common equity is $200,000 and end of period common equity is $300,000, the sustainable growth rate is:
a. 33%
b. 40%
c. 50%
d. 67%
e. 75%

17. Use the following information to estimate a venture’s sustainable growth rate: Net income = $200,000; Total assets = $1,000,000; equity multiple based on beginning common equity = 2.0 times; and Retention rate = 25%.
a. 50%
b. 25%
c. 20%
d. 10%
e. 5%

18. If a venture has a return on assets (ROA) = 10%, an equity multiplier based on beginning equity = 3.5 times, and a retention rate = 50%, the sustainable growth rate would be:
a. 10%
b. 17.5%
c. 35%
d. 40%
e. 20.5%

19. If a venture has a return on assets (ROA) = 10%, an equity multiplier based on beginning equity = 4.0 times, and a dividend payout ratio of 60%, the sustainable growth rate would be:
a. 10%
b. 16%
c. 20%
d. 24%
e. 40%

20. If a venture has a return on assets (ROA) = 12%, an equity multiplier based on beginning equity = 3.0 times, and a sustainable growth rate of 18%, the retention rate would be:
a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 30%
d. 40%
e. 50%

21. A venture’s common equity was $50,000 at the end of last year. If the venture’s common equity at the end of this year was $60,000, what was its sustainable sales growth rate?
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%
e. 25%

22. A venture’s common equity account increased by $100,000 the past year and ended the year at $500,000. What was its sustainable sales growth rate?
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%
e. 25%

23. Determine a venture’s sustainable growth rate based on the following information: sales = $1,000,000; net income = $100,000; common equity at the beginning of the year = $500,000; and the retention rate = 50%.
a. 10%
b. 15%
c. 20%
d. 25%
e. 30%

24. Determine a venture’s sustainable growth rate based on the following information: sales = $1,000,000; net income = $150,000; common equity at the end of last year = $520,000; and the dividend payout percentage = 20%.
a. 10%
b. 16%
c. 20%
d. 24%
e. 30%

25. Determine a firm’s “financial policy” multiplier based on the following information: sustainable growth rate = 20%; net profit margin = 10%; and asset turnover = 2 times.
a. 1.00
b. 1.25
c. 1.50
d. 1.75
e. 2.00

26. Determine a firm’s “return on assets” percentage based on the following information: sustainable growth rate = 20%; total assets $500,000; beginning of year common equity $200,000; and dividend payout percentage = 60%.
a. 10.0%
b. 12.5%
c. 15.0%
d. 17.5%
e. 20.0%

27. The financial funds needed to acquire assets necessary to support a firm’s sales growth is called: a. spontaneously generated funds
b. additional funds needed
c. addition in retained earnings
d. financial capital needed

28. The increase in accounts payables and accruals that occur with a sales increase is called:
a. spontaneously generated funds
b. additional funds needed
c. addition in retained earnings
d. financial capital needed

29. The financial funds still needed to finance asset growth after using spontaneously generated funds and any increase in retained earnings is called:
a. spontaneously generated funds
b. additional funds needed
c. addition in retained earnings
d. financial capital needed

30. Which one of the following would increase a firm’s need for additional funds?
a. an increasing profit margin
b. a decreasing expected sales growth rate
c. an increase in accruals
d. an increasing dividend payout rate
e. a decrease in assets

31. Your firm recorded sales for the most recent year of $10 million generated from an asset base of $7 million, producing a $500,000 net income. Sales are projected to grow at 20%, causing spontaneous liabilities to increase by $200,000. In the most recent year, $200,000 was paid out as dividends, and the current payout ratio will continue in the upcoming years. What is your firm’s AFN?
a. $200,000
b. $600,000
c. $840,000
d. $960,000
e. $1,400,000

32. Which of the following is a forecasting method used to project financial statements?
a. percent-of-sales method
b. percent-of-expenses method
c. GNP-ratio method
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

33. When projecting financial statements, one would first , and then proceed to :
a. project of the balance sheet, forecast sales.
b. forecast sales, project the income statement
c. forecast sales, project the balance sheet
d. forecast sales, project the statement of cash flows

CHAPTER 10

VALUING EARLY-STAGE VENTURES

True–False Questions

1. The valuation approach involving discounting present value cash flows for risk and delay is called discounted cash flow (DCF).

2. The stepping stone year is the first year before the explicit forecast period.

3. The terminal or horizon value is the value of a venture at the end of its explicit forecast period.

4. The “stepping stone” year is the second year after the explicit forecast period when valuing a venture.

5. The explicit forecast period is the two to ten year period in which the venture’s financial statements are explicitly forecas

6. The maximum dividend valuation method involves explicitly forecasted dividends to provide surplus cash which is positive.

7. The easiest way to value a venture is to discount the projected maximum dividend/issue stream.

8. The pseudo dividend method treats surplus cash as a free cash flow to equity.

9. The reversion value of a venture is the present value of the venture’s terminal value.

10. A venture’s reversion value is the present value of ongoing expenses.

11. The “reversion value” is the future value of the terminal value.

12. The “terminal” value is the value of the venture at the beginning of the explicit forecast period.

13. As used in this textbook, the “terminal” value is the same as the “horizon” value.

14. Finding the present value of the horizon value produces the venture’s reversion value.

15. Surplus cash is the cash remaining after required cash, all operating expenses, and reinvestments are made.

16. Surplus cash is the cash remaining after required cash, all operating expenses, reinvestments, and dividends payouts are made.

17. Required cash is the amount of cash required to operate a venture through its day-to-day business.

18. Surplus cash is the amount of cash required to pay scheduled dividends for next quarter.

19. The capitalization or “cap” rate is the spread between the discount rate and the growth rate of cash flow in the terminal value period.

20. Pre-money valuation is the present value of a venture prior to a new money investmen

21. Post-money valuation is the pre-money valuation of a venture plus all monies previously contributed by the venture’s founders.

22. “Net operating working capital” is current assets other than surplus cash less non-interest-bearing current liabilities.

23. “Equity valuation cash flow” is defined as: net sales + depreciation and amortization expense – change in net operating working capital (excluding surplus cash) – capital expenditures + net debt issues.

24. The “pseudo dividend method” (PDM) is a valuation method involving zero explicitly forecasted dividends and an adjustment to working capital to strip surplus cash.

25. A “post-money” valuation differs from a “pre-money” valuation by the cost of financial capital.

26. Applying the “maximum dividend method” (MDM) and the “pseudo dividend method” (PDM) result in different valuation estimates.

27. The “maximum dividend method” assumes that all surplus cash will be paid out as dividends.

28. A pseudo dividend involves excess cash that does not need to be invested in a venture’s assets or operations, and may be invested elsewhere for a period of time.

29. The pseudo dividend method treats equity infusions and withdrawals in a “just in time” fashion.

30. The pseudo dividend method treats surplus cash either as stripped out while not in use or as employed outside the venture and stored in a zero NPV investmen

31. The wider the capitalization or “cap” rate (i.e., the discount rate minus the growth rate in the terminal period), the higher the terminal value.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The present value of the venture’s expected future cash flows is called?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

2. The value today of all future cash flows discounted to the present at the investor’s required rate of return is called?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

3. The value of the venture at the end of the explicit forecast period is called the horizon value, or what?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

4. The present value of the terminal value is called?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

5. The present value of a set of future flows plus the current undiscounted flow is called?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

6. The calculation of equity valuation cash flows nets the cash impact of all other balance sheet and income accounts to focus on the ______ account as the repository of any remaining cash flow.
a. cash
b. debt
c. equity
d. non-interest-bearing liabilities
e. net income

7. Equity valuation cash flow = Net income plus
a. Depreciation and amortization expense minus the change in net operating working capital plus capital expenditures plus net debt issues
b. Depreciation and amortization expense plus the change in net operating working capital plus minus capital expenditures plus net debt issues
c. Depreciation and amortization expense minus the change in net operating working capital plus capital expenditures minus net debt issues
d. Depreciation and amortization expense minus the change in net operating working capital plus minus capital expenditures plus net debt issues
e. Depreciation and amortization expense minus the change in net operating working capital plus capital expenditures plus net debt issues

8. In a wildly successful first year in business that started and ended with no required cash, your firm has operating income of $989,000, net income of $637,000, current assets of $900,000, current liabilities of $659,000, net capital expenditures were $690,000, and depreciation was $460,000. The firm has never financed itself with deb What is your equity valuation cash flow?
a. $648,000
b. $900,000
c. $2,028,000
d. $166,000

9. Your firm has been in business for two years. In its first year, the firm ended with $227,000 of current assets, long-term assets of $143,000, $70,000 in surplus cash, current liabilities of $52,000, and long-term assets of $68,000. At the end of the second year, current assets were $279,000, long-term assets of $195,000, surplus cash of $90,000, current liabilities of $62,000, and long-term assets of $78,000. What is your firm’s change in net operating working capital?
a. $22,000
b. $62,000
c. $42,000
d. $244,000
e. $32,000

10. The equity valuation method involving explicitly forecasted dividends to provide surplus cash of zero is called?
a. maximum dividend method
b. pseudo dividend method
c. sustainable growth method
d. dividend payout method

11. The equity valuation method involving zero explicitly forecasted dividends and an adjustment to working capital to strip surplus cash is called?
a. maximum dividend method
b. pseudo dividend method
c. sustainable growth method
d. dividend payout method

12. “Just in time” capital injections by equity investors is a reference to
a. sustainable growth
b. the present value of the terminal value
c. equity investors’ providing money only when needed
d. dividend payout

13. The maximum dividend method is
a. the cleanest for valuing assets, but creates problems valuing surplus cash
b. the cleanest for valuation purposes but its dividend-laden financial statements can dramatically understate the firm’s cash position
c. the cleanest for cash planning, but creates problems valuing the venture by discounting the dividends
d. calculated by directly discounting the cash flow statement’s projected dividend flow to investors, but ignores risks associated with periodic gluts of surplus cash

14. The pseudo dividend method is
a. the cleanest for valuing assets, but creates problems valuing surplus cash
b. the cleanest for valuation purposes but its dividend-laden financial statements can dramatically understate the firm’s cash position
c. the cleanest for cash planning, but creates problems valuing the venture by discounting the dividends
d. calculated by directly discounting the cash flow statement’s projected dividend flow to investors, but ignores risks associated with periodic gluts of surplus cash

15. “Required cash” is?
a. the cash needed to pay interest expense
b. a valuation method for early stage ventures
c. cash needed to cover a venture’s day-to-day operations
d. cash available to pay as a dividend

16. Most discounted cash flow valuations involve using cash flows from an:
a. historical period, an explicit forecast period, and a terminal value
b. historical period and a terminal value
c. historical period and an explicit forecast period
d. explicit forecast period and a terminal value

17. Which one of the following equity valuation methods records surplus cash on the balance sheet but assumes that the surplus cash is paid out over time for valuation purposes?
a. maximum dividend method
b. pseudo dividend method
c. sustainable growth method
d. return on equity method

18. When estimating the terminal value of a venture using an equity valuation method, a perpetuity growth equation is often applied that uses the capitalization rate for discounting purposes. This “cap” rate is measured as the:
a. equity discount rate minus the perpetuity growth rate
b. equity discount rate plus the perpetuity growth rate
c. risk-free rate plus the perpetuity growth rate
d. risk-free rate minus the perpetuity growth rate

19. A venture’s going-concern value is the:
a. present value of the expected future cash flows
b. net present value of the current and expected future cash flows
c. future value of the expected cash flows
d. net future value of the current and expected cash flows

20. The purpose of the stepping stone year is?
a. to assure that there is sufficient required cash
b. to assure that future dividends are constant
c. to assure that investment flows are consistent with terminal growth rates
d. to allow for a final year of higher-than-sustainable growth

21. When estimating the terminal value of a cash flow perpetuity, which one of the following is not a component?
a. the next period’s cash flow
b. a constant discount rate
c. a constant growth rate
d. the payback period

22. Which one of the following components is not a component of the equity valuation cash flow?
a. NOPAT
b. depreciation and amortization expense
c. change in net operating working capital (without surplus cash)
d. capital expenditures
e. net debt issues

23. What is the difference between pre-money valuation and post-money valuation?
a. size of the capitalization rate
b. amount of money injected by new investors
c. revision value
d. amount of money previously contributed by founders
e. amount of money previously contributed by venture investors

24. To calculate a terminal value, one divides the next period’s cash flow by the:
a. constant discount rate plus a constant growth rate
b. constant discount rate plus a variable growth rate
c. constant discount rate minus a constant growth rate
d. constant growth rate minus constant discount rate
e. constant growth rate plus a variable discount rate

25. The MDM equity valuation method is an abbreviation for:
a. minimum dividend method
b. maximum discount method
c. maximum dividend method
d. minimum discount method
e. Montgomery design method

26. The PDM equity valuation method is an abbreviation for:
a. pseudo dividend method
b. proximate dividend method
c. pseudo discount method
d. proximate discount method
e. pre-money discount method

27. Estimate a venture’s equity valuation cash flow based on the following information: net income = $6,372; depreciation = $4,600; change in net operating working capital = $2,415; capital expenditures = $6,900; and new debt issues = $1,000.
a. $6,487
b. $5,487
c. $4,487
d. $3,787
e. $5,787

28. Estimate a venture’s terminal value based on the following information: current year’s net income = $20,000; next year’s expected cash flow = $26,000; constant future growth rate = 7%; and venture investors’ required rate of return = 20%.
a. $156,846
b. $285,714
c. $200,000
d. $150,000
e. $428,571

29. Estimate a venture’s required rate of return based on the following information: terminal value = $400,000; current year’s net income = $20,000; next year’s expected cash flow = $25,000; and a constant growth rate = 7%.
a. 6%
b. 7%
c. 8%
d. 9%
e. 10%

30. Estimate a venture’s constant growth rate (g) based on the following information: terminal value = $400,000; current year’s net income = $20,000; next year’s expected cash flow = $25,000; and a required rate of return of 20%.
a. 2%
b. 4%
c. 6%
d. 8%
e. 10%

31. Which one of the following components is not a component of the equity valuation cash flow calculation?
a. net income
b. depreciation and amortization expense
c. change in net operating working capital (without surplus cash)
d. capital expenditures
e. net equity repurchases

32. Estimate a venture’s terminal value based on the following information: current year’s net sales = $500,000; next year’s expected cash flow = $16,000; constant future growth rate = 10%; and venture investors’ required rate of return = 20%.
a. $156,846
b. $285,714
c. $200,000
d. $150,000
e. $160,000

33. Estimate a venture’s cash flow expected next year based on the following information: current year’s net sales = $400,000; terminal value = $500,000; constant future growth rate = 10%; and venture investors’ required rate of return = 20%.
a. $20,000
b. $40,000
c. $50,000
d. $60,000
e. $80,000

CHAPTER 11

VENTURE CAPITAL VALUATION METHODS

True–False Questions

1. The venture capital valuation method estimates the venture’s value by projecting both intermediate and terminal/exit flows to investors.

2. Venture investors returns depend on the venture’s ability to generate cash flows or to find an acquirer for the venture.

3. The value of the venture’s equity is equal to the value the financing contributed in the first venture capital round.

4. A direct application of the earnings-per-share ratio to venture earnings is known as the direct comparison valuation method.

5. The venture capital valuation method which capitalizes earnings using a cap rate implied by a comparable ratio is known as direct capitalization.

6. Failure to account for any additional rounds of financing and its accompanying dilution in order to meet projected earnings will result in the investor’s not receiving an adequate number of shares to ensure the required percent ownership at the time of exi

7. Almost without exception, professional venture investors demand that some equity or deferred equity compensation be structured into any valuation.

8. If a venture issues debt prior to the exit period, the initial equity investors will still receive first claims on the venture’s net worth at exit time.

9. The utopia discount process allows the venture investors to value their investment using only the business plan’s explicit forecasts, discounting it at a bank loan interest factor.

10. The internal rate of return is the simple (non-compounded) interest rate that equates the present value of the cash inflows received with the initial investmen

11. The basic venture capital method estimates a venture’s value using only terminal/exit flows to all the venture’s owners.

12. The basic venture capital method estimates a venture’s value using only terminal/exit flows to founders.

13. Post-money valuation of a venture is the pre-money valuation plus money injected by new investors.

14. Staged financing is financing provided in sequences of rounds rather than all at one time.

15. In staged financing, the expected effect of future dilution is borne by both founders and the investors currently seeking to inves

16. The capitalization rate is the sum of the discount rate and the growth rate of the cash flow in the terminal value period.

17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is the compound rate of return that equates the present value of the cash inflows received with the initial investmen

18. The discount rate that one applies in a multiple scenario valuation will usually be lower than the discount rate that would be applied to the business plan cash flows.

19. All of the scenarios in a multiple scenario analysis must have exit cash flows in the same year.

20. The discount rate applied in an Expected PV approach should be the same rate across scenarios.

21. The expected present value method incorporates the present values of different scenarios, as well as their probabilities, into the valuation process.

Note: The following TF questions relate to Learning Supplements 11A and 11B:

1. The return on book equity equals the sustainable growth rate when all earnings are paid out in the form of dividends.

2. A price-earnings ratio is related to the level and growth of earnings.

3. The Venture Capital ShortCut (VCSC) method is a post-money version of the Delayed Dividend Approximation (DDA).

4. The VSCS and DDA methods are “just-in-time” capital methods which do not assess capital charges for idle cash.

5. For the typical business plan having current and early cash outflows and later-stage cash inflows, the VCSC and DDA methods will typically give lower valuations than the MDM and PDM.

6. The VSCS is like a post-money version of the DDA.

7. For the typical business plan having current and early cash outflows and later-stage cash inflows, the VSCS will give a higher valuation than the DDA.

8. The DDA and VCSC methods give the same valuation.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The return to venture investors directly depends on which of the following?
a. venture’s ability to generate cash flows
b. ability to convince an acquirer to buy the firm
c. the amount of its short-term liabilities
d. both a and b
e. all of the above

2. To obtain the percent ownership to be sold in order to expect to provide the venture investor’s target return, one must consider the:
a. cash investment today and the cash return at exit multiplied by the venture investor’s target return, then divide today’s cash investment by the venture’s NPV
b. cash investment today and the cash return at exit discounted by the venture investor’s target return, then divide today’s cash investment by the venture’s NPV
c. cash investment today and the cash return at exit multiplied by the venture investor’s target return, then divide today’s cash investment by the venture’s NPV
d. cash investment today and the cash return at exit discounted by the venture investor’s target return, then multiply today’s cash investment by the venture’s NPV

3. The value of the existing venture without the proceeds from the potential new equity issue is known as?
a. pre-money valuation
b. post money valuation
c. staged financing
d. the capitalization rate

4. The value of the existing venture plus the proceeds from the potential new equity issue is known as?
a. pre-money valuation
b. post money valuation
c. staged financing
d . the capitalization rate

5. Financing provided in sequences of rounds rather than all at one time is
known as?
a. pre-money valuation
b. post money valuation
c. staged financing
d. the capitalization rate

[Note: Use the following information for Problems 6 through 11.]

A potential investor is seeking to invest $500,000 in a venture, which currently has 1,000,000 million shares held by its founders, and is targeting a 50% return five years from now. The venture is expected to produce half a million dollars in income per year at year 5. It is known that a similar venture recently produced $1,000,000 in income and sold shares to the public for $10,000,000.

6. What is the percent ownership of our venture that must be sold in order to provide the venture investor’s target return?
a. 33.33%
b. 75.94%
c. 12.76%
d. 15.00%

7. What is the number of shares that must be issued to the new investor in order for the investor to earn his target return?
a. 3,156,276
b. 1,578,138
c. 4,156,276
d. 2,578,138

8. What is the issue price per share?
a. $0.1939
b. $0.1203
c. $0.3168
d. $0.1584

9. What is the pre-money valuation?
a. $120,300
b. $316,800
c. $158,400
d. $193,900

10. What is the post-money valuation?
a. $658,354
b. $499,954
c. $408,377
d. $249,977

11. What is the value of the venture in year five using direct capitalization?
a. $500,000
b. $5,000,000
c. $1,000,000
d. $100,000

12. For early stage ventures, which of the following is a strong reason for having an equity component in employee compensation?
a. the expected deferred and tax-preferred compensation allows the venture to pay a lower current compensation to employees
b. as a way to motivate employees to strive for the same goal of high equity value
c. because any dividends received as part of the equity compensation reduces taxable income
d. both a and b
e. all of the above

13. During the exit period, which of the following will have last crack at the venture’s wealth?
a. banks giving loans to the venture
b. convertible debt holders of the venture
c. initial equity investors of the venture
d. participating preferred equity holders

14. Suppose your venture’s expected mean cash flows are $(85,000) initially, followed by expected mean cash flows at the end of the first, second, and third years of $40,000, $40,000, and $35,000. What is the internal rate of return?
a. 13.9%
b. 14.7%
c. 16.2%
d. 17.2%
e. 19.2%

15. A P/E multiple refers to:
a. price/expectations multiple
b. price/earnings multiple
c. profit/EBIT multiple
d. profit/earnings multiple
e. price/EBITDA multiple

16. Estimate the value of a privately-held firm based on the following information: stock price of a comparable firm = $20.00; net income of a comparable firm = $20,000; number of shares outstanding for the comparable firm = 10,000; and earnings per share for the target firm = $3.00.
a. $10.00
b. $20.00
c. $30.00
d. $40.00
e. $50.00

17. Estimate the value of a privately-held firm based on the following information: total market value (or capitalization value) of a comparable firm = $200,000; net income of a comparable firm = $40,000; number of shares outstanding for the comparable firm = 20,000; net income for the target firm = $15,000; and number of shares outstanding for the target firm = 10,000.
a. $5.00
b. $7.50
c. $10.00
d. $12.50
e. $15.00

18. Determine the market value of a “comparable” firm based on the following information: value of target firm = $4,000,000; net income of target firm = $200,000; and net income of “comparable” firm = $500,000.
a. $4 million
b. $7.5 million
c. $10 million
d. $12.5 million
e. $15 million

19. Determine the net income of a “comparable” firm based on the following information: value of target firm = $4,000,000; net income of target firm = $200,000; stock price of “comparable” firm = $30.00; and 300,000 shares of stock outstanding for the comparable firm.
a. $450,000
b. $500,000
c. $550,000
d. $600,000
e. $700,000

20. Determine the future value of a target venture which has net income expected to be $40,000 at the end of four years from now. A comparable firm currently has a stock price of $20.00 per shares; 100,000 shares outstanding; and net income of $50,000.
a. $1.0 million
b. $1.4 million
c. $1.6 million
d. $2.0 million

21. Which of the following financing rounds dilutes the ownership founders?
a. first-round
b. second-round
c. incentive ownership round
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

22. The utopian approach to valuation ignores which of the following venture scenarios:
a. black hole scenarios
b. living dead scenarios
c. both a and b
d. neither a or b

23. Which of the following is not a variation of the venture capital valuation method?
a. venture capital method
b. expected present value
c. utopian discount process
d. none of the above

Following are MC questions relating to Learning Supplements 11A and 11B:

1. When a firm has growth that only meets, rather than exceeds, the cost of capital, we would expect its price-earnings multiple to be approximately equal to:
a. the reciprocal of its required return on equity
b. its earnings per share
c. its book-to-market ratio
d. its debt-to-value ratio

2. The two “just-in-time” capital methods are:
a. DDA and VCSC
b. DDA and PDM
c. VSCS and MDM
d. MDM and PDM

3. For the typical venture investing project, the valuation will be highest under:
a. DDA
b. PDM and MDM
c. VCSC
d. initial book value of equity

CHAPTER 12

PROFESSIONAL VENTURE CAPITAL

True–False Questions

1. In addition to having personal financial stakes in their portfolio of investments, professional venture capitalists have raised funds from other investors to invest in the portfolio.

2. The establishment of the Small Business Administration was the first major government foray into venture investing.

3. Created by the Small Business Administration, Small Business Investment Companies possess important tax advantages and were eligible to borrow amounts up to four times their equity base from the governmen

4. Initially, Small business Investment Companies access to borrowed funds appeared attractive. This was because venture investing and debt service commitments are an ideal mixture of financing for start-ups.

5. Professional venture capital, as we know it today, did not exist before World War II.

6. Most venture investing came from wealthy individuals and families prior to World War II.

7. The beginning of professional venture capitalists began with the formation of American Research and Development in 1966.

8. In 1958 the Small Business Administration created Small Business Investment Companies.

9. The first major government foray into venture investing came with the formation of the Small Business Administration (SBA) in 1947.

10. The American Research and Development (ARD) company was formed in 1946.

11. Internet financing led the record level of venture investing in the 1999-2000 time period.

12. The phrase “two and twenty shops” refers to investment management firms having a contract that gives them two percent carried interest and 20 percent of assets annual management fee.

13. When the venture fund calls upon the investors to deliver their investment funds, it reflects the deal flow.

14. The deal flow reflects the flow of business plans and term sheets involved in the venture capital investing process.

15. In the venture investing context, due diligence describes the process of investigating a potentially worthy concept or plan.

16. The summary of the investment terms and conditions accompanying an investment proposed by the venture capitalist is known as the statement of strengths and weaknesses.

17. “Carried interest” is the portion of profits paid to the professional venture capitalist as incentive compensation.

18. The term “capital call” refers to the flow of business plans and term sheets involved in the venture capital investing process.

19. Pension funds are the dominant source of funds for venture investing.

20. Individuals and families are more important suppliers of venture capital relative to finance and insurance firms.

21. Endowments and foundations are more important suppliers of venture capital relative to individuals and families.

22. “Due diligence,” in venture investing context, is the process of ascertaining the viability of a business plan.

23. When a syndicate of VCs invests in a venture, the investor in charge of organizing the due diligence process is known as the “lead investor.”

24. SLOR stands for “standard letter of recognition.”

25. SLOR stands for “standard letter of rejection.”

26. A “term sheet” is a summary of the investment terms and conditions accompanying an investment by venture capitalists.

27. Term sheets consist of the terms and conditions accompanying an investment, as stipulated by the founders of the venture.

28. Two typical issues addressed in a term sheet are valuation and the size and staging of financing.

29. Term sheets may contain demands regarding the voting rights of shares issued to venture investors.

30. Once the venture capital firm has received exit proceeds from a venture in the form of cash or securities, some method of returning the proceeds (less the carried interest) must be determined.

31. Annual VC investments, as indicated in Figure 12.1, reached an all-time high in the year 2000.

32. According to Figure 12.4, individuals and families were the largest supplier of venture capital in 2009.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The beginning of professional venture capitalists is considered to have occurred:
a. prior to World War II
b. 1946
c. 1956
d. 1966
e. after the Vietnam War

2. The beginning of professional venture capitalists is considered to have begun with the establishment or formation of:
a. Small Business Administration
b. Small Business Investment Companies
c. American Research and Development organization
d. Professional Venture Capitalists organization

3. Which of the following was the largest source of venture capital funds in 2009 (as reported in Figure 12.4)?
a. pension funds and corporations
b. individuals and families
c. endowments and foundations
d. finance and insurance

4. Venture Capital firms tend to specialize in publicly identified niches because of the potential for value-added investing by venture capitalists. Which is not one of these niches?
a. industry type
b. venture stage
c. size of investment
d. management style
e. geographic area

5. As venture firms attract money from investors, it is placed in a fund. Important issues that must be put in place with the establishment of the fund include all of the following except:
a. determine the general partners
b. establishing a fee structure
c. a profit sharing arrangement
d. establish its governance
e. the management team assigned to each borrower

6. All of the following are typically part of a venture fund’s typical compensation and incentive structure except:
a. some percent annual fee on invested capital
b. a percent share of any profits to the managing general partner
c. carried interest
d. salary for the general partners

7. When evaluating the prospects of a new venture, venture capital firms consider which of the following?
a. characteristics of the proposal
b. characteristics of the entrepreneur/team
c. nature of the proposed industry
d. both b and c
e. all of the above

8. When screening prospective new ventures, venture capital firms consider their own funds’ requirements. Which of the following is not one of the venture firm’s requirements relating to its own funds?
a. investor control
b. rate of return
c. size of investment
d. probable stock listing exchange for the mature venture
e. financial provisions for investors

9. When evaluating the prospects of a new venture, venture capital firms consider the characteristics of the entrepreneur and its team. Which of the following is not part of the review of the entrepreneur/team?
a. its background and experience
b. its managerial capabilities
c. management’s stake in the firm
d. the VC firms’ ability to cash out
e. the capability to sustain an effort

10. When screening prospective new ventures, venture capital firms must consider the nature of the proposed industry. Which of the following is not part of the screening of the proposed industry?
a. market attractiveness
b. managerial references
c. potential size
d. technology
e. threat resistance

11. Professional venture investing usually involves setting up a venture capital firm as a:
a. proprietorship
b. corporation
c. partnership
d. S corporation

12. After a new professional venture capital fund is organized, the fund managers:
a. conduct due diligence and actively invest
b. solicit investments and obtain commitments
c. arrange harvest or liquidation
d. identify prospective venture investments and then solicit investments

13. After determining the next fund’s objectives and policies, the “professional venture investing cycle’s” next step is:
a. solicit investments in new fund
b. organize the new fund
c. obtain commitments for a series of capital calls
d. conduct due diligence and actively invest
e. arrange harvest or liquidation

14. The term “carried interest” refers to:
a. interest not currently paid but which must be paid in the future by a professional venture capitalist
b. interest transported directly to a bank
c. interest owed on a loan in default
d. the portion of profits paid to the professional venture capitalist as incentive compensation

15. If an investment management firm is known to be a “two and twenty shop”, this implies that the firm:
a. receives an annual 2% fee on invested capital, and a 20% carried interest
b. receives an annual 20% fee on invested capital, and a 2% carried interest
c. receives an annual 2% fee on gross operating profits, and a 20% carried interest
d. receives an annual 20% fee on gross operating profits, and a 2% carried interest

16. A venture fund calls upon its investors to deliver their investment funds. This is known as:
a. due diligence
b. deal flow
c. a capital call
d. carried interest
e. a SLOR

17. All of the following are typical issues addressed in a term sheet except?
a. valuation
b. board structure
c. registration rights
d. management fees
e. employment contracts

18. Term sheets are usually drafted by:
a. the mangers of the venture seeking VC funding
b. the VC fund seeking to fund the venture
c. management and founders
d. it is usually done by an third party, in order to
ensure the fair treatment of both parties

19. In a syndicate of venture investors, the investor who is responsible for governing the process of due diligence is:
a. the primary investor
b. the lead investor
c. a small group of secondary investors
d. the investor in charge of issuing SLORs for the syndicate
e. it is a democratic process that is shared by all investors in the group

20. A summary of the investment terms and conditions accompanying an investment is referred to as a:
a. term sheet
b. business plan
c. fund created by professional venture capitalists
d. due diligence in venture investing
e. capital call

21. When screening possible investments, a venture capital firm might issue an SLOR which stands for:
a. standard letter of rejection
b. standing letter of reconciliation
c. standard letter of reassessment
d. senior letter of reference

22. Which of the following is not one of the four likely outcomes of the venture firm’s screening process?
a. seek the lead investor position
b. seek a non-lead investor position
c. close the capital fund
d. refer the venture to more appropriate financial market participants
e. issue a standard letter of rejection

Note: The following MC questions relate to Figure 12.3 Elements of a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum

1. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, which of the following is not a front matter declaration?
a. description of limited manner of the offering
b. targeted fund size
c. imposition of confidentiality
d. notice of lack of SEC registration
e. declaration of the highly risky nature of investment

2. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, which of the following is not part of the offering summary?
a. objective of formation
b. declaration of general partner
c. management fee
d. minimum capital restrictions
e. targeted fund size

3. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, which of the following is not part of the fund overview?
a. fund size
b. investment focus
c. fund management
d. portfolio size
e. general partners’ capital contributions

4. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, all of the following are part of the executive summary except?
a. special limited partners
b. general partners’ capital contributions
c. limitation of liability
d. allocation of gains and losses
e. imposition of confidentiality

5. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, all of the following are included in the summary of terms except?
a. indemnification
b. objective
c. liquidation
d. valuation
e. expenses

CHAPTER 13

OTHER FINANCING ALTERNATIVES

True–False Questions

1. Despite the high risk and costs of using a facilitator or up-front fee solicitor to obtain financing, many start-ups never-the-less seek them as a source of funds due to the length of time it takes to raise new funds.

2. Collateral plays an important role in determining the willingness to lend and the amount and terms of the loan, making it the most important factor in the lending process.

3. Commercial loan officers have the expertise to project new venture’s business successes, and thus are as willing to make funds available to entrepreneurs on the same basis as other businesses.

4. Because investors and commercial lenders both seek returns on the funds given to start-up firms, entrepreneurs can obtain financing as easily from either source.

5. Because of loan restrictions, obtaining funding from commercial lenders is prohibitive for entrepreneurs.

6. Unlike traditional commercial banks, venture banks typically provide debt to start-ups that have already received equity financing from professional venture capital firms.

7. Among start-ups, it is widely understood that bank debt (outside of Small Business Administration loans), is not a very realistic source of financing for ventures with less than two years operating results.

8. Compensation received by commercial loan officers makes them more likely to finance early-stage ventures.

9. Warrants allow lenders to buy equity at a specified price.

10. Warrants are a debt instrument frequently used by commercial banks when financing entrepreneurial ventures.

11. Credit cards issued to start-ups have proven to be an alternative source of start-up financing.

12. The returns to venture bank lenders are generated solely from interest payments made by borrowers plus the return of the loan principal.

13. Commercial banks receive a portion of their returns from warrants in addition to the receipt of interest and the repayment of the principal that was len

14. By an act of Congress, the Small Business Administration (SBA) was created for the purpose of fostering the initiation and growth of small businesses.

15. The Small Business Administration was created by an Act of Congress in 2003.

16. Microloans in the SBA credit program are intended for very small businesses with a maximum amount of $35,000 to be used for general purposes.

17. The SBA’s role in its microloan credit program is to approve the loans and guarantee up to 85% of the loan value.

18. Microloans in the SBA credit program are made by not-for-profit or government-affiliated Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs).

19. The SBA’s venture capital credit program works through Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs).

20. The 7(a) loan traditionally has been the SBA’s primary loan program

21. SBA 7(a) loans are made usually for 1 to 3 years in amounts up to $5,000,000, require collateral, and can be used for most business purposes.

22. The SBA approves the standard 7(a) loan and guarantees up to 85% of the loan value.

23. For the 504 loan, the SBA approves and guarantees the development company’s portion of the debt but does not guaranteed the debt of the participating commercial bank.

24. Factoring is the sale of payables to a third party at a discount to their face value.

25. In a factoring arrangement, the third party makes its money by purchasing the receivables at a discount from the total amount due on the receivables.

26. With venture leasing, one component of the return to the lessor is the opportunity to take an equity interest in the venture.

27. Receivables lending is the use of receivables as collateral for an equity issue.

28. Factoring is the selling of receivables to a third party at a discount from their face value.

29. Direct public offerings have recently become a serious challenge to traditional venture capital firms.

30. The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1990 provided an opportunity for foreign nationals to obtain a “green card” through the EB-5 immigrant visas program.

31. A foreign national may seek Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR) status by investing $1 million in the U.S. that will preserve or create at least 100 jobs for U.S. workers.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The ability of the entrepreneur to repay borrowed funds is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

2. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The money the entrepreneur has invested in the business, which is an indication how much is at risk if the business should fail is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

3. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The guarantees, or additional forms of security (such as assets), the entrepreneur can provide the lender is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

4. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The focus on the intended purpose of the loan is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

5. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The general impression the entrepreneur makes on the potential lender or investor is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

6. All of the following are common loan restrictions except?
a. limits on total debt
b. limits on total equity
c. restrictions on dividends or other payments to owners and/or investors
d. restrictions on additional capital expenditures
e. performance standards on financial ratios

7. Unlike traditional commercial banks, venture banks typically provide debt to start-ups that have already received equity financing from professional venture capital firms. In return for providing additional debt financing, these venture banks receive in return all of the following except?
a. interest payments
b. repayment of principal
c. implementation of loan restrictions
d. tax breaks on the interest
e. right to buy equity at a specific price

8. Bank debt is not a realistic source of financing for start-ups due to all of the following reasons except?
a. a large portion of the assets are intangible and provide no collateral
b. payables either don’t yet exist or its history is inadequate
c. the start-up’s dependence on a small number of irreplaceable people is not a good match to demand deposits or other bank liabilities
d. receivables collection track record is incomplete
e. in the event of a default, it is now plausible for the bank to install a management team to help right the operations

9. A provision that allows lenders to acquire equity at a specific price is known as a(n):
a. factor
b. warrant
c. venture lease
d. equity carve-out

10. Personal credit cards have proven to be a source of financing for start-up firms for all of the following reasons except?
a. credit card debt is not based on the firm’s ability to repay, but rather the individual card holder’s ability to repay
b. teaser rates afford initial low cost borrowing
c. balance transfer at below-prime rates
d. credit card debt can create problems if the firm doesn’t generate cash flows to cover credit card payments once low introductory rates expire

11. In the context of new ventures, what does SBA stand for?
a. Standard Business Arrangement
b. Small Business Association
c. Small Business Administration

12. By an act of Congress, the Small Business Administration (SBA) was created in which one of the following years?
a. 1953
b. 1968
c. 1973
d. 1985
e. 1993

13. Which is not a duty of the Small Business Administration?
a. provide capital and credit to entrepreneurial start-ups
b. guaranteeing general business loans
c. provide equity financing for start-ups
d. help create new jobs in small businesses
e. help small firms obtain Federal contracts

14. Which of the following is not a Small Business Administration program?
a. loan guaranty programs
b. certified and preferred lender programs
c. low documentation loan programs
d. energy and conservation loan programs
e. certified financial planner funding programs

15. Which of the following is not a source of debt funding for a start-up firm?
a. accounts payable
b. vendor financing
c. factoring
d. trade notes
e. leasing

16. Venture banks seek loan returns from:
a. interest received
b. principal repayments
c. warrants being exercised
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

17. Which one of the following is not a current Small Business Administration (SBA) credit program?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

18. In which of the following credit programs does the SBA approve and guarantee a not-for-profit Certified Development Company’s portion of the debt?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

19. In which of the following credit programs does the SBA approve a loan and guarantees up to 85% of loan value?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

20. In which of the following credit programs is the SBA role in the loan one of providing a direct loan to a community organization, which reloans the funds in small amounts?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

21. In which of the following credit programs does the SBA borrow money to be lent Small Business Investment Companies (SBICs) and guarantees payment to investors?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

22. Commercial banks, credit unions, and/or financial services firms are lenders in which of the following SBA credit programs?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

23. Commercial banks, jointly with not-for-profit Certified Development Companies, are lenders in which of the following SBA credit programs?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

24. Not-for-profit or government-affiliated Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) are lenders in which of the following SBA credit programs?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

25. Small Business Investment Companies (SBICs) are lenders in which of the following SBA credit programs?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

26. Concerning factoring, all of the following are true except:
a. factors prefer business over consumer accounts
b. factoring is done at a discount to the third party purchaser
c. factoring discounts are often a function of the riskiness of the receivables
d. factoring speeds the inflow of cash to the seller of the receivables
e. receivable lending is the process of factoring

27. The use of receivables as collateral for a loan is known as:
a. capital leasing
b. warehouse financing
c. receivables lending
d. a microloan
e. venture leasing

28. Selling receivables to a third party at a discount from their face value is referred to as:
a. factoring
b. receivables lending
c. venture banking
d. vendor financing
e. mortgage lending

29. Which of the following is/are not a type of leasing arrangement?
a. factoring
b. capital lease
c. venture lease
d. mortgage lease
e. both a and d

30. Arranging for partial ownership as a component of the expected return to a lessor is known as:
a. venture leasing
b. capital leasing
c. investment leasing
d. none of the above

CHAPTER 14

SECURITY STRUCTURES AND DETERMINING ENTERPRISE VALUES

True–False Questions

1. Preferred stock is the equity claim senior to common stock providing preference on dividends but not liquidation proceeds.

2. For preferred noncumulative stock, all previously unpaid preferred dividends must be paid before any common stock dividend is paid.

3. Convertible preferred stockholders have the right to convert a preferred share into a specified number of common shares at any time after the expiration date.

4. If a share of preferred stock has a $10 par value, and the stock has a 2:1 conversion ratio, then the conversion price would be $5.

5. By issuing preferred stock, and thus forfeiting bankruptcy rights from the use of debt, the venture and its investors can benefit by committing to an internal reorganization as opposed to bankruptcy reorganization.

6. A call option is the obligation to purchase a specific asset at a pre-determined price.

7. Options generally have no effect on the value of a venture capital investmen

8. For American and Bermudan embedded options, the exercise price can change over time as specified in the security agreemen

9. An American-style option is an option that can be exercised only at the expiration date

10. A European-Style Option may only be exercised on a specific date.

11. A warrant is a call option issued by a company granting the holder the right to buy common stock at a specific price at a specific time.

12. An option granting the right to sell a stock at $10 when that stock currently has a market price $8 is “in the money.”

13. If a call option can be bought for $12 and the stock’s market value is $12, it’s said to be “at the money”.

14. As the underlying stock price increases in value, a put option to sell it becomes more valuable.

15. The value of a warrant can be directly derived from the value of a call option.

16. A preemptive right is a right for existing owners to buy sufficient shares to preserve their ownership share.

17. Convertible debt is debt that converts into preferred stock.

18. An option is a right to buy or sell additional shares of stock.

19. A warrant is a type of call option.

20. An option not currently worth exercising is said to be an out of the money option.

21. Owning a put option on a stock is the same as selling a call option on that same stock.

22. The enterprise method of valuation can be executed with either an after-tax or before-tax weighted cost of capital as long as the rate is applied to the appropriate enterprise cash flows.

23. Entity valuation allows us to answer the question of how much debt a venture needs to issue to achieve a target capital structure (D/V).

24. The concept of an enterprise value is that it is the combined value of all of venture’s financing, typically equity plus all of the deb

25. The enterprise value includes the value of the debt, equity, and warrant pieces of a venture.

Note: The following TF questions relate to Learning Supplements 14A and 14B:

1. An alternative approach to the Enterprise Valuation method adds the tax shield from paying interest back into the flows and discounts at a before-tax weighted average cost of capital.

2. Warrant valuation (as presented in this text) is similar to option valuation except that one applies a dilution factor to the option value to arrive at a warrant value.

3. The unadjusted Black and Scholes model is a model for determining the value of a warrant to buy a new share.

4. The Black and Scholes model requires the stock price as an inpu

5. The Black and Scholes model requires the inflation rate as an inpu

6. The Black and Scholes model requires an exercise price as an inpu

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following have the least senior claim on a venture’s asset?
a. common Stock
b. preferred stock
c. convertible preferred stock
d. convertible debt
e. American-style option

2. The right for existing owners to maintain their ownership share by purchasing sufficient shares to keep their percentage share of the firm is called:
a. stock option
b. stock warrant
c. preemptive right
d. participating stock
e. paid-in-kind preferred stock

3. Which of the following stock can be structured to assure the shareholder that they will share in the payment of any dividends to common stockholders?
a. paid in kind preferred stock
b. cumulative preferred stock
c. participating preferred stock
d. convertible preferred stock
e. non-cumulative preferred stock

4. Which of the following provides the option to transform preferred stock into common stock?
a. paid in kind preferred stock
b. cumulative preferred stock
c. participating preferred stock
d. convertible preferred stock
e. non-cumulative preferred stock

5. Which of the following offers the option where the dividend obligation can be satisfied in cash or by issuing additional par amounts of the preferred security?
a. paid in kind preferred stock
b. cumulative preferred stock
c. participating preferred stock
d. convertible preferred stock
e. non-cumulative preferred stock

6. Which of the following requires that all previously unpaid preferred dividends must be paid prior to any common dividend?
a. paid in kind preferred stock
b. cumulative preferred stock
c. participating preferred stock
d. convertible preferred stock
e. non-cumulative preferred stock

7. Which of the following is never a component of a preferred stock’s security structure?
a. the right to participate in any dividends paid to common stock shareholders
b. payment of dividends in the form of additional shares of preferred stock
c. the option for the holder to convert preferred stock into common stock
d. the option for the venture to call outstanding preferred stock
e. none of the above; all of these may be included in the structure of
preferred stock

8. A round of financing where shares sell for a lower price than previous rounds is known as a:
a. down round
b. recessive round
c. reset round
d. a and c

9. Which of the following are components of common equity?
a. common stock
b. preferred stock
c. a and b
d. none of the above

10. Convertible debt has all of the following except:
a. bankruptcy rights
b. regular dividend payments
c. it can be structured to provide senior interest in specific assets
d. a tax shield due to interest expense
e. a security interest in the firms’ assets

11. Which of the following is not a type of option?
a. call option
b. put option
c. warrant
d. LBO

12. The right to buy a specified asset at a specified price on a specified date is called:
a. a forward contract
b. an American-style put option
c. an American-style call option
d. a European-style call option
e. a European style put option

13. The right to sell a specified asset at a specified price up until a specified date is called:
a. a forward contract
b. an American-style put option
c. an American-style call option
d. a European-style call option
e. a European style put option

14. An option that can be exercised at any time until its expiration is called a:
a. forward contract
b. lookback option
c. American-style option
d. European-style option
e. Bermuda-style option

15. An option that can be exercised only at its expiration date is called a:
a. forward contract
b. lookback option
c. American-Style option
d. European-Style option
e. Bermuda-Style option

16. An option that can be exercised only at a specific set of dates is called a:
a. forward contract
b. lookback option
c. American-Style option
d. European-Style option
e. Bermuda-Style option

17. Which of the following is an example of a call option which is out of the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to buy at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12.

18. Which of the following is an example of a call option which is in the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to buy at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12.

19. Which of the following is an example of a put option which is out of the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to buy at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12.

20. Which of the following is an example of a put option which is in the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to buy at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12.

21. Which of the following is an example of a put option which is at the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to sell at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12

22. Generally speaking, warrants are call options that allow the holder to purchase what type of security at a specific price?
a. common stock
b. preferred stock
c. convertible debt
d. none of the above

23. To calculate the enterprise valuation cash flow, one begins with which of the following items from the income statement?
a. net sales
b. operating profit
c. (earnings before interest and taxes) × (1 – enterprise tax rate)
d. net income
e. net income times the enterprise tax rate

24. When consistent assumptions are used, we
a. get the same value for equity under the enterprise and equity methods of valuation
b. we get a higher value of equity under the equity method of valuation
c. we get a lower value of equity under the equity method of valuation
d. we get equity values that cannot be compared across the equity and enterprise methods of valuation

Note: The following MC questions relate to Learning Supplement 14B:

1. The Black and Scholes model is intended to be used to value
a. stocks
b. bonds
c. options
d. futures contracts

2. Which of the following is not an input to the Black and Scholes model?
a. earnings per share
b. stock price
c. risk free rate
d. volatility

3. N(h) in the Black and Scholes model involves the use of
a. the number of shares issued
b. the next time that a venture capitalist will invest money
c. the normal distribution cumulative density function
d. the number of times that the venture will have to raise money

CHAPTER 15

HARVESTING THE BUSINESS VENTURE INVESTMENT

True–False Questions

1. The process of exiting the privately held business venture to unlock the owners’ investment value is known as harvesting.

2. When harvesting a venture, the methodical distribution of assets directly to the owners is known as a systematic liquidation.

3. When harvesting a venture, the outright purchase of the going concern by managers, employees, or external buyers is known as going public.

4. When harvesting a venture, the two-step public equity registration and sale is known as an outright sale.

5. When an initial business plan is prepared, attention should be paid to the investors’ and founders’ desire for eventual liquidity by anticipating a harvest for the venture investors.

6. An advantage of an exit strategy that pays out the venture’s investment value over several years can make it more difficult for entrepreneurs to start a new venture because adequate capital has not been released from the existing venture.

7. When an industry is in decline, systematic liquidation is typically the most attractive harvest strategy.

8. Exit values for many mature ventures are usually determined by (1) discounted cash flow (DCF) methods or (2) relative valuation models based on some form of multiples analysis.

9. In determining a harvest value, non-monetary items such as culture, managerial succession, and employee retention are not factored in.

10. Harvesting is the process of exiting the privately held business venture to unlock the owners’ investment value.

11. Valuation methods that estimate a firm’s worth using value-related multiples of comparable firms are sometimes known as “relative value methods.”

12. The two discounted cash flow (DCF) methods covered in this text are the enterprise method and the debt funds method.

13. One method of harvesting a venture is through systematic distribution of assets directly to the owners.

14. One method of harvesting a successful venture is through systematic distribution of assets directly to lenders.

15. Other than when the venture is operating in a declining industry, it is difficult to think of cases where the disadvantages of liquidation outweigh the advantages.

16. A special type of harvesting process where the firm’s top management continues to run the firm and has a substantial equity position in the reorganized firm is known as a leveraged buyou

17. A leveraged buyout (LBO) takes place when the purchase price of a firm is financed largely with debt financial capital.

18. Ultimately for harvesting purposes, we need to decide on the venture’s value at exit and how that exit value pie will be divided up among investors.

19. An “initial public offering” is the only method used by entrepreneurs when exiting a venture.

20. A management buyout (MBO) is a special type of leveraged buyout (LBO).

21. A leveraged buyout (LBO) is a special type of management buyout (MBO).

22. ESOP stands for “employee stock ownership plan.”

23. An obligatory disclaimer disavowing any intent to act as an offer to sell, or solicit an offer to buy securities is known as a red herring.

24. The sale of new shares of common stock is a secondary offering.

25. The sale of used shares of common stock is a secondary market offering.

26. Most companies choose “best efforts” agreements in order to minimize the inherent risks of going public.

27. IPO underpricing results in a direct loss to the venture’s owners.

28. While not a direct loss to a venture, underpricing can represent a significant opportunity cost to the venture’s owners.

29. A “lockup provision” prohibits insiders from selling their existing shares for a specified period of time.

30. In a typical venture’s life cycle, the rapid-growth stage involves managing ongoing operations, maintaining and adding value, and obtaining seasoned financing.

31. In a typical venture’s life cycle, the examining of exit opportunities often occur during the rapid-growth stage.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is not a way to harvest a venture?
a. systematic liquidation
b. outright sale
c. chapter 11 bankruptcy
d. going public

2. When registering equity and selling it via an IPO of new shares followed by a secondary offering of existing shares, this venture harvesting process is known as:
a. systematic liquidation
b. outright sale
c. chapter 11 bankruptcy
d. going public

3. The acquisition of the venture by family members, managers, or outside buyers is a venture harvesting process known as:
a. systematic liquidation
b. outright sale
c. chapter 11 bankruptcy
d. going public

4. The distribution of the venture’s cash flows directly to the owners is a venture harvesting process known as:
a. systematic liquidation
b. outright sale
c. chapter 11 bankruptcy
d. going public

5. Which of the following is not an advantage of a systematic liquidation?
a. maintaining control throughout the harvest period
b. harvesting of the investment value can be spread out over a number of years
c. the taxation treatment of liquidation proceeds as ordinary income
d. the time, effort, and costs of finding a buyer for the venture can be avoided

6. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of a systematic liquidation?
a. the treatment and taxation of liquidation proceeds as ordinary income rather than capital gains
b. the commitment of the entrepreneur’s resources and focus on a dying venture rather than on other more lucrative ventures
c. the harvesting of the investment gets spread out over a number of years
d. the acceleration of the venture’s rate of decline as other industry participants respond to the reduction in investment

7. A venture can be harvested in which of the following ways?
a.. systematic liquidation, outright sale, going public
b. outright sale, going public, acquisition
c. going public, acquisition
d. acquisition, systematic liquidation

8. Which of the following is not a candidate for a leveraged buyout?
a. a venture with stable and adequate operating cash flows
b. a venture with a high amount of equity relative to debt
c. a venture with the ability to protect market share
d. a venture with a high debt ratio

9. Which of the following is the premium that would be applied to venture valuation due to an investor’s majority ownership of a venture?
a. proxy premium
b. control premium
c. influence premium
d. liquidity premium
e. illiquidity premium

10. Shares registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission and state securities regulators and sold to the public are known as:
a. primary offering
b. secondary offering
c. initial public offering
d. shelf offering

11. In an outright sale of a venture, the venture can be sold to:
a. family members
b. managers
c. employees
d. outside (external) buyers
e. all of the above

12. The sale of new securities is known as:
a. primary offering
b. secondary offering
c. initial public offering
d. shelf offering

13. The sale of used shares is known as:
a. primary offering
b. secondary offering
c. initial public offering
d. shelf offering

14. The NYSE participates in:
a. the sale of new securities to private investors
b. primary offerings
c. secondary offerings
d. b and c

15. In the investment banking process, which of the following is a duty of the investment bank?
a. to be the targeted investors for a firm’s securities
b. to provide banking services such as checking accounts to firms
c. to find buyers for a firm’s securities
d. both a and b
e. all of the above

16. Based on the following information, estimate the percentage appreciation on stock bought by the venture investors: founders’ purchase price $.50; venture investors’ purchase price $2.00; current stock price $10.00; founders holding period = 5 years; venture investors holding period = 3 years.
a. 100%
b. 400%
c. 600%
d. 800%

17. Based on the following information, estimate the percentage appreciation on stock bought by the founders: founders’ purchase price $1.00; venture investors’ purchase price $2.00; current stock price $10.00; founders holding period = 5 years; venture investors holding period = 3 years.
a. 100%
b. 400%
c. 600%
d. 900%

18. Assume that a venture is expected to have an EBITDA of $1,500,000 at the end of five years from now. If the venture’s value is expected to be $12,000,000, what “valuation multiple” was being assumed?
a. 1 time
b. 4 times
c. 8 times
d. 10 times
e. 12 times

19. A venture is expected to have an exit value of $10,000,000 two years from now. If venture investors invest $2,000,000 now, and expect a 20% compounded rate of return on their investment, what portion of the exit value would they need?
a. 10%
b. 20.2%
c. 25%
d. 28.8%
e. 32%

20. A venture is expected to have an exit value of $10,000,000 five years from now. If venture investors invest $1,000,000 now, and expect a 20% compounded rate of return on their investment, what portion of the exit value would they need?
a. 10.5%
b. 20.1%
c. 24.9%
d. 28.8%
e. 32.5%

21. If venture investors invest $1,000,000 now, will receive 50% of the exit value, and expect a 20% compounded rate of return on their investment, what will be the amount of the exit value at the end of two years?
a. $1,000,000
b. $1,440,000
c. $2,880,000
d. $5,000,000
e. $5,760,000

22. If venture investors invest $1,000,000 now, will receive 25% of the exit value, and expect a 20% compounded rate of return on their investment, what is the approximate expected exit value at the end of five years?
a. $1,000,000
b. $2,490,000
c. $4,980,000
d. $7,470,000
e. $9,950,000

23. If venture investors invest $6,750,000 now, will receive 32% of the exit value, and expect a 22% compounded rate of return on their investment, what is the exit value at the end of seven years?
a. $27,153,298
b. $39,931,321
c. $69,552,505
d. $84,854,057
e. $103,521,949

24. The difference between what the investment bank gets from selling securities to public investors and what they pay to the issuing firm is known as:
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

25. A type of agreement with an investment bank employing only marketing and distribution efforts without the actual transfer of securities ownership to the investment banking syndicate is called:
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

26. An agreement with an investment bank that involves the purchase and distribution of new securities is known as:
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

27. The investment banks process of ascertaining, to the extent possible, an issuing firm’s financial condition and investment intent is known as:
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

28. The arrangement where an underwriter has the option of selling additional shares when the issue is heavily oversubscribed is known as
a. green shoe
b. red herring
c. best efforts
d. lockup

29. Which of the following describes when a syndicate’s offering price is less than the market price immediately following the offering?
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

30. In the aftermarket trading for the venture’s securities, an order that is to be executed as soon as possible at the prevailing market price is known as a:
a. put order
b. market order
c. limit order
d. stop order

31. In the aftermarket trading for the venture’s securities, an order that converts to a market order once a certain price is achieved is known as a:
a. put order
b. market order
c. limit order
d. stop order

32. An order to purchase stock that can be executed only at a specified price or better is called a:
a. market order
b. limit order
c. stop order
d. stock order
e. private order

33. Which of the following is not a type of trading order?
a. market order
b. limit order
c. stop order
d. none of the above

34. The letters IPO stand for:
a. investment pricing organization
b. initial public offering
c. institutional pricing overhead
d. immediate pricing opportunity

35. The negotiated period around an equity securities offering during which insiders are prohibited from selling their existing shares is called:
a. a seasoned offering
b. an unseasoned offering
c. underpricing
d. an underwriting spread
e. a lockup provision

36. An initial public offering (IPO) involves:
a. sale of new securities to private investors
b. sale of used securities to the public
c. a venture’s first offering of SEC-registered securities to the public
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

37. The type of agreement with an investment bank involving the investment bank’s underwritten purchase and resale of securities is called:
a. firm commitment
b. best efforts commitment
c. due diligence
d. making a red herring disclaimer
e. a private placement

ECO 450 Week 11 Final Exam – Strayer University New

ECO/450 Week 11 Final Exam – Strayer

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Chapters 8 Through 18

ECO 450 Week 6 Quiz

CHAPTER 8
Social Security and
Social Insurance
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. The Social Security pension system is a fully funded retirement plan.
2. Social Security pension benefits are transfers from workers to retirees.
3. Social Security pensions are financed by voluntary contributions by workers.
4. The gross replacement rate measures the ratio of taxes paid per year by workers to their annual Social Security pension when they retire.
5. In the year prior to retirement, a worker earned $20,000 and paid $5,000 in taxes on those earnings. His annual Social Security pension is $10,000 per year. Then it follows that his net replacement rate is 50 percent.
6. The gross replacement rate for Social Security pensions is the same for all workers independent of their preretirement earnings.
7. The annual growth in wages subject to Social Security taxes is 3 percent. Given the payroll tax rate, the growth in funds available to pay pension benefits is also 3 percent.
8. The asset-substitution effect of Social Security pensions discourages saving.
9. The availability of Social Security pensions to workers over normal retirement age results in an income effect unfavorable to work but no substitution effect.
10. The bequest effect of Social Security encourages workers to save less.
11. The normal retirement age for Social Security old-age pensions is 67 for people born in the United States in 1960 or later.
12. Workers in the United States can retire under Social Security at age 62 with lower pensions than they would receive at their normal retirement age.
13. As of 2009, retired workers between the ages of 62 and their normal retirement age were subject to an “earnings test” that reduced their pension by $1 for each $2 of earnings after a certain minimum level of earnings.
14. Reducing the replacement rate will have no effect on the tax rate necessary to finance pensions under a pay-as-you-go, tax-financed pension system.
15. Workers who quit their jobs are eligible for unemployment insurance benefits in the United States.
16. By 2050, the expected percentage of the U.S. population that is considered elderly will be less than 20%.
17. Social Security was created in 1965.
18. On average, the elderly are less likely to be poor when compared to the rest of the U.S. population.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The Social Security retirement system:
a. is a fully funded pension system.
b. is a tax-financed system that pays benefits from taxes that are invested to return principal and interest to workers when they retire.
c. is a tax-financed retirement system that finances pensions by taxing workers each year and transferring the bulk of revenues obtained directly to retirees.
d. does not use taxes on workers to pay pensions to retirees.
2. The gross replacement rate:
a. measures a worker’s monthly retirement benefit divided by monthly earnings before taxes in the year prior to retirement.
b. measures a worker’s monthly retirement benefit divided by monthly earnings after taxes in the year prior to retirement.
c. is an increasing function of gross monthly earnings prior to retirement.
d. is independent of gross monthly earnings prior to retirement.
3. A worker earns $2,000 per month before taxes. He pays $140 per month payroll tax on those wages. In addition, the income taxes on those wages are $360 per month. On retirement, the worker receives a Social Security pension of $750 per month. Which of the following statements is true?
a. The worker’s gross replacement rate is 50 percent.
b. The worker’s net replacement rate is 50 percent.
c. The worker’s net replacement rate is 38 percent.
d. The worker’s net replacement rate is 75 percent.
4. The growth in hourly wages over the past 50 years has averaged about 2 percent per year. How¬ever, the growth in Social Security pensions has far exceeded this 2-percent rate. The growth in tax revenue to finance Social Security benefits in excess of 2 percent per year can be accounted for by:
a. increases in payroll tax rates.
b. use of other taxes beside the payroll tax to pay Social Security benefits.
c. an increase in the number of workers paying Social Security taxes.
d. either (a) or (b)
e. either (a) or (c)
5. Given the structure and level of gross replacement rates and the expected future growth of labor earnings subject to the payroll tax, the tax rates used to tax payrolls were increased in the 1980s because:
a. the number of retirees per worker will increase.
b. the number of retirees per worker will decrease.
c. wages are expected to decline.
d. the size of the work force is expected to increase.
6. Which of the following is likely to increase the net federal debt as a share of GDP?
a. a federal budget surplus.
b. a federal budget deficit.
c. a recession.
d. either b or c.
7. The asset-substitution effect of the Social Security retirement system leads all workers to:
a. save more for retirement.
b. save less for retirement.
c. save absolutely nothing for retirement.
d. work more
8. Which of the following is a consequence of a growing federal budget deficit in the United States?
a. A decrease in the federal debt outstanding.
b. An increase in the federal debt outstanding.
c. A decrease in the portion share of federal government expenditures that must be allocated to interest in the future.
d. An increase in national saving.
9. The induced-retirement effect of the Social Security pension system induces workers to:
a. save less for retirement.
b. save more for retirement.
c. reduce savings for retirement to zero.
d. work more after retirement.
10. Unemployment insurance benefits are:
a. financed by payroll taxes levied on workers.
b. financed by payroll taxes levied on employers.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. financed by sales taxes.
11. Which of the following is true about the Social Security pension system in the United States?
a. Pensions received by retired workers are based entirely on their contributions to the Social Security pension trust fund and the investment return on that fund.
b. Pensions received by married retirees with dependents are greater than that received by those without dependents.
c. Gross replacement rates are inversely related to preretirement earnings.
d. both (b) and (c)
12. Which of the following can decrease tax rates necessary to pay pensions for a pay-as-you-go pension system?
a. an increase in replacement rates
b. a decrease in the retirement age
c. an increase in the size of the work force
d. an increase in the number of retirees
13. Unless legislation is introduced to change the normal retirement age, people born in 1960 or later will be able to retire with full Social Security benefits at age:
a. 62.
b. 65.
c. 66.
d. 67.
14. The earnings test for retirees:
a. increases their incentive to work.
b. is applied to all retirees.
c. is applied only to retirees below normal retirement age.
d. reduces pension benefits by $1 for each $2 of earnings.
e. both (c) and (d)
15. A nation has 40 million current retirees and a work force of 100 million. Which of the following is true?
a. The replacement rate is 40 percent.
b. The replacement is 2.5.
c. The dependency ratio is 0.4.
d. The dependency ratio is 2.5.
16. Social Security tax rates can be reduced if:
a. taxable wages decline.
b. the retirement age is lowered.
c. the retirement age is raised.
d. the work force decreases in size.
17. A retiree subject to the earnings test under Social Security:
a. can earn as much as he or she chooses without losing Social Security pension benefits.
b. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced by one dollar for each dollar of labor earnings.
c. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced immediately by one dollar for each three dollars of labor earnings.
d. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced by one dollar for each two dollars of earnings after a certain minimum amount per year.
18. A pay-as-you-go social security retirement system is:
a. exemplified by the current U.S. social security system.
b. exemplified by the current Chilean social security system.
c. designed to have retirees set aside a contribution specifically for themselves during their earlier working life.
d. both (a) and (b).
19. Approximately, what percentage of beneficiaries of U.S. Social Security are retired workers?
a. 50%
b. 60%
c. 70%
d. 80%
20. The Social Security Act was implemented in the United States in:
a. 1927.
b. 1935.
c. 1947.
d. 1965.

CHAPTER 9
Government and Health Care

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. In the United States the government pays the health bills of 90 percent of the population.
2. The American system of health care is financed by a mix of private and government insurance programs that pay over 80 percent of the health care bills for U.S. citizens.
3. Spending per person on health care in the United States is less than in the United Kingdom where national health insurance finances health expenditures.
4. Government spending on health care is declining as a percent of total government spending.
5. Medicare is a government program of health insurance for the elderly.
6. Exclusion of employer-provided health insurance to employees is an indirect subsidy to private provision of health insurance.
7. Third-party payments for health care services increase the quantity of health care demanded by reducing out-of-pocket costs to patients.
8. An increase in coinsurance and deductibles for health insurance can contribute to a reduction in expenditures on health care.
9. Half of Americans do not have health insurance coverage.
10. Under national health insurance in Great Britain, the price system is used to ration health care.
11. Approximately 16 percent of GDP was allocated to provision of health care in the United States as of 2006.
12. Individuals in the United States, on average, pay 50 percent of their health care costs out-of-pocket, and the remaining 50 percent is paid by insurance, governments, and charity.
13. Asymmetric information in the market for health care occurs when sellers of medical care are better informed about cost and quality of care than buyers.
14. Because of third-party payment for services in the market for health care, the price paid by buyers is less than the payment sellers receive, and the marginal social cost of health care exceeds its mar¬ginal social benefit.
15. Medicaid costs are paid entirely by the federal government.
16. Healthcare expenditures in the U.S. are projected to be 20% of GDP by 2017.
17. Asymmetric information can occur when the provider of a service is better informed than the consumer of the service.
18. A risk averse individual prefers to pay certain modest costs in exchange for possible unforeseen high costs.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Most of the medical bills of Americans in the United States are paid by:
a. the patients.
b. private and government health insurance.
c. charities.
d. Medicaid.
2. Since 1960, expenditures on health care as a percent of GDP has:
a. been cut in half.
b. nearly tripled.
c. remained the same.
d. doubled.
3. The government program that provides the health insurance to the poor in the United States is called:
a. national health insurance.
b. Medicare.
c. Medicaid.
d. employer-provided health insurance.
4. Which of the following programs accounts for the greatest amount of government expenditures on public health in the United States?
a. Medicare
b. worker’s compensation
c. the Public Health Service
d. medical research
5. Which of the following subsidizes private provision of health insurance?
a. Medicare
b. Medicaid
c. the Public Health Service
d. tax exclusion of the value of employer-provided health insurance to workers
6. Which of the following could help decrease the rate of increase of spending on health care in the United States?
a. a reduction in the deductibles on private health insurance policies
b. an increase in the coinsurance rate on health insurance and subjecting a larger volume of ser¬vices to coinsurance
c. extension of Medicaid insurance to all persons who are poor
d. a reduction in the coinsurance rate on health insurance and subjecting a smaller volume of ser¬vices to coinsurance
7. Which of the following is an example of the “moral hazard of health insurance”?
a. an increase in the number of surgeries prescribed for benign prostate disease beyond the point at which the marginal benefit equals the marginal cost
b. a decreased willingness of individuals to go to the doctor for minor ailments because of increases in coinsurance rates
c. an underallocation of resources to medical care because of monopoly power of hospitals
d. experience rating of health insurance groups by health insurers
8. A third-party payment system for health care:
a. results because of externalities in the production of health care services.
b. encourages more than the efficient amount of resources to be allocated to health care.
c. encourages patients and health care providers to economize on the use of health care resources.
d. means that patients pay the full price for health care services they consume.
9. Which of the following services is typically not covered under private health insurance and Medicare in the United States?
a. treatment for heart attack
b. surgery
c. office visits to physicians
d. long-term care services
10. Under national health insurance as operated in Great Britain,
a. the British system pays fees equal to half of the costs of services provided to them.
b. general practice physicians are paid on a per-patient rather than on a per-unit-of-service basis.
c. patients requiring surgery can pick their surgeons and can usually obtain the surgery in a matter of days, even if it is not an emergency.
d. there are no government limits on health care spending by hospitals.
11. Which of the following is true about the Medicaid program in the United States?
a. It is a program of health insurance for the elderly.
b. Its costs are paid entirely by the federal government.
c. It is a program of health insurance for the poor.
d. Its costs have been declining in recent years.
12. In the United States, individuals pay approximately what percent of the cost of their medical care directly to providers?
a. 100 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 15 percent
d. zero
13. The percent of total health care costs in the United States paid for by governments is approximately:
a. 90 percent.
b. 45 percent.
c. 25 percent.
d. 10 percent.
14. The system of third-party payment for medical care in the United States has which of the following effects in the market for health care?
a. It improves efficiency in the market.
b. It causes the marginal social benefit of health care to exceed its marginal social cost.
c. It causes the marginal social cost of health care to exceed its marginal social benefit.
d. It results in less than the efficient quantity of health care services.
15. Which of the following is true about the Medicare program in the United States?
a. It is only available to those who pass a means test.
b. It is available to all citizens over the age of 65.
c. The costs are completely financed by fees paid by insurees.
d. It places no limits on reimbursement to medical care providers.
16. What would be the effect of having no health insurance available?
a. The quantity of healthcare would be set at where the marginal benefit and marginal cost are equal.
b. Excess demand for healthcare would be the result because the quantity supplied would be at a level where the marginal benefit exceeds the marginal cost.
c. Excess supply for healthcare would be the result because the quantity supplied would be at a level where the marginal benefit would be below the marginal cost.
d. the quantity of healthcare would be at an inefficient level.
17. The elderly are what proportion of beneficiaries of Medicare?
a. 95%
b. 85%
c. 77%
d. 70%
18. What is the moral hazard associated with third party payment for health services?
a. The recipient of the service is not as informed as the provider of the service.
b. The recipient of services tends to decline more services than they should.
c. The recipient of services tends to have more services than what is needed relative to the efficient level of services.
d. There is no moral hazard.
19. Which is not reason for excalating healthcare costs in the U.S.?
a. Increase in malpractice insurance.
b. Cross-subsidization of patients who cannot pay for healthcare or insurance.
c. Overuse of new technology.
d. Both (b) and (c).
20. If the quantity of healthcare is more than the efficient quantity, what is the consequence?
a. Some will not have access to healthcare that would have access at the efficient level.
b. The healthcare will suffer in quality.
c. Capital could be more efficiently spent elsewhere leading to less overall productivity.
d. Lower marginal costs and marginal benefits.

ECO 450 Week 7 Quiz

CHAPTER 10
Introduction to
Government Finance
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Taxes simultaneously ration and finance government goods and services.
2. The federal government finances only half of its expenditures with taxes.
3. The benefit principle argues that the means of financing government goods and services should be linked to the benefits received from those goods and services.
4. Horizontal equity is achieved when individuals of the same economic capacity pay the same amount of taxes over a given period.
5. A flat-rate income tax is a proportional tax on an income base.
6. The marginal tax rate will eventually exceed the average tax rate if the tax rate structure is propor¬tional.
7. The marginal tax rate for a payroll tax is 7 percent on all wages up to $60,000 per year. The marginal tax rate for wages in excess of $60,000 per year is zero. The payroll tax is therefore a regressive tax.
8. Tax evasion would be less of a problem if tax rates were lowered.
9. The user charge for a congestible public good should be zero at all times.
10. Zero prices for price-excludable government services provide benefits only to the poor.
11. The gasoline tax is an example of a general tax on consumption.
12. For a proportional tax, the marginal tax rate is always equal to the average tax rate.
13. Tax avoidance is an illegal activity in the United States.
14. An increase in marginal tax rates is likely to increase tax evasion.
15. Most studies indicate that state-run lotteries are equivalent to a progressive tax on gambling.
16. Government activity requires the reallocation of resources from government to private use.
17. A flat income tax (i.e. a fixed amount paid by every taxpayer) is an example of a selective tax.
18. The average tax rate and marginal tax rate are the same under a progressive tax rate structure.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. According to the benefit principle,
a. taxes should be distributed according to ability to pay.
b. user charges are an ideal source of finance for government goods and services.
c. the progressive income tax represents the ideal way of distributing taxes among citizens.
d. flat-rate taxes are always the best kind.
2. If horizontal equity is achieved in taxation,
a. vertical equity will also be achieved.
b. individuals of equal economic capacity will pay equal taxes.
c. a flat-rate tax will be used.
d. the tax system will not result in losses in efficiency in markets.
3. The tax base of a payroll tax is:
a. consumer expenditures.
b. interest income.
c. labor income.
d. both (b) and (c)
4. A 5-percent retail sales tax on all consumer purchases in a state is imposed. The sales tax is:
a. a flat-rate tax.
b. a tax with a regressive rate structure.
c. levied on an income base.
d. all of the above
5. A tax on the value of real estate holdings is a:
a. selective tax on wealth.
b. general tax on wealth.
c. general tax on income.
d. selective tax on income.
6. An excise tax is a:
a. general consumption tax.
b. selective consumption tax.
c. general wealth tax.
d. selective tax on wealth.

7. A proportional income tax has an average tax rate that:
a. always is less than the marginal tax rate.
b. always exceeds the marginal tax rate.
c. equals the marginal tax rate at first and then becomes less than the marginal tax rate.
d. always equals the marginal tax rate.
8. A payroll tax taxes a worker’s wages at 14 percent until the worker earns $60,000 per year. All labor earnings in excess of $60,000 are not subject to tax. The tax rate structure of the payroll tax is therefore:
a. proportional.
b. progressive.
c. regressive.
d. flat-rate.
9. A bridge becomes congested after 100 vehicles per hour use it on any day. To achieve efficiency, a toll:
a. that charges all users of the bridge, no matter how many vehicles use it per hour, should be imposed.
b. on additional users in excess of 100 per hour should be imposed.
c. on all users should be imposed, if more than 100 users per hour are expected.
d. is not required.
10. A government prints money to finance its expenditures. As a result,
a. the economy can operate at a point outside its production possibility curve.
b. inflation will occur.
c. consumers will give up private goods to finance the increased government expenditures.
d. both (b) and (c)
11. Taxes are likely to affect:
a. market equilibrium.
b. political equilibrium.
c. the distribution of income.
d. all of the above
12. Taxes:
a. are voluntary payments to governments.
b. are unlikely to affect market supply and demand.
c. never affect efficiency in the allocation of resources.
d. are compulsory payments associated with certain activities.
13. A tax on real estate is a:
a. general wealth tax.
b. general consumption tax.
c. selective wealth tax.
d. selective income tax.
14. The marginal tax rate will eventually exceed the average tax rate for a:
a. proportional tax.
b. regressive tax.
c. progressive tax.
d. flat-rate tax.
15. Marginal tax rates were reduced in 2001. Other things being equal, this is likely to:
a. increase tax evasion.
b. decrease tax evasion.
c. have no effect on tax evasion.
d. increase tax avoidance.

16. What is an example of a normative criterion that a government must trade-off in its method of
taxation?
a. Equity
b. Efficiency
c. Administrative ease
d. all of the above
17. Tax avoidance is:
a. a means of tax evasion.
b. a means of decreasing taxes paid by adjusting behavior.
c. a political process explicitly for the reduction of taxation.
d. a means to avoid tax owed.
18. If the marginal tax rate is 20% under a proportional tax rate structure, the average tax rate:
a. should be 20%.
b. should be above 20%.
c. should be below 20%.
d. cannot be determined.
19. If the average tax rate under a progressive tax rate structure is 35%, a possible marginal tax rate is:
a. 30%.
b. 25%.
c. 42%.
d. not able to be determined.
20. Which of the following countries has the highest average tax rate relative to GDP?
a. Japan
b. Sweden
c. Iceland
d. United Kingdom

ECO 450 Week 8 Quiz

CHAPTER 11
Taxation, Prices, Efficiency,
and the Distribution of Income
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. A lump-sum tax results in both income and substitution effects.
2. A consumer currently pays $500 a year retail sales taxes. She would be better off if she paid the same amount annually as a lump-sum tax.
3. Clothing is sold in perfectly competitive markets where no externalities prevail. An excise tax on clothing will result in a market price for clothing that equals the marginal social benefit and mar¬ginal social cost of service.
4. Assuming that the income effects are negligible and that beer is sold in a competitive market, a 10 cent per can tax on beer that causes a 10,000 can per month decline in sales will result in an excess burden of $1,000 per month.
5. A tax on land results in an income effect on landlords but no substitution effect. Then it follows that the excess burden of a tax on land will be zero.
6. The excess burden of a tax on interest income is $5 billion per year. Total interest income per year is $50 billion. The tax currently collects $15 billion in revenue per year. The efficiency-loss ratio of the tax is therefore 0.33.
7. A payroll tax results in a difference between the gross wages paid by employers and the net wages received by workers.
8. If the market supply of labor services is perfectly inelastic, a tax on labor income will reduce the net wages received by workers by the full amount of the tax per labor hour.
9. If a $10 per unit tax is levied on the output of a monopolist, more of that tax will be shifted to con¬sumers than would be the case if the same good were produced by a competitive industry.
10. A study indicates that taxes in the United States reduce the Gini coefficient for the nation by 10 percent. This implies that taxes make the income distribution more equal.
11. A lump-sum tax only results in income effects.
12. An income tax is an example of a price-distorting tax.
13. The more price-elastic the demand of a taxed item, the lower the excess burden of a tax on the sale of that item.
14. If the tax on the sale of gasoline is doubled from 20 cents per gallon to 40 cents per gallon, the excess burden of the tax will quadruple.
15. If the compensated elasticity of supply of labor is zero, then a tax on labor earnings will have zero excess burden.
16. Lump-sum taxes do not prevent prices from equaling the marginal social cost and benefit of any goods and services.
17. Lump-sum taxes can vary in amount based on income level.
18. A lump-sum tax can distort prices and affect consumption behavior.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. A lump-sum tax:
a. distorts market prices so that they do not simultaneously equal MSB and MSC.
b. can result in price changes but does not prevent prices from simultaneously being equal to MSB and MSC.
c. results in substitution effects that change prices.
d. results in both substitution effects and income effects that change prices.
2. The current price of compact discs, which are traded in perfectly competitive markets, is $10. A $1 per unit tax is levied on the discs. Annual record sales decline from five million to four million as a result of the tax. Assuming that the income effect of the tax-induced price change is negligible, the excess burden of the tax will be:
a. $500,000 per year.
b. $1 million per year.
c. $2 million per year.
d. $2.5 million per year.
3. The elasticity of supply of land is zero. A tax on land results only in an income effect to landlords. Then it follows that a 10-percent tax on land rents will:
a. have a positive excess burden.
b. be shifted forward to tenants.
c. be paid entirely by landlords.
d. have zero excess burden.
e. both (c) and (d)
4. Currently, a 10-cent per gallon tax is levied on gasoline consumption. The tax is increased to 20 cents per gallon. The excess burden of the tax will:
a. remain the same.
b. double.
c. increase four times.
d. decline.
5. The supply of new cars is perfectly elastic. A $400 per car tax is levied on buyers. As a result of the tax,
a. the price received by sellers will fall by $400.
b. the price paid by buyers, including the tax, will increase by $400.
c. the quantity of cars sold per year will be unchanged.
d. the excess burden of the tax will be zero.
e. both (c) and (d)
6. Other things being equal, the more inelastic the demand for a taxed good,
a. the greater the portion of the tax paid by sellers.
b. the greater the excess burden of the tax.
c. the greater the portion of the tax paid by buyers.
d. the less the portion of a tax on sellers that can be shifted to buyers.
7. The market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. However, the income effect of tax-induced wage changes are believed to be substantial. Then it follows that a tax on labor income will:
a. have zero excess burden.
b. have positive excess burden.
c. be paid entirely by workers as a reduction in net wages.
d. both (a) and (c)
e. both (b) and (c)
8. Suppose an economy is comprised of only two markets: one for food and the other for housing. A tax on food used to finance transfer payments is likely to:
a. decrease the price of food.
b. increase the price of housing.
c. decrease the price of housing.
d. have no effect on either the price of food or housing.
9. Differential tax incidence measures the effect:
a. that a tax and the expenditures it finances have on the distribution of income.
b. that one tax alone has on the distribution of income.
c. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while holding the size and composition of the budget fixed.
d. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while changing the kinds of government services financed.
10. Most studies of tax incidence assume that taxes on labor income and other input services are borne entirely by the workers and other input owners that supply the services. This implies that the:
a. supply of those input services is very elastic.
b. supply of those input services is of unitary elasticity.
c. supply of those input services is perfectly inelastic.
d. demand for those input services is perfectly elastic.
11. Most studies show that the price elasticity of demand for gasoline is –0.2. If the price elasticity of supply is 2, then a tax on gasoline will:
a. have no effect on the market equilibrium price of gasoline.
b. cause the market equilibrium price of gasoline to fall.
c. cause the market equilibrium price paid by buyers to rise.
d. cause the net price received by sellers to fall.
e. both (c) and (d)
12. The demand for medical care is very inelastic. If a 10-percent tax is levied on the sale of medical services and is collected from medical-care providers, then:
a. the incidence of the tax is likely to be borne entirely by medical-care providers.
b. most of the tax is likely to be shifted to those who purchase medical care.
c. the market equilibrium price of medical care will fall.
d. the excess burden of the tax is likely to be very high.
13. Which of the following is true about a lump-sum tax?
a. It prevents efficiency from being attained in competitive markets.
b. It causes substitution effects.
c. It causes income effects.
d. It causes both income effects and substitution effects.
14. Housing construction is generally believed to be an industry of constant costs. In the long run, which of the following is true if a $10 per square foot tax on housing construction is collected directly from builders?
a. The incidence of the tax will be borne by builders.
b. The excess burden of the tax will be zero.
c. The quantity of new construction supplied will be unaffected.
d. The tax will be fully shifted to buyers of new construction.
15. If the price elasticity of supply of labor is equal to 0.5 and the price elasticity of demand for labor is –2, then which of the following is likely to result from a tax on labor earnings?
a. The tax will be fully borne by workers.
b. Some of the tax will be shifted to employers as market equilibrium wages increase.
c. Market equilibrium wages will decline.
d. There will be no effect on market equilibrium wages.
16. If a lump-sum tax is imposed, the slope of the new budget line relative to the budget line prior to the tax:
a. remains unchanged.
b. increases.
c. decrease.
d. can increase and decrease in different regions.
17. Viewed from origin a price distorting tax creates a new budget line with a ______ slope relative to the budget line without the tax.
a. less steep
b. more steep
c. similar
d. varying
18. A $0.30 per unit tax is imposed on a good that reduces the quantity supplied and demanded by 1000 units. What is the deadweight loss (ignore price elasticities)?
a. $300.00
b. $100.00
c. $150.00
d. Cannot be determined.
19. If a per unit tax is imposed, but the quantity supplied and demanded does not change then:
a. the demand is perfectly inelastic.
b. the supply is perfectly inelastic.
c. there is no deadweight loss.
d. All of the above.
20. The efficiency-loss ratio relative to tax is:
a. the deadweight loss less the tax revenue.
b. the deadweight loss divided by the tax revenue reduced by one.
c. the excess burden divided by the tax revenue.
d. None of the above.

CHAPTER 12
Budget Balance and
Government Debt
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. From 1950 to 2009, the federal government budget has been in balance in most years.
2. The high employment budget deficit implies that increases in economic activity will not eliminate the actual deficit.
3. Other things being equal, an increase in government borrowing is likely to increase interest rates.
4. If taxpayers anticipate future tax increases when government borrows to finance deficits, increased government borrowing will increase interest rates.
5. As of 2008, the amount of federal debt outstanding was equal to twice the annual GDP.
6. From 1950 to 1980, the value of the federal debt as a percent of GDP declined.
7. More than 50 percent of the federal debt in recent years has been outside debt.
8. An increase in market rates of interest tends to decrease the market value of outstanding govern¬ment debt.
9. Deficit finance postpones taxation from the present to the future.
10. The burden of the debt is borne by those who purchase government bonds.
11. The federal government budget recorded surpluses between 1998 and 2001.
12. State and local governments are usually required by state law to keep the budgets in balance.
13. If business and personal saving are constant, then a federal budget deficit will have no impact on national saving.
14. Other things being equal, a government surplus increases the supply of loanable funds available for investment.
15. State revenue bonds are backed by the taxing power of state governments.
16. A federal budget surplus can lead to more credit being available for productive activity.
17. A federal budget deficit can strain credit markets forcing the real rate of interest to decrease.
18. The U.S. deficit in the 1980s was structural in the sense that federal spending would exceed federal revenue even at a level of full employment.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The outstanding federal debt will decline in value if:
a. budget deficits continue.
b. the government runs a budget surplus.
c. the market rate of interest increases.
d. either (b) or (c)
2. The federal budget has been in deficit:
a. for every year between 1970 and 1997.
b. for every year between 1950 and 1997.
c. only since 1980.
d. for every year between 1960 and 1997.
3. The high employment deficit is estimated at $100 billion. Assuming that the economy is operating below full employment and that it will not overheat during the year,
a. the actual budget is not in deficit.
b. increasing GDP will eliminate the deficit.
c. increasing GDP will not eliminate the deficit.
d. the actual budget is in surplus.
4. An increase in government borrowing has no effect on the willingness of citizens to save or on the demand for credit. Increased borrowing to cover deficits will therefore:
a. reduce interest rates.
b. increase interest rates.
c. have no effect on interest rates.
d. not require increased taxes in the future.
5. As a result of government borrowing to cover deficits, citizens increase the supply of savings to provide themselves with funds to pay anticipated increases in future taxes. Then it follows that increased government borrowing will:
a. reduce private investment.
b. increase private investment.
c. have no effect of private investment.
d. increase interest rates.
e. both (a) and (d)
6. The total dollar value of the federal debt outstanding is:
a. more than 50 percent of GDP.
b. more than 100 percent of GDP.
c. less than 50 percent of GDP.
d. less than 10 percent of GDP.
7. The federal government, its agencies, and the Federal Reserve System:
a. are not permitted to hold outstanding federal debt.
b. hold 50 percent of the outstanding federal debt.
c. hold between 15 and 25 percent of the outstanding federal debt.
d. hold 75 percent of the outstanding federal debt.
8. The largest portion of the net federal debt outstanding is owed to:
a. foreigners.
b. U.S. citizens and companies.
c. federal government agencies.
d. state and local governments.
9. The debt of state and local governments is mostly:
a. internal.
b. external.
c. owed to citizens of other nations.
d. worthless.
10. Government borrowing will:
a. postpone taxation to the future.
b. increase government interest cost.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. eliminate taxes.
11. Which of the following is true about the federal government budget balance in the United States?
a. The federal budget has never had a surplus.
b. The federal budget had a surplus every year from 1970 to 2008.
c. The federal budget had a surplus from 1998 until 2001.
d. The federal budget had a deficit from 1998 until 2001.
12. Which of the following can contribute to a decrease in national saving?
a. a federal budget deficit
b. an increase in the state and local government aggregate surplus
c. a federal budget surplus
d. an increase in personal saving
13. Other things being equal, a government budget surplus:
a. increases the demand for loanable funds.
b. increases the supply of loanable funds.
c. is likely to increase market equilibrium interest rates.
d. is unlikely to affect market equilibrium interest rates.
14. If the federal government runs a surplus consistently, then which of the following is likely to occur?
a. National saving will decline.
b. The gross federal debt will increase.
c. The gross federal debt will decrease.
d. Market equilibrium interest rates are likely to rise as a result of the surpluses.
15. General obligation bonds of state and local governments are:
a. backed by revenue from public facilities such as sports stadiums.
b. backed by the taxing power of state and local governments.
c. usually used to finance transfer payments.
d. usually used to finance capital expenditures.
e. both (b) and (d)
16. A bond that is backed by the tolls collected from a bridge to be constructed from the proceeds of the bond is an example of:
a. a general obligation bond.
b. a non-obligation bond.
c. a revenue bond.
d. none of the above.
17. Evidence of “crowding out” in the market for loanable funds at a rate of 8% could be:
a. private investors who will borrow only at a rate lower than 8%.
b. private investors who are willing to accept a rate higher than 8% for borrowing.
c. a government surplus.
d. a social security surplus.
18. High-employment deficit or surplus is:
a. an extreme economic situation requiring emergency measures.
b. the amount of deficit or surplus available assuming current employment levels.
c. the amount of deficit or surplus available when employment is at its approximately full capacity.
d. the amount of deficit or surplus available when unemployment is at a relatively high level.
19. A government’s internal debt is:
a. debt owed to other government agencies.
b. debt owed to other governments.
c. debt owed to its citizens.
d. both (a) and (c).
20. The National Income and Product Accounts budget balance reflects:
a. an inflation-adjusted budget balance less social security surplus.
b. new debt resulting from a federal budget deficit.
c. the real budget balance.
d. the nominal budget balance.

ECO 450 Week 9 Quiz

CHAPTER 13
The Theory of Income Taxation
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. The actual federal income tax currently taxes all income irrespective of its source or use at the same tax rate.
2. Comprehensive income excludes unrealized capital gains.
3. Under a comprehensive income tax, transfer payments received by Social Security recipients would be fully taxable.
4. Homeowners earn rental income-in-kind from their home that would be taxable under a compre¬hensive income tax.
5. A comprehensive income tax is a lump-sum tax.
6. A comprehensive income tax will result in a divergence between gross wages paid by employers and net wages received by workers.
7. A comprehensive income tax will always reduce work effort by taxpayers.
8. The substitution effect of a tax-induced decline in wages always leads workers to work less.
9. The market wage elasticity of labor is zero. If this is the case, the excess burden of a tax on labor income will also be zero.
10. Points on a compensated labor supply curve are always more elastic than points for corresponding wage levels on a regular labor supply curve.
11. Comprehensive income is the sum of annual consumption and the change in net worth.
12. A tax on interest income does not prevent credit market from efficiently allocating resources.
13. If an individual is subject to a 30-percent income tax, then the net interest on a certificate of deposit yielding 5 percent would be 3.5 percent after taxes.
14. Because a tax on interest income results in income and substitution effects, it is not possible to pre¬dict the effect it will have on saving.
15. Most empirical studies indicate that the interest elasticity of supply of savings is close to zero.
16. Income tax became a permanent fixture in the United States starting in the early nineteenth century.
17. The Haig-Simons definition of income is different from comprehensive income.
18. Comprehensive income equals consumption plus the change in net worth.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Comprehensive income:
a. is the sum of annual consumption and realized capital gains.
b. is the sum of annual consumption and changes in net worth.
c. excludes corporation income.
d. is the sum of annual consumption and net worth.
2. A tax on labor income:
a. results only in an income effect that always decreases hours worked per year.
b. results in a substitution effect that always decreases hours worked per year.
c. results in an income effect that increases hours worked per year if leisure is a normal good.
d. both (a) and (b)
e. both (b) and (c)
3. The market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. Then it follows that:
a. the substitution effect of wage changes is zero.
b. the income effect of wage changes is zero.
c. leisure is a normal good and the income effect of wage changes exactly offsets the substitution effect.
d. the excess burden of a tax on labor income will be zero.
4. The compensated labor supply curve:
a. will always be vertical.
b. will always be upward sloping.
c. will always be downward sloping.
d. reflects both the income and substitution effects of wage changes.
5. Using a regular labor supply curve instead of a compensated supply curve to calculate the excess burden of a tax on labor income will:
a. result in an accurate estimate of the excess burden.
b. overestimate the excess burden.
c. underestimate the excess burden.
d. accurately estimate the excess burden only if the market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic.
6. Most empirical research indicates that the market supply curve of labor hours by prime-age males is:
a. very elastic.
b. almost perfectly inelastic.
c. always upward sloping.
d. perfectly elastic.
7. A flat-rate tax on labor income will:
a. always reduce hours worked per year.
b. always increase hours worked per year.
c. either increase or decrease hours worked per year.
d. never have any effect on the amount of leisure hours per year.
8. A tax on interest income:
a. causes the gross interest rate paid by investors to exceed the net interest rate received by savers.
b. will always reduce saving.
c. will always increase saving.
d. is equivalent to a lump-sum tax.
9. If the market supply curve of savings is upward sloping, a tax on interest income will:
a. increase the amount of saving.
b. increase the market rate of interest.
c. decrease the market rate of interest.
d. have no effect on the market rate of interest.
10. If the supply of labor is perfectly inelastic, then the incidence of a payroll tax levied entirely on employers will be:
a. borne by employers as a reduction in profits.
b. split between workers and employers.
c. paid entirely by workers.
d. shifted forward to consumers.
11. Which of the following is true about comprehensive income?
a. Only labor income is included.
b. Only capital income is included.
c. Capital gains are not included.
d. Both realized and unrealized capital gains are included.
12. Which of the following will increase a person’s comprehensive income?
a. an increase in the market value of the person’s home
b. a decrease in the value of the person’s stock portfolio
c. a decrease in labor income
d. a decrease in consumption
13. A tax on labor income will:
a. increase the net wage received by workers.
b. decrease the net wage received by workers.
c. cause that net wage received by workers to decline below the gross wage paid by employers.
d. both (b) and (c)
14. If the return to savings, r, is subject to taxation at rate t, then in equilibrium a saver’s marginal rate of time preference will equal:
a. r
b. t
c. (1 + r)
d. [1 + r(1 – t)]
15. The higher the compensated elasticity of supply of savings,
a. the lower the excess burden of a tax on capital income.
b. the higher the excess burden of a tax on capital income.
c. the higher the excess burden of a tax on labor income.
d. both (b) and (c)
16. The Haig-Simons definition of income:
a. is the sum of annual consumption and realized capital gains.
b. is the sum of annual consumption and changes in net worth.
c. excludes corporation income.
d. is the sum of annual consumption and net worth.
17 Comprehensive income:
a. includes realized capital gains, but not unrealized capital gains
b. includes both realized and unrealized capital gains.
c. excludes cash from the sale of assets.
d. excludes increases in the value of assets.
18. Income-in-kind:
a. is exemplified by nonpecuniary returns.
b. is generally non-taxable because there is no monetary transaction.
c. is generally taxable.
d. both (a) and (b).
19. An example of a nonpecuniary return is:
a. job satisfaction.
b. unemployment benefits.
c. employer contributions to a retirement plan.
d. both (b) and (c).

20. Income from labor services (wages) account for what percentage of gross income in the U.S.?
a. 90%
b. 75%
c. 60%
d. 50%

CHAPTER 14
Taxation of Personal Income
in the United States
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Taxable income in the United States exceeds adjusted gross income.
2. Taxable income in the United States includes all capital gains earned, whether or not they are realized.
3. Taxable income in the United States amounts to less than 50 percent of personal income.
4. Tax preferences are really subsidies to certain activities.
5. A tax deduction allowed for an activity for which positive externalities are not likely to exist (such as home ownership) is likely to cause the marginal social cost of the activity to exceed its marginal social benefit.
6. The value of a personal exemption to a taxpayer varies with his or her marginal tax rate.
7. The U.S. personal income tax is not a progressive tax.
8. The highest statutory marginal tax rate under the federal personal income tax is 50 percent.
9. Under current rules, only real interest earned is subject to income tax.
10. Realized, long-term capital gains that reflect inflation are currently exempt from taxation.
11. The tax base under the personal income tax in the United States is the Haig-Simons definition of comprehensive income.
12. Tax credits vary with a person’s marginal tax rate.
13. The cuts in marginal tax rates initiated in 2001 are likely to reduce the excess burden of tax pref¬erences.
14. The earned income tax credit is a negative tax the subsidizes the earnings of low-income workers.
15. If a progressive income tax is replaced with an equal-yield, flat-rate tax, then work effort will unequivocally increase.
16. As of 2009, there is no marriage penalty for an adjusted gross income of $60,000.
17. Tax preferences are exclusions, exemptions, and deductions from the tax base.
18. Income-in-kind is not considered a tax preference.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Adjusted gross income, as defined by the United States Tax Code,
a. exceeds taxable income.
b. equals taxable income.
c. is less than taxable income.
d. is greater than comprehensive income.
2. Tax preferences:
a. are exclusions, exemptions, and deductions from the tax base.
b. are in the tax code by accident.
c. are extra taxes on certain taxpayers.
d. increase the amount of income that is taxable.
e. both (a) and (d)
3. Currently, the tax treatment of capital gains in the United States is such that:
a. all capital gains are taxed.
b. all realized capital gains are taxed.
c. most realized capital gains are taxed.
d. only capital gains adjusted for inflation are taxed.
4. The exclusion of interest of state and local bonds from taxation by the federal government:
a. decreases interest costs for state and local governments.
b. increases interest costs for state and local governments.
c. benefits lower-income taxpayers more than upper-income taxpayers.
d. discourages borrowing by local governments.
5. The value of personal exemptions in terms of taxes saved:
a. is the same for all taxpayers.
b. varies with family size.
c. varies with taxpayers’ marginal tax rates.
d. both (b) and (c)
6. A taxpayer is in a 33-percent tax bracket and itemizes deductions. He obtains a mortgage from a bank at 9-percent interest. The actual rate of interest he pays is:
a. 6 percent.
b. 9 percent.
c. 20 percent.
d. 25 percent.
7. Tax expenditures are:
a. expenditures made to collect taxes.
b. losses in revenue due to tax preferences.
c. less than 1 percent of tax revenue.
d. both (b) and (c)
8. Under the federal personal income tax rules prevailing as of 2009,
a. all interest expense is tax deductible.
b. the interest expense for mortgages on first and second homes is tax deductible.
c. the interest expense for mortgages only on first homes is tax deductible.
d. no interest is tax deductible.
9. The reduction in marginal tax rates will:
a. increase the excess burden of tax preferences.
b. increase tax expenditures.
c. decrease the excess burden of tax preferences.
d. have no effect of tax expenditures.
10. “Bracket creep” is no longer a problem in the United States because:
a. the tax brackets are indexed.
b. capital gains are now fully taxable.
c. only real interest is taxed.
d. capital gains are indexed.
11. Which of the following is true for the federal income tax in the United States?
a. All income irrespective of its source or use is taxed at the same rate.
b. Comprehensive income is the tax base.
c. The tax base is less than 50 percent of comprehensive income.
d. All realized and unrealized capital gains are included in the tax base.
12. Because of the Earned Income Tax Credit, the effective tax rate for the lowest-income taxpayers in the United States is:
a. only 15 percent.
b. higher than that paid by upper-income taxpayers.
c. zero.
d. negative.
13. The excess burden of tax preferences:
a. depends on average tax rates.
b. will be higher, the higher the marginal tax rate is.
c. will be lower, the higher the marginal tax rate is.
d. is independent of marginal tax rates.
14. A shift to an equal-yield, flat-rate personal income tax from the current progressive income tax rate structure will:
a. reduce the tax burden on upper-income groups.
b. increase the tax burden on upper-income groups.
c. increase the share of taxes paid by lower-income groups.
d. both (a) and (c)
15. Removing savings from the tax base of the personal income tax is likely to:
a. increase work effort.
b. decrease work effort.
c. lower market equilibrium interest rates by increasing the supply of loanable funds.
d. increase market equilibrium interest rates, thereby increasing the demand for loanable funds.
16. Which is a justification for tax preferences?
a. administrative difficulties
b. improving equity
c. encouraging private expenditures that create external benefits
d. all of the above
17. If the excess burden from tax is $10 million, lowering marginal tax rates should make the excess burden:
a. more than $10 million.
b. less than $10 million.
c. remain at $10 million.
d. none of the above is certain to occur
18. Which of the following is the result of The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act enacted in 2001?
a. reduction of the highest marginal tax rate
b. increased the marriage penalty
c. created a new 40% tax bracket
d. both (a) and (c)
19. As of 2009, the highest marginal tax rate is:
a. 39.6%
b. 38%
c. 35%
d. 32.5%
20. Which is an example of an itemized deduction under the U.S. code as of 2009?
a. state and local income tax
b. state and local property tax
c. all medical expenses
d. both (a) and (b)

CHAPTER 17
Taxes on Wealth,
Property, and Estates
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Wealth is a flow.
2. A wealth tax is equivalent to a tax on the return to saving.
3. If the supply of savings is perfectly inelastic, a comprehensive wealth tax will increase the market rate of interest.
4. Assuming that the supply curve of savings is upward sloping, a comprehensive wealth tax will reduce annual investment.
5. As administered in the United States, the local property tax is mainly a tax on real estate.
6. The property tax in the United States is likely to reduce the equilibrium return to investment.
7. The town of Oz has raised its property tax rates considerably above the national average. Other things being equal, capital is likely to flow into Oz in the long run because of the tax.
8. If a real estate tax causes rents to rise, it cannot be fully capitalized.
9. A tax on the value of land is likely to be fully capitalized.
10. The local property tax is likely to result in less than the efficient amount of investment in real estate.
11. A general tax on wealth will cause efficiency loss in labor markets.
12. The local property tax, as administered in the United States, is a general tax on wealth.
13. The local property tax in the United States will reduce the return to real estate only in the long run.
14. Other things being equal, if the property tax rate is above the national average for a jurisdiction, capital can be expected to flow out of the region in that area.
15. If a local property tax increase is fully capitalized, property owners at the time of the increase can¬not shift any of the current or future tax increase to buyers if they sell the property.
16. A person who never saves any income and receives no gifts and inheritances will never accumulate wealth.
17. Wealth taxes are a relatively new form of taxation.
18. Total wealth definitions never include intangible personal property.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Wealth is:
a. a flow.
b. a stock.
c. the market value of accumulated assets.
d. both (b) and (c)
2. A comprehensive wealth tax base includes:
a. all real tangible, intangible, and human wealth, less any claims against those assets.
b. only real property.
c. only intangible assets.
d. only tangible assets.
3. If the interest elasticity of supply of savings is zero, a comprehensive wealth tax will:
a. increase the market rate of interest.
b. reduce the income of savers.
c. reduce the income of workers.
d. both (b) and (c)
4. If the supply curve of savings is upward sloping, a comprehensive wealth tax will:
a. increase the market rate of interest.
b. reduce the market rate of interest.
c. have zero excess burden.
d. have no effect on investment.
5. A comprehensive wealth tax will:
a. impair efficiency in labor markets.
b. impair efficiency in investment markets.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. have no excess burden.
6. Assuming that investors seek to maximize the return on their investment, the long-run effect of a national tax on real estate will be to:
a. reduce the return to investment in real estate only.
b. reduce the return to investment in all assets.
c. reduce wages only.
d. increase the return to all investors.
7. A local property tax, such as that used in the United States, is likely to:
a. increase investment in the economy.
b. cause a flow of investment among jurisdictions.
c. decrease the return to saving in all uses.
d. both (b) and (c)
8. If a property tax on real estate is capitalized,
a. the price of real estate will rise.
b. the price of real estate will fall.
c. the price of real estate will be unaffected.
d. the burden of the tax will be transferred to buyers of real estate.
e. both (b) and (d)
9. Suppose that the current market rate of interest is 10 percent. The market rent on a parcel of land is $6,000 per year. A 10-percent land tax is imposed. As a result of the tax, the price of the land parcel:
a. falls from $60,000 to $30,000.
b. increases from $30,000 to $60,000.
c. falls 10 percent.
d. falls 20 percent.
10. If a tax on real estate results in a decrease in the supply of housing, the tax will be:
a. fully capitalized.
b. only partially capitalized.
c. not capitalized at all.
d. borne entirely by renters.
11. If the supply of saving is not perfectly inelastic in the nation, then which of the following taxes will cause efficiency loss in capital markets?
a. a general wealth tax
b. a national tax on real estate
c. a consumption tax
d. both (a) and (b)
12. The local property tax in the United States is levied primarily on:
a. personal property.
b. intangible property.
c. business property.
d. real estate.
13. Which of the following would not be included in a comprehensive wealth tax base?
a. real estate
b. personal property
c. intangible assets
d. residential rents
14. If the supply of real estate is not perfectly inelastic, then the local real estate property tax differentials:
a. cannot be shifted to tenants.
b. can be shifted to tenants through increases in rents.
c. will be fully capitalized.
d. both (a) and (c)
15. If the supply of saving is not perfectly inelastic, then substituting a value-added tax for an equal-yield general wealth tax will:
a. decrease market equilibrium interest rates.
b. increase the efficiency loss in labor markets.
c. decrease the efficiency loss in labor markets.
d. decrease efficiency in capital markets.
e. both (a) and (b)
16. Intangible personal property includes:
a. stock in companies.
b. corporate bonds.
c. cash.
d. all of the above
17. If the annual amount of savings is $10 billion, what is the effect of a wealth tax assuming supply is perfectly inelastic?
a. annual savings remains $10 billion
b. annual savings increases above $10 billion
c. annual savings falls below $10 billion
d. no particular effect is guaranteed to happen
18. If the annual amount of savings is $10 billion, what is the effect of a wealth tax assuming supply is responsive?
a. annual savings remains $10 billion
b. annual savings increases above $10 billion
c. annual savings falls below $10 billion
d. no particular effect is guaranteed to happen
19. From the point of view of the locality, increasing property taxes:
a. increases the price of locally produced goods.
b. decreases income of owners of land in the associated community.
c. does not affect buyers of locally produced goods fro outside of the community.
d. both (a) and (b)
20. Tax capitalization is:
a. a decrease in the value of a taxed asset at a level related to the discounted value of the future tax liability.
b. partially recognized when the supply of taxed asset is perfectly inelastic.
c. only partially recognized on assets like land.
d. both (b) and (c)

CHAPTER 18
Fiscal Federalism and State and
Local Government Finance
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. A federal system of government allows a wider diversity of preferences for government-provided services to be accommodated when compared to nonfederal, centralized government.
2. Income redistribution is a service likely to be most effectively administered by the federal govern¬ment.
3. Economic stabilization can be easily supplied to citizens by local governments.
4. When each local government supplies goods and services to its citizens, the political equilibrium in each jurisdiction corresponds to the median most-preferred outcome of all national voters.
5. A federal system of government allows both centralized and decentralized collective choices.
6. Local tax bases are less elastic than national tax bases.
7. Tax exporting occurs if the price of goods produced in the state and purchased by out-of-state residents rises as a result of in-state taxes.
8. Matching categorical grants can be used to internalize interjurisdictional positive externalities.
9. Matching grants only result in income effects.
10. A matching grant will increase local government expenditures by more than an equal-value, general purpose grant.
11. A federal system of government only has a central government that supplies all public goods and services.
12. According to the Tiebout model of fiscal federalism, a system of many local governments improves the efficiency of allocation of resources to and among public goods.
13. If a local jurisdiction’s tax base is elastic, an increase in tax rates will decrease tax revenue.
14. Taxing hotel rooms and restaurant meals in a city with lots of tourism is an example of tax exporting.
15. Financing local schooling with the local property tax can guarantee equality of opportunity in education.
16. According to Tiebout, individuals will self-select into communities where the government budget best satisfies their own personal preferences.
17. Mobility between communities is not critical to the Tiebout model.
18. Interjurisdictional externalities are costs or benefits of local government goods and services to residents in other political jurisdictions.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Under a federal system of government,
a. all government goods and services are supplied by a central government.
b. all government goods and services are supplied by local governments.
c. both central and noncentral governments supply goods and services.
d. all public choices are made nationally.
2. Economic stabilization is most effectively provided by:
a. a central government.
b. state governments.
c. local governments.
d. regional governments.
3. A decentralized system of government:
a. tends to result in uniformity in the quantity and quality of government services in all jurisdic¬tions.
b. allows diversity in the quantity and quality of government goods and services.
c. conducts national elections on all issues.
d. is undemocratic.
4. The political equilibrium in a local jurisdiction for a given public good corresponds to the median most-preferred outcome of:
a. all national voters.
b. the President.
c. local voters.
d. both (a) and (c)
5. In general, local tax bases tend to be:
a. less elastic than national tax bases.
b. more elastic than national tax bases.
c. equally elastic when compared with national tax bases.
d. very inelastic.
6. According to the Tiebout model of local government expenditure,
a. all local governments will supply the same kinds and amounts of services.
b. mobile citizens respond to differences in taxes and expenditures by moving to the jurisdiction that maximizes their well-being.
c. the average costs of government services is constant.
d. tax rates do not influence a citizen’s choice of residence.
7. A categorical grant:
a. does not restrict the use of transferred funds.
b. usually specifies the use to which the funds must be applied.
c. is used rarely in the United States.
d. is not used at all in the United States.
8. A federal highway grant will provide funds for roads supplied by state and local governments if these governments pay 50 percent of the cost of the roads. This grant is an example of:
a. revenue sharing.
b. a matching categorical grant.
c. a general purpose grant.
d. a nonmatching block grant.
9. A grant received by a local government will:
a. not affect the political equilibrium in that jurisdiction.
b. change the political equilibrium in that jurisdiction.
c. always increase government expenditures in the recipient jurisdiction by the amount of grant.
d. both (b) and (c)
10. Matching grants:
a. will not increase government spending in recipient jurisdictions.
b. increase government expenditures in recipient jurisdictions more than nonmatching grants of an equal amount.
c. increase government expenditures in recipient jurisdictions less than nonmatching grants of an equal amount.
d. increase tax rates in recipient jurisdictions.
11. Which of the following is true about a federal system of government?
a. There is only one level of government.
b. There are several levels of government.
c. A central government directs local governments to supply all public goods at levels determined nationally.
d. There are only local governments.
12. The central economic problem of fiscal federalism is:
a. the division of taxing and expenditure functions among different levels of government.
b. the choice of the collective choice rule for central governments only.
c. the level of public goods to be provided by a central government only.
d. how to achieve an equitable distribution of income.
13. Which of the following is best supplied by local governments?
a. national defense
b. income redistribution
c. money
d. fire protection
14. Local public goods:
a. are pure public goods for the entire nation.
b. are those whose benefits are nonrival only for the population of a particular geographical area.
c. have benefits that are subject to exclusion by pricing for local consumers.
d. are best provided by a central government.
15. An increase in the local retail sales tax rate will increase revenue collected by a local government:
a. if the tax base is elastic.
b. if the tax base is unit elastic.
c. if the tax base in inelastic.
d. no matter what the value of the elasticity of the tax base.
16. Which is an example of a interjurisdictional externality?
a. residential property tax
b. local sales tax
c. wage tax on all workers in a community
d. both (b) and (c)
17. Mobility:
a. is not essential to the Tiebout model.
b. can hamper a jurisdiction’s ability to raise revenues.
c. may be part of the reason for the reliance on local property taxes for the raising of local government revenue.
d. both (b) and (c)
18. A local wage tax can:
a. create tax competition if a neighboring jurisdiction does not have such a tax.
b. export tax onto workers in the local jurisdiction who live outside of the local jurisdiction.
c. prevent tax competition among other local jurisdictions.
d. both (a) and (b)
19. Fiscal capacity:
a. decreases with the ability of the jurisdiction to export tax.
b. is a measure of the ability of a jurisdiction to finance government-provided services.
c. is always enhanced by mobility.
d. is not dependent on the wealth of the community.
20. What is generally the best measure of fiscal capacity for local governments?
a. income per capita
b. per capita retail sales
c. assessed valuation per capita
d. per capita expenditure

ECO 450 Week 9 Quiz – Strayer University New

ECO/450 Week 9 Quiz – Strayer

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Quiz 7 Chapter 13 and 14

CHAPTER 13
The Theory of Income Taxation
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. The actual federal income tax currently taxes all income irrespective of its source or use at the same tax rate.
2. Comprehensive income excludes unrealized capital gains.
3. Under a comprehensive income tax, transfer payments received by Social Security recipients would be fully taxable.
4. Homeowners earn rental income-in-kind from their home that would be taxable under a compre¬hensive income tax.
5. A comprehensive income tax is a lump-sum tax.
6. A comprehensive income tax will result in a divergence between gross wages paid by employers and net wages received by workers.
7. A comprehensive income tax will always reduce work effort by taxpayers.
8. The substitution effect of a tax-induced decline in wages always leads workers to work less.
9. The market wage elasticity of labor is zero. If this is the case, the excess burden of a tax on labor income will also be zero.
10. Points on a compensated labor supply curve are always more elastic than points for corresponding wage levels on a regular labor supply curve.
11. Comprehensive income is the sum of annual consumption and the change in net worth.
12. A tax on interest income does not prevent credit market from efficiently allocating resources.
13. If an individual is subject to a 30-percent income tax, then the net interest on a certificate of deposit yielding 5 percent would be 3.5 percent after taxes.
14. Because a tax on interest income results in income and substitution effects, it is not possible to pre¬dict the effect it will have on saving.
15. Most empirical studies indicate that the interest elasticity of supply of savings is close to zero.
16. Income tax became a permanent fixture in the United States starting in the early nineteenth century.
17. The Haig-Simons definition of income is different from comprehensive income.
18. Comprehensive income equals consumption plus the change in net worth.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Comprehensive income:
a. is the sum of annual consumption and realized capital gains.
b. is the sum of annual consumption and changes in net worth.
c. excludes corporation income.
d. is the sum of annual consumption and net worth.
2. A tax on labor income:
a. results only in an income effect that always decreases hours worked per year.
b. results in a substitution effect that always decreases hours worked per year.
c. results in an income effect that increases hours worked per year if leisure is a normal good.
d. both (a) and (b)
e. both (b) and (c)
3. The market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. Then it follows that:
a. the substitution effect of wage changes is zero.
b. the income effect of wage changes is zero.
c. leisure is a normal good and the income effect of wage changes exactly offsets the substitution effect.
d. the excess burden of a tax on labor income will be zero.
4. The compensated labor supply curve:
a. will always be vertical.
b. will always be upward sloping.
c. will always be downward sloping.
d. reflects both the income and substitution effects of wage changes.
5. Using a regular labor supply curve instead of a compensated supply curve to calculate the excess burden of a tax on labor income will:
a. result in an accurate estimate of the excess burden.
b. overestimate the excess burden.
c. underestimate the excess burden.
d. accurately estimate the excess burden only if the market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic.
6. Most empirical research indicates that the market supply curve of labor hours by prime-age males is:
a. very elastic.
b. almost perfectly inelastic.
c. always upward sloping.
d. perfectly elastic.
7. A flat-rate tax on labor income will:
a. always reduce hours worked per year.
b. always increase hours worked per year.
c. either increase or decrease hours worked per year.
d. never have any effect on the amount of leisure hours per year.
8. A tax on interest income:
a. causes the gross interest rate paid by investors to exceed the net interest rate received by savers.
b. will always reduce saving.
c. will always increase saving.
d. is equivalent to a lump-sum tax.
9. If the market supply curve of savings is upward sloping, a tax on interest income will:
a. increase the amount of saving.
b. increase the market rate of interest.
c. decrease the market rate of interest.
d. have no effect on the market rate of interest.
10. If the supply of labor is perfectly inelastic, then the incidence of a payroll tax levied entirely on employers will be:
a. borne by employers as a reduction in profits.
b. split between workers and employers.
c. paid entirely by workers.
d. shifted forward to consumers.
11. Which of the following is true about comprehensive income?
a. Only labor income is included.
b. Only capital income is included.
c. Capital gains are not included.
d. Both realized and unrealized capital gains are included.
12. Which of the following will increase a person’s comprehensive income?
a. an increase in the market value of the person’s home
b. a decrease in the value of the person’s stock portfolio
c. a decrease in labor income
d. a decrease in consumption
13. A tax on labor income will:
a. increase the net wage received by workers.
b. decrease the net wage received by workers.
c. cause that net wage received by workers to decline below the gross wage paid by employers.
d. both (b) and (c)
14. If the return to savings, r, is subject to taxation at rate t, then in equilibrium a saver’s marginal rate of time preference will equal:
a. r
b. t
c. (1 + r)
d. [1 + r(1 – t)]
15. The higher the compensated elasticity of supply of savings,
a. the lower the excess burden of a tax on capital income.
b. the higher the excess burden of a tax on capital income.
c. the higher the excess burden of a tax on labor income.
d. both (b) and (c)
16. The Haig-Simons definition of income:
a. is the sum of annual consumption and realized capital gains.
b. is the sum of annual consumption and changes in net worth.
c. excludes corporation income.
d. is the sum of annual consumption and net worth.
17 Comprehensive income:
a. includes realized capital gains, but not unrealized capital gains
b. includes both realized and unrealized capital gains.
c. excludes cash from the sale of assets.
d. excludes increases in the value of assets.
18. Income-in-kind:
a. is exemplified by nonpecuniary returns.
b. is generally non-taxable because there is no monetary transaction.
c. is generally taxable.
d. both (a) and (b).
19. An example of a nonpecuniary return is:
a. job satisfaction.
b. unemployment benefits.
c. employer contributions to a retirement plan.
d. both (b) and (c).

20. Income from labor services (wages) account for what percentage of gross income in the U.S.?
a. 90%
b. 75%
c. 60%
d. 50%

CHAPTER 14
Taxation of Personal Income
in the United States
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Taxable income in the United States exceeds adjusted gross income.
2. Taxable income in the United States includes all capital gains earned, whether or not they are realized.
3. Taxable income in the United States amounts to less than 50 percent of personal income.
4. Tax preferences are really subsidies to certain activities.
5. A tax deduction allowed for an activity for which positive externalities are not likely to exist (such as home ownership) is likely to cause the marginal social cost of the activity to exceed its marginal social benefit.
6. The value of a personal exemption to a taxpayer varies with his or her marginal tax rate.
7. The U.S. personal income tax is not a progressive tax.
8. The highest statutory marginal tax rate under the federal personal income tax is 50 percent.
9. Under current rules, only real interest earned is subject to income tax.
10. Realized, long-term capital gains that reflect inflation are currently exempt from taxation.
11. The tax base under the personal income tax in the United States is the Haig-Simons definition of comprehensive income.
12. Tax credits vary with a person’s marginal tax rate.
13. The cuts in marginal tax rates initiated in 2001 are likely to reduce the excess burden of tax pref¬erences.
14. The earned income tax credit is a negative tax the subsidizes the earnings of low-income workers.
15. If a progressive income tax is replaced with an equal-yield, flat-rate tax, then work effort will unequivocally increase.
16. As of 2009, there is no marriage penalty for an adjusted gross income of $60,000.
17. Tax preferences are exclusions, exemptions, and deductions from the tax base.
18. Income-in-kind is not considered a tax preference.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Adjusted gross income, as defined by the United States Tax Code,
a. exceeds taxable income.
b. equals taxable income.
c. is less than taxable income.
d. is greater than comprehensive income.
2. Tax preferences:
a. are exclusions, exemptions, and deductions from the tax base.
b. are in the tax code by accident.
c. are extra taxes on certain taxpayers.
d. increase the amount of income that is taxable.
e. both (a) and (d)
3. Currently, the tax treatment of capital gains in the United States is such that:
a. all capital gains are taxed.
b. all realized capital gains are taxed.
c. most realized capital gains are taxed.
d. only capital gains adjusted for inflation are taxed.
4. The exclusion of interest of state and local bonds from taxation by the federal government:
a. decreases interest costs for state and local governments.
b. increases interest costs for state and local governments.
c. benefits lower-income taxpayers more than upper-income taxpayers.
d. discourages borrowing by local governments.
5. The value of personal exemptions in terms of taxes saved:
a. is the same for all taxpayers.
b. varies with family size.
c. varies with taxpayers’ marginal tax rates.
d. both (b) and (c)
6. A taxpayer is in a 33-percent tax bracket and itemizes deductions. He obtains a mortgage from a bank at 9-percent interest. The actual rate of interest he pays is:
a. 6 percent.
b. 9 percent.
c. 20 percent.
d. 25 percent.
7. Tax expenditures are:
a. expenditures made to collect taxes.
b. losses in revenue due to tax preferences.
c. less than 1 percent of tax revenue.
d. both (b) and (c)
8. Under the federal personal income tax rules prevailing as of 2009,
a. all interest expense is tax deductible.
b. the interest expense for mortgages on first and second homes is tax deductible.
c. the interest expense for mortgages only on first homes is tax deductible.
d. no interest is tax deductible.
9. The reduction in marginal tax rates will:
a. increase the excess burden of tax preferences.
b. increase tax expenditures.
c. decrease the excess burden of tax preferences.
d. have no effect of tax expenditures.
10. “Bracket creep” is no longer a problem in the United States because:
a. the tax brackets are indexed.
b. capital gains are now fully taxable.
c. only real interest is taxed.
d. capital gains are indexed.
11. Which of the following is true for the federal income tax in the United States?
a. All income irrespective of its source or use is taxed at the same rate.
b. Comprehensive income is the tax base.
c. The tax base is less than 50 percent of comprehensive income.
d. All realized and unrealized capital gains are included in the tax base.
12. Because of the Earned Income Tax Credit, the effective tax rate for the lowest-income taxpayers in the United States is:
a. only 15 percent.
b. higher than that paid by upper-income taxpayers.
c. zero.
d. negative.
13. The excess burden of tax preferences:
a. depends on average tax rates.
b. will be higher, the higher the marginal tax rate is.
c. will be lower, the higher the marginal tax rate is.
d. is independent of marginal tax rates.
14. A shift to an equal-yield, flat-rate personal income tax from the current progressive income tax rate structure will:
a. reduce the tax burden on upper-income groups.
b. increase the tax burden on upper-income groups.
c. increase the share of taxes paid by lower-income groups.
d. both (a) and (c)
15. Removing savings from the tax base of the personal income tax is likely to:
a. increase work effort.
b. decrease work effort.
c. lower market equilibrium interest rates by increasing the supply of loanable funds.
d. increase market equilibrium interest rates, thereby increasing the demand for loanable funds.
16. Which is a justification for tax preferences?
a. administrative difficulties
b. improving equity
c. encouraging private expenditures that create external benefits
d. all of the above
17. If the excess burden from tax is $10 million, lowering marginal tax rates should make the excess burden:
a. more than $10 million.
b. less than $10 million.
c. remain at $10 million.
d. none of the above is certain to occur
18. Which of the following is the result of The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act enacted in 2001?
a. reduction of the highest marginal tax rate
b. increased the marriage penalty
c. created a new 40% tax bracket
d. both (a) and (c)
19. As of 2009, the highest marginal tax rate is:
a. 39.6%
b. 38%
c. 35%
d. 32.5%
20. Which is an example of an itemized deduction under the U.S. code as of 2009?
a. state and local income tax
b. state and local property tax
c. all medical expenses
d. both (a) and (b)

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Quiz 6 Chapter 11 and 12

CHAPTER 11
Taxation, Prices, Efficiency,
and the Distribution of Income
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. A lump-sum tax results in both income and substitution effects.
2. A consumer currently pays $500 a year retail sales taxes. She would be better off if she paid the same amount annually as a lump-sum tax.
3. Clothing is sold in perfectly competitive markets where no externalities prevail. An excise tax on clothing will result in a market price for clothing that equals the marginal social benefit and mar¬ginal social cost of service.
4. Assuming that the income effects are negligible and that beer is sold in a competitive market, a 10 cent per can tax on beer that causes a 10,000 can per month decline in sales will result in an excess burden of $1,000 per month.
5. A tax on land results in an income effect on landlords but no substitution effect. Then it follows that the excess burden of a tax on land will be zero.
6. The excess burden of a tax on interest income is $5 billion per year. Total interest income per year is $50 billion. The tax currently collects $15 billion in revenue per year. The efficiency-loss ratio of the tax is therefore 0.33.
7. A payroll tax results in a difference between the gross wages paid by employers and the net wages received by workers.
8. If the market supply of labor services is perfectly inelastic, a tax on labor income will reduce the net wages received by workers by the full amount of the tax per labor hour.
9. If a $10 per unit tax is levied on the output of a monopolist, more of that tax will be shifted to con¬sumers than would be the case if the same good were produced by a competitive industry.
10. A study indicates that taxes in the United States reduce the Gini coefficient for the nation by 10 percent. This implies that taxes make the income distribution more equal.
11. A lump-sum tax only results in income effects.
12. An income tax is an example of a price-distorting tax.
13. The more price-elastic the demand of a taxed item, the lower the excess burden of a tax on the sale of that item.
14. If the tax on the sale of gasoline is doubled from 20 cents per gallon to 40 cents per gallon, the excess burden of the tax will quadruple.
15. If the compensated elasticity of supply of labor is zero, then a tax on labor earnings will have zero excess burden.
16. Lump-sum taxes do not prevent prices from equaling the marginal social cost and benefit of any goods and services.
17. Lump-sum taxes can vary in amount based on income level.
18. A lump-sum tax can distort prices and affect consumption behavior.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. A lump-sum tax:
a. distorts market prices so that they do not simultaneously equal MSB and MSC.
b. can result in price changes but does not prevent prices from simultaneously being equal to MSB and MSC.
c. results in substitution effects that change prices.
d. results in both substitution effects and income effects that change prices.
2. The current price of compact discs, which are traded in perfectly competitive markets, is $10. A $1 per unit tax is levied on the discs. Annual record sales decline from five million to four million as a result of the tax. Assuming that the income effect of the tax-induced price change is negligible, the excess burden of the tax will be:
a. $500,000 per year.
b. $1 million per year.
c. $2 million per year.
d. $2.5 million per year.
3. The elasticity of supply of land is zero. A tax on land results only in an income effect to landlords. Then it follows that a 10-percent tax on land rents will:
a. have a positive excess burden.
b. be shifted forward to tenants.
c. be paid entirely by landlords.
d. have zero excess burden.
e. both (c) and (d)
4. Currently, a 10-cent per gallon tax is levied on gasoline consumption. The tax is increased to 20 cents per gallon. The excess burden of the tax will:
a. remain the same.
b. double.
c. increase four times.
d. decline.
5. The supply of new cars is perfectly elastic. A $400 per car tax is levied on buyers. As a result of the tax,
a. the price received by sellers will fall by $400.
b. the price paid by buyers, including the tax, will increase by $400.
c. the quantity of cars sold per year will be unchanged.
d. the excess burden of the tax will be zero.
e. both (c) and (d)
6. Other things being equal, the more inelastic the demand for a taxed good,
a. the greater the portion of the tax paid by sellers.
b. the greater the excess burden of the tax.
c. the greater the portion of the tax paid by buyers.
d. the less the portion of a tax on sellers that can be shifted to buyers.
7. The market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. However, the income effect of tax-induced wage changes are believed to be substantial. Then it follows that a tax on labor income will:
a. have zero excess burden.
b. have positive excess burden.
c. be paid entirely by workers as a reduction in net wages.
d. both (a) and (c)
e. both (b) and (c)
8. Suppose an economy is comprised of only two markets: one for food and the other for housing. A tax on food used to finance transfer payments is likely to:
a. decrease the price of food.
b. increase the price of housing.
c. decrease the price of housing.
d. have no effect on either the price of food or housing.
9. Differential tax incidence measures the effect:
a. that a tax and the expenditures it finances have on the distribution of income.
b. that one tax alone has on the distribution of income.
c. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while holding the size and composition of the budget fixed.
d. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while changing the kinds of government services financed.
10. Most studies of tax incidence assume that taxes on labor income and other input services are borne entirely by the workers and other input owners that supply the services. This implies that the:
a. supply of those input services is very elastic.
b. supply of those input services is of unitary elasticity.
c. supply of those input services is perfectly inelastic.
d. demand for those input services is perfectly elastic.
11. Most studies show that the price elasticity of demand for gasoline is –0.2. If the price elasticity of supply is 2, then a tax on gasoline will:
a. have no effect on the market equilibrium price of gasoline.
b. cause the market equilibrium price of gasoline to fall.
c. cause the market equilibrium price paid by buyers to rise.
d. cause the net price received by sellers to fall.
e. both (c) and (d)
12. The demand for medical care is very inelastic. If a 10-percent tax is levied on the sale of medical services and is collected from medical-care providers, then:
a. the incidence of the tax is likely to be borne entirely by medical-care providers.
b. most of the tax is likely to be shifted to those who purchase medical care.
c. the market equilibrium price of medical care will fall.
d. the excess burden of the tax is likely to be very high.
13. Which of the following is true about a lump-sum tax?
a. It prevents efficiency from being attained in competitive markets.
b. It causes substitution effects.
c. It causes income effects.
d. It causes both income effects and substitution effects.
14. Housing construction is generally believed to be an industry of constant costs. In the long run, which of the following is true if a $10 per square foot tax on housing construction is collected directly from builders?
a. The incidence of the tax will be borne by builders.
b. The excess burden of the tax will be zero.
c. The quantity of new construction supplied will be unaffected.
d. The tax will be fully shifted to buyers of new construction.
15. If the price elasticity of supply of labor is equal to 0.5 and the price elasticity of demand for labor is –2, then which of the following is likely to result from a tax on labor earnings?
a. The tax will be fully borne by workers.
b. Some of the tax will be shifted to employers as market equilibrium wages increase.
c. Market equilibrium wages will decline.
d. There will be no effect on market equilibrium wages.
16. If a lump-sum tax is imposed, the slope of the new budget line relative to the budget line prior to the tax:
a. remains unchanged.
b. increases.
c. decrease.
d. can increase and decrease in different regions.
17. Viewed from origin a price distorting tax creates a new budget line with a ______ slope relative to the budget line without the tax.
a. less steep
b. more steep
c. similar
d. varying
18. A $0.30 per unit tax is imposed on a good that reduces the quantity supplied and demanded by 1000 units. What is the deadweight loss (ignore price elasticities)?
a. $300.00
b. $100.00
c. $150.00
d. Cannot be determined.
19. If a per unit tax is imposed, but the quantity supplied and demanded does not change then:
a. the demand is perfectly inelastic.
b. the supply is perfectly inelastic.
c. there is no deadweight loss.
d. All of the above.
20. The efficiency-loss ratio relative to tax is:
a. the deadweight loss less the tax revenue.
b. the deadweight loss divided by the tax revenue reduced by one.
c. the excess burden divided by the tax revenue.
d. None of the above.

CHAPTER 12
Budget Balance and
Government Debt
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. From 1950 to 2009, the federal government budget has been in balance in most years.
2. The high employment budget deficit implies that increases in economic activity will not eliminate the actual deficit.
3. Other things being equal, an increase in government borrowing is likely to increase interest rates.
4. If taxpayers anticipate future tax increases when government borrows to finance deficits, increased government borrowing will increase interest rates.
5. As of 2008, the amount of federal debt outstanding was equal to twice the annual GDP.
6. From 1950 to 1980, the value of the federal debt as a percent of GDP declined.
7. More than 50 percent of the federal debt in recent years has been outside debt.
8. An increase in market rates of interest tends to decrease the market value of outstanding govern¬ment debt.
9. Deficit finance postpones taxation from the present to the future.
10. The burden of the debt is borne by those who purchase government bonds.
11. The federal government budget recorded surpluses between 1998 and 2001.
12. State and local governments are usually required by state law to keep the budgets in balance.
13. If business and personal saving are constant, then a federal budget deficit will have no impact on national saving.
14. Other things being equal, a government surplus increases the supply of loanable funds available for investment.
15. State revenue bonds are backed by the taxing power of state governments.
16. A federal budget surplus can lead to more credit being available for productive activity.
17. A federal budget deficit can strain credit markets forcing the real rate of interest to decrease.
18. The U.S. deficit in the 1980s was structural in the sense that federal spending would exceed federal revenue even at a level of full employment.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The outstanding federal debt will decline in value if:
a. budget deficits continue.
b. the government runs a budget surplus.
c. the market rate of interest increases.
d. either (b) or (c)
2. The federal budget has been in deficit:
a. for every year between 1970 and 1997.
b. for every year between 1950 and 1997.
c. only since 1980.
d. for every year between 1960 and 1997.
3. The high employment deficit is estimated at $100 billion. Assuming that the economy is operating below full employment and that it will not overheat during the year,
a. the actual budget is not in deficit.
b. increasing GDP will eliminate the deficit.
c. increasing GDP will not eliminate the deficit.
d. the actual budget is in surplus.
4. An increase in government borrowing has no effect on the willingness of citizens to save or on the demand for credit. Increased borrowing to cover deficits will therefore:
a. reduce interest rates.
b. increase interest rates.
c. have no effect on interest rates.
d. not require increased taxes in the future.
5. As a result of government borrowing to cover deficits, citizens increase the supply of savings to provide themselves with funds to pay anticipated increases in future taxes. Then it follows that increased government borrowing will:
a. reduce private investment.
b. increase private investment.
c. have no effect of private investment.
d. increase interest rates.
e. both (a) and (d)
6. The total dollar value of the federal debt outstanding is:
a. more than 50 percent of GDP.
b. more than 100 percent of GDP.
c. less than 50 percent of GDP.
d. less than 10 percent of GDP.
7. The federal government, its agencies, and the Federal Reserve System:
a. are not permitted to hold outstanding federal debt.
b. hold 50 percent of the outstanding federal debt.
c. hold between 15 and 25 percent of the outstanding federal debt.
d. hold 75 percent of the outstanding federal debt.
8. The largest portion of the net federal debt outstanding is owed to:
a. foreigners.
b. U.S. citizens and companies.
c. federal government agencies.
d. state and local governments.
9. The debt of state and local governments is mostly:
a. internal.
b. external.
c. owed to citizens of other nations.
d. worthless.
10. Government borrowing will:
a. postpone taxation to the future.
b. increase government interest cost.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. eliminate taxes.
11. Which of the following is true about the federal government budget balance in the United States?
a. The federal budget has never had a surplus.
b. The federal budget had a surplus every year from 1970 to 2008.
c. The federal budget had a surplus from 1998 until 2001.
d. The federal budget had a deficit from 1998 until 2001.
12. Which of the following can contribute to a decrease in national saving?
a. a federal budget deficit
b. an increase in the state and local government aggregate surplus
c. a federal budget surplus
d. an increase in personal saving
13. Other things being equal, a government budget surplus:
a. increases the demand for loanable funds.
b. increases the supply of loanable funds.
c. is likely to increase market equilibrium interest rates.
d. is unlikely to affect market equilibrium interest rates.
14. If the federal government runs a surplus consistently, then which of the following is likely to occur?
a. National saving will decline.
b. The gross federal debt will increase.
c. The gross federal debt will decrease.
d. Market equilibrium interest rates are likely to rise as a result of the surpluses.
15. General obligation bonds of state and local governments are:
a. backed by revenue from public facilities such as sports stadiums.
b. backed by the taxing power of state and local governments.
c. usually used to finance transfer payments.
d. usually used to finance capital expenditures.
e. both (b) and (d)
16. A bond that is backed by the tolls collected from a bridge to be constructed from the proceeds of the bond is an example of:
a. a general obligation bond.
b. a non-obligation bond.
c. a revenue bond.
d. none of the above.
17. Evidence of “crowding out” in the market for loanable funds at a rate of 8% could be:
a. private investors who will borrow only at a rate lower than 8%.
b. private investors who are willing to accept a rate higher than 8% for borrowing.
c. a government surplus.
d. a social security surplus.
18. High-employment deficit or surplus is:
a. an extreme economic situation requiring emergency measures.
b. the amount of deficit or surplus available assuming current employment levels.
c. the amount of deficit or surplus available when employment is at its approximately full capacity.
d. the amount of deficit or surplus available when unemployment is at a relatively high level.
19. A government’s internal debt is:
a. debt owed to other government agencies.
b. debt owed to other governments.
c. debt owed to its citizens.
d. both (a) and (c).
20. The National Income and Product Accounts budget balance reflects:
a. an inflation-adjusted budget balance less social security surplus.
b. new debt resulting from a federal budget deficit.
c. the real budget balance.
d. the nominal budget balance.

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Chapters 1 Through 6

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO FINANCE FOR ENTREPRENEURS

True-False Questions

1. Entrepreneurs provide the financing to individuals who think, reason, and act to convert ideas into commercial opportunities and create opportunities.

2. Entrepreneurship is the process of changing ideas into commercial opportunities and creating value.

3. An entrepreneur is an individual who thinks, reasons, and acts to convert ideas into commercial opportunities and to create value.

4. Mark Twain once said, “I was always able to see an opportunity before it became one.”

5. Small businesses, those with less than 500 employees, represent over 99 percent of all employers, and account for about one-half of the gross domestic product in the United States.

6. Small and growing enterprises are critical to the U.S. economy; small firms provide 20 to 30 percent of net new jobs.

7. Small high-technology firms are responsible for twice as many product innovations per employee and obtain more patents per sales dollar than large high-technology firms.

8. Phillips and Kirchhoff, using Dun & Bradstreet data, found that 24 percent of new firms were still in existence after two years of operation.

9. Nearly half of business failures are due to economic factors such as inadequate sales, insufficient profits, and industry weakness.

10. Although the risks associated with starting a new entrepreneurial venture are large, there is always room for one more success.

11. Studies by Phillips and Kirchhoff, and by Headd, found that about 38%-40% of new firms survived six years of operation.

12. One study of Inc. magazine’s 500 high-growth firms suggests that about 88 percent of founders feel their firms’ successes are due to extraordinary ideas, while the remaining 12 percent feel their firms’ successes are due to exceptional execution of ordinary ideas.

13. “Fads” are large societal, demographic, or technological trends or changes that are slow in forming but once in place continue for many years.

14. “Fads” are not predictable, have short lives, and do not involve macro changes.

15. Three major megatrends discussed in Chapter 1 include: societal trends or changes, demographic trends or changes, and technological trends or changes.

16. In 1982, Harry Dent identified several major or megatrends shaping U.S. society and the world.

17. The so-called “baby boom” generation applies to people born in the United States during the 1946-1964 time period.

18. Perhaps the most important invention shuttling us from an industrial society to an information society is the computer chip.

19. Environmental commerce, or e-commerce, involves the use of electronic means to conduct business online.

20. The Office of Advocacy of the U.S. Small Business Administration documents that “employer firm births” have exceeded 700,000 annually in recent years.

21. Reasonable estimates place nonemployer (e.g., single person or small family) business started each year at less than 100,000.

22. Bill Gates once said: “I was seldom able to see an opportunity, until it ceased to be one.”

23. A study by Phillips and Kirchhoff using Dun & Bradstreet data found that about three-fourths of new firms were still in existence after two years of operation.

24. Studies by Phillips and Kirchhoff, and by Headd, found that one-half of new firms or new employers were still in existence after four years of operation.

25. Nine principles of entrepreneurial finance are identified and explored in this entrepreneurial finance textbook,

26. The “time value of money” is an important component of the rent one pays for using someone else’s financial capital.

27. A venture’s financial objective is to survive.

28. Private financial markets are a place where standardized contracts or securities are traded on organized security exchanges with restrictions on how they can be transferred.

29. Free cash flow is the net income forecast to be available to the venture’s owners over time.

30. Free cash flows are adjusted for risk and the time value of money when used to calculate the value of a venture.

31. Free cash exists when cash exceeds that which is needed to operate, pay creditors, and invest in assets.

32. Free cash is all the cash available to cover operating expenses.

33. Owner-manager (agency) conflicts are differences between manager’s self-interest and that of the owners who hired the manager.

34. The owner-debtholder conflict is the divergence of the owners’ and lenders’ self-interest as the firm gets close to going “public.”

35. The financial objective of increasing value is inconsistent with developing positive character and reputation.

36. Entrepreneurial finance is the application and adaptation of financial tools and techniques to the planning, funding, operations, and valuation of an entrepreneurial venture.

37. Financial distress occurs when cash flow is insufficient to meet current debt obligations.

38. The second stage in a successful venture’s life cycle is the startup stage.

39. The rapid growth stage directly follows the startup stage.

40. Early-stage ventures include firms in their development, startup, or survival live cycle stages.

41. Business angels are wealthy individuals acting as informal or private investors, who provide venture financing for small businesses.

42. Mezzanine financing is temporary financing needed to keep the venture afloat until the next offering.

43. “Crises and bubbles” and “emerging economies and global change” are considered to be sources of entrepreneurial opportunities.

44. In Chapter I five mega-trend categories are identified as sources of entrepreneurial opportunities.

45. Entrepreneurial opportunities can occur only when there are societal changes in the world.

46. One principal of entrepreneurial finance is “risk and expected reward go hand in hand.

47. While cash is the language of business, accounting is the currency.

48. Venture character and reputation can be assets or liabilities.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Successful entrepreneurs exhibit which of the following traits?
a. recognize and seize commercial opportunities
b. economic pessimism
c. tend to be doggedly optimistic
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

2. While one must be careful to avoid too many generalizations about entrepreneurial traits or characteristics, which one of the following characteristics would not normally be associated with successful entrepreneurs?
a. being able to see and seize a commercial opportunity
b. planning for the venture’s future
c. only being able to see an opportunity after it ceases to be one
d. being optimistic about the venture’s success

3. About one-half of all newly created businesses in the U.S. are dissolved or cease operations within how many years after being started?
a. two years
b. four years
c. six years
d. eight years

4. About 60 percent of all newly created businesses in the U.S. are dissolved or cease operations within how many years after being started?
a. two years
b. four years
c. six years
d. eight years

5. “Fads” are:
a. not predictable
b. have short lives
c. do not involve macro changes
d. all of the above

6. Harry Dent documented major generation waves in the United States during the twentieth century in:
a. 1972
b. 1982
c. 1993
d. 2003

7. “E-commerce” refers to:
a. environmental commerce
b. electronic commerce
c. economic commerce
d. exploratory commerce

8. While entrepreneurial opportunities come from an almost unlimited number of sources, this textbook focuses on:
a. societal changes
b. demographic changes
c. technological changes
d. crises and bubbles
e. emerging economies and global changes
f. all of the above

9. Indicate the number of principles of entrepreneurial finance that are emphasized in this textbook:
a. one
b. three
c. five
d. seven
e. nine

10. Maximizing the value of the venture to its owners is the common financial goal of which of the following?
a. the entrepreneur
b. the debtholders
c. the venture equity investors
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

11. Which of the following is considered to be an “agency” conflict?
a. owner-manager conflict
b. stockholder-manager conflict
c. stockholder-debtholder conflict
d. manager-debtholder conflict

12. Which one of the following possible conflicts of interest is usually minimized through the use of equity incentives?
a. owner-manager conflicts
b. owner-employee conflicts
c. manager-employee conflicts
d. manager-debtholder conflicts

13. Which one of the following possible conflicts of interest increases in divergence at venture gets close to bankruptcy?
a. owner-manager conflict
b. owner-employee conflict
c. manager-employee conflict
d. manager-debtholder conflict

14. Which of the following is not a life cycle stage of a successful venture?
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. cash cow stage
e. early-maturity stage

15. Which of the following does not describe activity during the venture’s life cycle startup stage?
a. venture’s organization
b. venture’s development
c. operating cash flows are generated
d. initial revenue model is put in place

16. At which stage of the venture’s life cycle stage is best characterized by the period when revenues start to grow and when cash flows from operations begin covering cash outflows?
a. survival stage
b. startup stage
c. rapid growth stage
d. early-maturity stage

17. Which is not a major source of start-up financing for a venture’s startup stage?
a. entrepreneur’s assets
b. business operations
c. family and friends
d. business angels
e. venture capitalists

18. Obtaining bank loan, issuing bonds, and issuing stock is characteristic of which type of financing during the venture’s life cycle?
a. seed financing
b. second round financing
c. mezzanine financing
d. seasoned financing
e. liquidity stage financing

19. During a venture’s rapid growth stage, funds for plant expansion, marketing expenditures, working capital, and product or service improvements is obtained through?
a. seed financing
b. second round financing
c. mezzanine financing
d. seasoned financing
e. liquidity stage financing

20. Founder and venture investor shares are sold to the public after the initial offering to the public is called?
a. secondary market transaction
b. secondary stock offering
c. venture offering
d. bridge loan

21. Which of the following advise and assist corporations on the type, timing, and costs of issuing new debt and equity securities and facilitate the sale of firms?
a. brokerage firms
b. venture law firms
c. specialist firms
d. investment banking firms

22. Which stage in the venture life cycle is characterized by creating and building value, obtaining additional financing, and examining opportunities?
a. survival stage
b. startup stage
c. rapid growth stage
d. early-maturity stage

23. Which of these statements is correct?
a. The development stage occurs between the startup and survival stages of a venture’s life cycle
b. The early-maturity stage is the final stage of a new venture’s lifecycle
c. Firms typically begin to cover all expenses with internally-generated funds during the survival stage
d. During the startup stage, revenues grow much more rapidly than cash expenditures
e. None of the above

24. The last three stages of a successful venture’s life cycle occur in the following order:
a. startup, development, rapid growth
b. startup, survival, rapid growth
c. survival, rapid growth, early-maturity
d. development, startup, survival

25. The stage that precedes the middle stage in a successful venture’s life cycle is called the:
a. rapid growth stage
b. early-maturity stage
c. development stage
d. survival stage
e. startup stage

26. During the maturity stage of a venture’s life cycle, the primary source of funds is in the form of:
a. mezzanine financing
b. seed financing
c. startup financing
d. first round financing
e. seasoned financing

27. The type of financing that occurs during the development stage of a venture’s life cycle is typically referred to as:
a. seed financing
b. startup financing
c. first round financing
d. second round financing
e. mezzanine financing

28. Mezzanine financing is associated with which one of the following life cycle stages:
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. rapid growth stage
e. early-maturity stage

29. Entrepreneurial finance is the application and adaptation of financial tools and techniques to an entrepreneurial venture. Entrepreneurial finance involves:
a. planning
b. funding
c. operations
d. valuation
e. a and d above
f. all of the above

30. The first three stages of a successful venture’s life cycle occur in the following order:
a. development, rapid growth, survival
b. startup, development, rapid growth
c. startup, survival, rapid growth
d. survival, rapid growth, early-maturity
e. development, startup, survival

31. The last stage in a successful venture’s life cycle is called the:
a. rapid growth stage
b. early-maturity stage
c. development stage
d. survival stage
e. startup stage

32. The type of financing that occurs during the survival stage of a venture’s life cycle is typically referred to as the:
a. seed financing
b. startup financing
c. first round financing
d. second round financing
e. mezzanine financing

33. Which one of the following would not be considered a type of venture financing?
a. seed financing
b. startup financing
c. mezzanine financing
d. liquidity-stage financing
e. seasoned financing

34. One study of successful entrepreneurs indicated that a majority felt that the most important factor in the long-term success of their ventures was:
a. being greedy
b. having high ethical standards
c. working hard
d. taking frequent vacations

35. Financial markets where customized contracts or securities are negotiated, created, and held with restrictions on how they can be transferred are called:
a. private financial markets
b. public financial markets
c. domestic financial markets
d. international financial markets
e. all of the above

36. The time value of money concept is associated with which one of the following principles of entrepreneurial finance:
a. real, human, and financial capital must be rented from owners
b. risk and expected reward go hand in hand
c. while accounting is the language of business, cash is the currency
d. it is dangerous to assume that people act against their own self-interests

37. The goal of the entrepreneurial process is to:
a. develop opportunities
b. gather resources
c. manage and build operations
d. create value

38. Which of the following is not considered to be a mega-trend in this textbook?
a. societal, demographic, and technological changes
b. crises and bubbles
c. fads
d. emerging economies and global changes

Supplementary Questions (may require basic knowledge of probability and/or prior introductory accounting and business concepts)

1. You have the opportunity of making a $5,000 investmen The outcomes one year from now will be either $4,500 or $6,000 with an equal chance of either outcome occurring. What is the expected outcome?
a. $4,500
b. $6,000
c. $5,250
d. $5,750
e. $5,000

2. You have the opportunity of making a $5,000 investmen The outcomes one year from now will be either $5,000 or $6,000 with an equal chance of either outcome occurring. What is the expected rate of return?
a. 10%
b. 15%
c. 20%
d. 25%
e. 30%

3. A project requires an initial investment of $1,000,000. In one year, there is a 40% chance of a $950,000 return; a 50% chance of a $1,200,000 return; and a 10% chance of a $2,000,000 return. What is the project’s expected return one year from now?
a. 12.8%
b. 15.5%
c. 18.0%
d. 38.3%

4. Lindsey and Tobias have the opportunity to invest in a project that requires an investment of $3,000. There is a 35% chance of a $2,900 return; a 40% chance of a $3,400 return; and a 25% chance of a $4,500 return one year from now. Lindsey requires a 15% return on the project after the first year, but Tobias requires a return of only 12%. Using the expected rate of return:
a. Lindsey and Tobias should both invest in the project
b. Only Tobias should invest in the project
c. Only Lindsey should invest in the project
d. Lindsey and Tobias should both reject the project

5. You are considering investing in two independent projects “A” and “B”. Project A requires an initial investment of $12,000. In one year, there is a 30% chance of a $10,500 return; a 50% chance of a $12,500 return; and a 20% chance of a $14,500 return. Project B requires an initial investment of $1,000. In one year, there is a 25% chance of a $950 return; a 25% chance of a $1,000 return; and a 50% chance of a $1,200 return. If you require a 7% return on your investment after one year, you should:
a. Accept A and reject B
b. Accept B and reject A
c. Accept both projects
d. Reject both projects

6. Assume that you can sell a new product at $5.00 per uni Your variable costs are $3.00 per unit and you fixed costs are $20,000. What is your breakeven point in sales units?
a. 5,000
b. 7,500
c. 10,000
d. 12,500
e. 15,000

7. Assume that you can sell a new product at $5.00 per uni Your variable costs are $3.00 per unit and you fixed costs are $20,000. What will be your profit before taxes if you sell 12,000 units next year?
a. $0
b. $1,000
c. $2,000
d. $4,000
e. $8,000

CHAPTER 2

DEVELOPING THE BUSINESS IDEA

True-False Questions

1. For ventures that first get to market or create intellectual property rights, it’s common to price new products or services at high markups or profit margins.

2. Lifestyle firms are growth-driven in terms of revenues, profits, and cash flows and also performance-oriented as reflected in rapid value creation over time.

3. “Salary-replacement” firms provide their owners with income levels comparable to what they could have earned working for much larger firms.

4. An entrepreneur may start a number of different types of businesses, including salary-replacement firms, lifestyle firms, and entrepreneurial firms or ventures.

5. “Entrepreneurial ventures” are firms that allow owners to pursue specific lifestyles while being paid for doing what they like to do.

6. Entrepreneurial ventures emphasize survival and providing an acceptable living for their owners with growth being a secondary goal.

7. A sound business model is a plan to generate investor interest, make profits, and grow asset investments.

8. A sound business model should provide a plan to generate revenues, make profits, and produce free cash flows.

9. Mark Twain said: “Like I tell anybody, if you fail to plan, you’re planning to fail.”

10. Best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms applied in the marketing practices area include “developing new products or services that are considered to be the bes ”

11. Best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms applied in the marketing practices area include “preparing detailed monthly financial plans for the next year and annual financial plans for the next five years.

12. Best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms applied in the financial practices area include “preparing detailed monthly financial plans for the next year and annual financial plans for the next five years.

13. Best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms applied in the management practices area include “assembling a management team that is balanced in both functional area coverage and industry/market knowledge.”

14. Business opportunities, because they exist in real time, have a relatively narrow window of opportunity to become a successful business venture. However being the first to market does not guarantee success.

15. Ideas that are said to be “ahead of their time” are too early to become viable business opportunities for the inventor or innovator.

16. Once conceptualized, a new idea should be examined for its business feasibility.

17. A SWOT analysis is an examination of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to determine the business opportunity viability of an idea.

18. A SWOT analysis focuses on strengths (S), worries (W), opportunities (O), and treats (T).

19. A “venture opportunity screening” is the same thing as preparing a business plan.

20. A SWOT analysis should consider as potential strengths or weaknesses whether there are unfilled customer needs and the extent to which intellectual property rights exis

21. A SWOT analysis should consider the extent of existing competition and the likelihood of substitute products or services as potential strengths or opportunities.

22. Venture opportunity screening involves assessment of an idea’s commercial potential to produce revenue growth, financial performance, and value.

23. A venture with a low score on the VOS Indicator should always be abandoned.

24. The VOS Indicator is useful in assessing the commercial potential of a venture, but should not be used as the sole tool to determine a venture’s fate.

25. The VOS Indicator provides both qualitative and quantitative information about a venture’s commercial potential.

26. A venture opportunity-screening guide, called the VOS Indicator, is used to determine potential attractiveness of venture opportunities as business opportunities.

27. Asset intensity is the net after-tax profit divided by total assets.

28. One way to describe asset intensity is the dollar investment in assets needed to generate a dollar in sales.

29. Business changes resulting in higher net profit always increases ROA.

30. The compound rate of return that equates the present value of the cash inflows with the initial investment outlay is called the internal rate of return (IRR).

31. Bootstrapping refers to the process of minimizing resources such as the need for financial capital and finding unique sources for financing a new venture.

32. Free cash flow to equity is the cash flow from producing and selling a product or providing a service.

33. In a typical business plan, the section covering the management team does not need to disclose the expertise and experience of the managemen

34. The non-financial option available to managers as the venture progresses through its lifecycle is known as real options.

35. The process of moving from entrepreneurial opportunities to new businesses, products, or services begins with ideas, then moves to the preparation of a business plan, and finally ends with a feasibility study.

36. A well-designed entrepreneurial venture bins with an idea that survives an analysis of its feasibility and results in a business model/plan.

37. A successful, sound business model does not have to ultimately produce free cash flows.

38. The first component of a sound business model is the need to generate revenues.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Firms that allow owners to pursue specific lifestyles while being paid for doing what they like to do are referred to as:
a. salary-replacement firms
b. lifestyle firms
c. entrepreneurial ventures
d. rapid value creation firms

2. U.S. small businesses are predominately:
a. salary-replacement or entrepreneurial firms
b. lifestyle or entrepreneurial firms
c. entrepreneurial ventures
d. salary-replacement or lifestyle firms

3. The definition of an entrepreneurial firm is:
a. survival, high growth
b. high growth, high performance
c. survival, average performance
d. high, growth, average performance

4. A sound business model provides a plan which includes all of the following except?
a. generates revenues
b. makes profits
c. retains all its earnings
d. produces free cash flows
e. all of the above are included

5. A sound business model includes a plan to:
a. generate revenues, make profits
b. make profits, produce free cash flows
c. produce free cash flows for the owners of the venture
d. generate revenues, make profits, and produce free cash flows

6. Which one of the following components is not a standard component of a sound business model?
a. produce low-cost products
b. generate revenues
c. make profits
d. produce free cash flows

7. Free cash flows, which can be paid back to investors occurs when cash generated from operations exceeds all of the following except?
a. borrowing costs
b. non-cash depreciation
c. taxes
d. investment in assets

8. A venture’s value is determined by
a. the size and timing of its future free cash flows
b. time value of money
c. its net income
d. a and b
e. a and c

9. Developing new and delivering high-quality products or services that command higher prices and margins best describes strong
a. marketing practices
b. financial practices
c. operating practices
d. management practices

10. Effective entrepreneurial management teams should include all of the following except?
a. provide expertise in the areas of marketing, finance, and operations
b. have successful experience in the venture’s industry and markets
c. work collaboratively with each other
d. share the entrepreneurial spirit
e. in-house accounting, auditing, and tax professionals

11. A viable venture opportunity is characterized by all of the following except?
a. creating or meeting a customer need
b. has perceived attraction to prospective investors
c. provides an initial competitive advantage
d. is timely in terms of time-to-market
e. offers the expectation of added value to investors

12. A SWOT analysis does not focus on which of the following components or areas?
a. strengths
b. weaknesses
c. new ideas
d. opportunities
e. threats

13. A SWOT analysis focuses on which of the following components or areas?
a. strengths
b. weaknesses
c. opportunities
d. threats
e. all of the above
a, b, and d

14. When conducting a SWOT analysis, “unfilled customer needs” are examined in terms of:
a. strengths
b. weaknesses
c. opportunities
d. threats
e. a or b
c or d

15. SWOT analysis should at the very least consider which of the following areas:
a. experience/expertise
b. reputation value
c. first mover
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

16. Which one of the following is not a part of the VOS indicator?
a. industry/market considerations
b. pricing/profitability considerations
c. financial/harvest considerations
d. management team considerations
e. location/profitability considerations

17. The evaluation of “entry barriers” occurs under which one of the following parts of the VOS indicator?
a. industry/market considerations
b. pricing/profitability considerations
c. financial/harvest considerations
d. management team considerations

18. A VOS indicator stands for:
a. venture opportunity screening indicator
b. viable opportunity statement indicator
c. venture only success indicator
d. viable assessment screening indicator

19. The factor categories in a VOS indicator are:
a. industry/market considerations
b. pricing/profitability considerations
c. financial/harvest considerations
d. management team considerations
e. all of the above
a, b, and d

20. A “score” in the range of 2.34-3.00 using the VOS IndicatorTM ¬¬¬¬ ¬would be considered a:
a. a low score
b. an average score
c. a high score
d. a very, very high score

21. An average score on using the VOS Indicator¬TM would fall in the range:
a. 0.00-0.99
b. 1.00-1.66
c. 1.67-2.33
d. 2.34-3.00

22. At the end of a qualitative-based venture opportunity screening exercise, the interviewer prepares a subjective assessment and indicates one of the following except for:
a. natural commercial potential
b. high commercial potential
c. average commercial potential
d. low commercial potential

23. Direct costs of producing a product or providing a service is called
a. gross profit
b. gross profit margin
c. net profit
d. net profit margin
e. cost of goods sold

24. Revenues minus the cost of goods sold is called
a. gross profit
b. gross profit margin
c. net profit
d. net profit margin

25. Dollar profit left after all expenses, including financing costs and taxes have been deducted from the firm’s revenues is called
a. gross profit
b. gross profit margin
c. net profit
d. net profit margin
e. cost of goods sold

26. Return on assets can be stated as which of the following?
a. net after-tax profit divided by total assets
b. net profit margin times asset turnover
c. net cash flow divided by total assets
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

27. All else held constant, a higher asset turnover:
a. increases ROA
b. decreases ROA
c. has no effect on ROA
d. may raise or lower ROA, depending on how it affects revenues.

28. The return on assets (ROA) model measures:
a. revenues divided by net profit times the asset turnover
b. net profit margin times the equity multiplier
c. net profit margin times asset turnover
d. net profit divided by total assets multiplied by the asset turnover

29. Free cash flow to equity is the cash available to the entrepreneur and venture investors after all of the following except?
a. net cash flows
b. operating cash outflows
c. financing and tax cash flows
d. investment in assets needed to sustain the venture’s group
e. net increase in debt capital

30. The free cash flows to equity of an entrepreneurial firm includes cash flows to:
a. venture investors
b. creditors
c. the entrepreneur
d. a and b
e. a and c
f a, b, and c

31. Determine the cost of goods sold for a venture with the following financial information: revenues = $50,000; net profit margin = 20%;
gross profit margin = 70%
a. $40,000
b. $35,000
c. $15,000
d. $10,000

32. Determine gross profit of a venture with the following
financial information: cost of goods sold = $30,000; net profit = $17,000; asset turnover = 1.6; return on assets 32%
a. $85,000
b. $72,000
c. $55,000
d. $38,000
33. Determine the return on assets (ROA) for a venture with the following financial information: revenues = $500,000; net profit = $70,000; and asset turnover = 2.00 times.
a. 10%
b. 14%
c. 20%
d. 28%
e. 34%

34. Determine the dollar amount of total assets for a venture with the following financial information: revenues = $500,000; net profit = $70,000; and asset turnover = 2.00 times.
a. $100,000
b. $250,000
c. $375,000
d. $500,000
e. $650,000

35. Determine the dollar amount of net profit for a venture with the following financial information: revenues = $500,000; return on assets = 20%; and asset turnover = 2.00 times.
a. $10,000
b. $25,000
c. $50,000
d. $60,000
e. $75,000

36. Determine the dollar amount of revenues for a venture with the following financial information: net profit = $60,000; assets turnover = 1.5 times; and return on assets 30%.
a. $300,000
b. $500,000
c. $800,000
d. $1,000,000
e. $1,200,000

37. Determine the asset intensity of a venture with the following financial information: net profit = $22,000; revenues = $132,000; return on assets 30%. a. .05
b. .56
c. 1.8
d. 20

38. In the venture life cycle, moving from the development stage to the startup stage frequently begins with the preparation of a business plan. The business plan is a written document that describes the proposed venture in all of the following terms except:
a. the proposed product or service opportunity
b. the accounting data for the last five years
c. current resources available to the venture
d. financial projections

39. A typical business plan includes all of the following sections except:
a. executive summary
b. business description
c. marketing plan and strategy
d. disclosure of pending litigation
e. operations and support

40. When composing the financial plans and projections section of a business plan, all of the following should be included except:
a. income statements and balance sheets
b. statement of cash flows
c. past and present dividend per share information
d. breakeven analysis
e. funding needs and sources

41. A typical business plan includes all of the following except:
a. management team
b. financial plans and projections
c. risk and opportunities
d. timeline and milestones
e. initial public offering information

42. The first two requirements of a sound business model are:
a. generate revenues, make profits
b. make profits, produce free cash flows
c. produce free cash flows for creditors and owners of the venture
generate revenues and produce free cash flows

43. The process involving minimizing the need for financial capital and finding unique sources for financing a new venture is referred to as:
a. mezzanine financing
b. financial bootstrapping
c. seed financing
d. startup financing

44. A written document that describes the proposed venture in terms of the product or service opportunity, current resources, and financial projections is called a:
a. financial plan
b. business plan
c. entrepreneurial plan
d. survival plan

45. In the Kauffman Center study of best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms, which of the following practices was not included?
a. marketing practices
b. financial practices
c. management practices
d. production/operations practices

46. When moving from entrepreneurial opportunities to new businesses, products, or services, which one of the following is not considered a component?
a. ideas
b. feasibility
c. business plan
d. harvest of venture

47. A firm’s option to abandon a venture is an example of a:
a. bootstrapping option
b. financial option
c. survival option
d. real option

48. A venture’s value to its owners is determined by the:
a. size and timing of its future free cash flows (to equity)
b. level of its past revenues
c. prior losses and expenses
d. all of the above

49. A well-designed entrepreneurial venture typically includes:
a. generating ideas
b. analyzing the feasibility of ideas
c. producing business models/plans
d. only a and c above
e. a, b, and c above

50. Some venture investors like to draw analogies between baseball terms and venture performance. The baseball term used to reflect a total loss of an investment is:
a. home run
b. single
c. strikeout
d. double

CHAPTER 3

ORGANIZING AND FINANCING A NEW VENTURE

True-False Questions

1. The difference between a limited partnership and a general partnership is that the limited partnership has partners who actively manage the day-to-day operations but also has passive investors.

2. A limited partnership limits certain partners’ liabilities to pay the venture’s obligations to the amount each paid for their partnership interests.

3. In a corporate legal entity, the personal assets of the owners are separate from the business’ assets, but the personal liabilities of the owners are no

4. Limited liability in the corporate business structure means creditors can seize only some of the corporation’s assets.

5. The articles of incorporation are the basic legal declarations contained in the corporate charter.

6. Limited liability companies (LLCs) are owned by shareholders with limited liability and its earnings are taxed at the corporate rate.

7. Partnerships are treated with pass-through taxation. This means that profits and losses of the business pass directly through to investors on the basis specified in the partnership agreemen

8. An employment contract is an agreement between an employer and employee about the terms and conditions of employment including the employee’s agreement to keep confidential information secret and to assign ideas and inventions to the employer.

9. Financial bootstrapping maximizes the need for financial capital.

10. The income received by a proprietorship is taxed at personal tax rates.

11. The equity capital sources for a proprietorship are partners, families, and friends.

12. The maximum number of owners in a Subchapter S corporation is 150.

13. An S corporation provides unlimited liability for its shareholders.

14. Professional corporations (PCs) and service corporations (SCs) are corporate structures that “states” provide for professionals such as physicians, dentists, lawyers, and accountants.

15. The marginal tax rate for the first dollar of taxable income is higher for corporations than for individuals.

16. Based on 201209 tax laws, the highest possible marginal tax table rate is higher for corporations than for individuals.

17. The highest marginal income tax rate for taxable personal income is 45 percen

18. There are four types of “marks” that can be used to try to protect intellectual property.

19. Patents, trade secrets, trademarks, and copyrights are intangible assets.

20. “Certification marks” cover memberships in groups (e.g., a sorority or a labor union).

21. “Collective marks” cover memberships in groups (e.g., a sorority or a labor union).

22. Most trademarks take the form of names, words, or graphic designs.

23. A “color mark” is considered to be one four types of “marks” used to try to protect intellectual property.

24. A copyright must be registered with the U.S. Copyright Office in order for a work to be protected.

25. A work does not need to be registered to receive copyright protection; the work’s creation is enough to provide copyright protection.

26. There are four kinds of patents.

27. “Business method” is one kind of paten

28. An idea is enough to be patented.

29. “Design patents” cover most inventions pertaining to new products, services, and processes.

30. “Business method” patents protect a specific way of doing business and the underlying computer codes, programs, and technology.

31. “Patents” are intellectual property rights granted for inventions that are useful, novel, and obvious.

32. Nondisclosure agreements prohibit the creator of an idea or other form of intellectual property from sharing it with others once it has been presented the first time.

33. Confidential disclosure agreements are used to protect intellectual property when disclosure must be made to an outside individual or organization.

34. “Certification marks” are intellectual property rights in the form of inventions and information (e.g., formulas, processes, customer lists, etc.) not generally known to others.

35. “Trademarks” are intellectual property rights that allow firms to differentiate their products and services through the use of unique marks.

36. A trademark must be novel in order to receive protection.

37. Business angels are wealthy individuals who invest in early-stage ventures in exchange for the excitement of launching the business, as well as a share of the firm’s financial gains.

38. “Service marks” refer to services such as those provided by a sorority or a labor union.

39. “Certification marks” provide indications of quality.

40. Copyrights are intellectual property rights to writings in printed and electronically stored forms.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. In which form of business organization are the owners not offered the protection of limited liability?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. limited liability corporation

2. In which form of business organization is the taxation effects characterized by the income flowing to shareholders taxed at personal tax rates?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. general partnership

3. Which form of business organization is characterized by having the shortest start-up time and lowest legal costs?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. limited liability corporation

4. Which form of business organization typically offers the easiest transfer of ownership?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. general partnership

5. Which form of business organization is characterized as having unlimited life?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. limited liability corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. general partnership

6. Which of the following is not a right or a duty of general partners?
a. participation in profits and losses
b. some liability for partnership obligations
c. veto right on new partners
d. eventual return of capital
e. access to partnership books

7. The rules and procedures established to govern the corporation are called the
a. corporate charter
b. articles of incorporation
c. corporate bylaws
d. confidentiality disclosure agreements
e. partnership agreements

8. In a general partnership, legal action that treats all partners equally as a group is called:
a. joint and several liability
b. joint liability
c. limited liability
d. accrued liability
e. general liability

9. Which of the following business organizational forms provides the owners with limited investor liability and passes its income before taxes through to the owners?
a. partnership
b. subchapter S (or S) corporation
c. regular or (C ) corporation
d. limited liability company (LLC)
e. both a and b
f. both b and d

10. Which of the following numbers of shareholders is allowed in a Subchapter S (or S) corporation business form?
a. 74
b. 125
c. 130
d. 500

11. Based on 2012 tax schedules, the first dollar of personal taxable income is taxed at which of the following marginal tax rates:
a. 05.0%
b. 10.0%
c. 15.0%
d. 20.0%
e. 25.0%

12. Based on 2012 tax schedules, the first dollar of corporate income is taxed at which of the following marginal tax rates:
a. 05.0%
b. 10.0%
c. 15.0%
d. 20.0%
e. 25.0%

13. Based on 2012 tax schedules, the highest marginal tax rate on personal taxable income is:
a. 25.0%
b. 28.0%
c. 33.0%
d. 35.0%
e. 40.0%

14. Based on 2012 tax schedules, the highest marginal tax rate on corporate taxable income is:
a. 25.0%
b. 28.0%
c. 35.0%
d. 38.0%
e. 39.0%

Note: The following information should be used for multiple choice questions 15-19. Following is a partial 2012 personal income tax schedule for a single filer:
Taxable Income

Beginning Ending Bracket Marginal
Amount Amount Amount Tax Rate
$1 $8,700 $8,700 0.10
$8,700 $35,350 $26,650 0.15
$35,350 $85,650 $50,300 0.25

15. The dollar amount of income taxes paid by a single filer who has taxable income of $8,700 would be:
a. $150
b. $870
c. $3,840
d. $4,675
e. $10,385

16. The cumulative dollar amount of income taxes paid by a single filer who has taxable income of $35,350 would be:
a. $150
b. $835
c. $3,840
d. $4,867.50
e. $10,385

17. The maximum dollar amount of income taxes in the $35,350-$85,650 “bracket” paid by a single filer with taxable income of $85,650 would be:
a. $150
b. $870
c. $3,997.50
d. $4,675
e. $12,575

18. The average tax rate for a single filer with taxable income of $35,350 would be:
e. 10.0%
f. 13.8%
g. 15.0%
h. 16.7%
i. 20.0%

19. The average tax rate for a single filer with taxable income of $85,650 would be:
a. 14.7%
b. 16.7%
b. 20.0%
c. 20.4%
d. 25.0%

Note: The following information should be used for multiple choice questions 20-36. Following is a partial 2012 corporate income tax schedule:

Taxable Income
Beginning Ending Bracket Marginal
Amount Amount Amount Tax Rate
$1 $50,000 $50,000 0.15
$50,000 $75,000 $25,000 0.25
$75,000 $100,000 $25,000 0.34

20. The dollar amount of income taxes paid by a corporation with taxable income of $50,000 would be:
a. $1,500
b. $6,250
c. $7,500
d. $8,500
e. $10,850

21. The cumulative dollar amount of income taxes paid by a corporation with taxable income of $75,000 would be:
a. $6,250
b. $7,500
c. $8,500
d. $13,750
e. $22,250

22. The maximum dollar amount of income taxes in the $75,000-$100,000 bracket paid by a corporation with taxable income of $100,000 would be:
a. $6,250
b. $7,500
c. $8,500
d. $13,750
e. $22,250

23. The average tax rate for a corporation with taxable income of $75,000 would be:
a. 15.0%
b. 18.3%
c. 20.0%
d. 22.7%
e. 25.0%

24. The average tax rate for a corporation with taxable income of $100,000 would be:
a. 15.0%
b. 16.75%
c. 20.0%
d. 22.25%
e. 25.0%

25. Intellectual property can be protected by all of the following except:
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

26. Which of the following are intellectual property rights granted for inventions that are useful, novel, and non-obvious?
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

27. Which of the following are intellectual property rights in the form of inventions and information such as formulas, processes, and customer lists that are not generally known to others and which convey economic advantage to the holders?
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

28. Which of the following are intellectual property rights that allow firms to differentiate their products and services through the use of unique marks which allow consumers to easily identify the source and quality of the products and services?
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

29. Which of the following are intellectual property rights to writings in written and electronically stored forms?
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

30. Which of the following are not sources of seed and start-up financing?
a. family and friends
b. the entrepreneur’s physical and financial assets
c. business angels
d. venture capitalists
e. stock and bond markets

31. Wealthy individuals who invest in early stage ventures in exchange for the excitement of launching a business and a share in any financial rewards are known as:
a. creditors
b. white knights
c. corporate raiders
d. business angels
e. stakeholders

32. Business angels typically initiate their investments during the:
a. early stages of a venture’s lifecycle
b. middle stages of a venture’s lifecycle
c. maturity stage of a venture’s lifecycle
d. all of the above

33. Which of the following forms of protecting intellectual property had its protection limit increased from 17 to 20 years?
a. copyrights
b. trademarks
c. patents
d. trade secrets

34. Patents are intellectual property rights granted for inventions that are:
a. not useful, novel, and non-obvious
b. not useful, not novel, and obvious
c. useful, novel, and non-obvious
d. useful, not novel, and obvious

35. Patents that cover most inventions pertaining to new products, services, and processes, are referred to as:
a. design patents
b. plant patents
c. utility patents
d. electrical patents
e. mechanical patents

36. Intellectual property rights to “writings” in written and electronically-stored forms are protected by:
a. Patents
b. copyrights
c. trade secrets
d. trademarks

37. Which of the following forms of protecting intellectual property currently has a protection limit of 20 years?
a. copyrights
b. patents
c. trade secrets
d. trademarks

38. Certification marks are typically used to:
a. indicate membership in a trade group
b. indicate a certain brand of service
c. indicate quality
d. are symbols used to associate products to a specific brand

39. Which of the following is not a “kind” of patent?
a. Utility
b. Design
c. Mark
d. Plant
e. Business method

40. Which of the following is not a “type” of mark?
a. Trademark
b. Service mark
c. Collective mark
d. Certification mark
e. Design mark

41. During the development stage, seed financing chiefly comprises:
a. funds from business angels and venture capitalists
b. the entrepreneur’s personal assets
c. funds from family and friends
d. a, b, and c
e. only b and c

42. The term that refers only to words, symbols, shapes, and similar items associated with products is:
a. trademarks
b. service marks
c. collective marks
d. certification marks

CHAPTER 4

PREPARING AND USING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

True-False Questions

1. Assets are financial and physical items controlled or owned by the business.

2. GAAP stands for “General American Accounting Principles.”

3. GAAP stands for “Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.”

4. The practice of recording economic activity when realized is known as accrual accounting.

5. Accrual accounting is the practice of recording economic activity when recognized rather than waiting until realized.

6. The balance sheet equation is: Total Assets = Total Liabilities + Net Income.

7. On the balance sheet, Total Liabilities = Total Assets – Owners Equity.

8. How quickly an asset can be converted into cash is called liability.

9. Cash or other assets that are expected to be converted into cash in less than one year are known as current liabilities.

10. The reduction in value of a fixed asset over its expected life intended to reflect the usage or wearing out of the asset is called accumulated depreciation.

11. Amounts owed to another for purchase made on credit which come due in less than one year are known as receivables.

12. Long-term, non-cancelable leases whereby the owner receives payments that cover the cost of the equipment plus a return on investment in the equipment is known as a capital lease.

13. Operating income, or earnings before interest and taxes, reflects the firm’s profits after all operating expenses, excluding financing costs, have been deducted from net sales.

14. Net income, or profit, is the bottom line measure of what’s left from the firm’s net sales after operating expenses, financing costs, and taxes have been deducted.

15. Net cash burn occurs when the sum of cash flows from operations and investing is positive.

16. Net cash build occurs when the sum of cash flows from operations and investing is negative.

17. During the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle, the balance sheet reflects the acquisition of initial assets and the obtaining of seed financing.

18. During the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle, the income statement typically shows no sales but expenses such as rent, utilities, and a subsistence salary for the entrepreneur.

19. During the startup stage in a new venture’s life cycle, the income statement typically shows no sales but expenses including the production and market of products or services.

20. Production assets (e.g., inventories and equipment to produce products and give credit to customers) usually occurs during the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle.

21. Seed financing (e.g., financing from the entrepreneur’s assets, family, and friends) usually occurs during the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle.

22. Startup financing (e.g., financing from business angels and venture capitalists) usually occurs during the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle.

23. “Cost of goods sold” is the cost of materials, labor, and advertising incurred to produce the products that were sold.

24. “Variable expenses” are costs or expenses that vary directly with revenues.

25. “Variable expenses” are costs that are expected to remain constant over a range of revenues for a specific time period.

26. EBDAT is earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization.

27. “Contribution profit margin” is the portion of the sale of a product that contributes to covering the cash fixed costs.

28. EBDAT stands for “Earnings Before Depreciation And Taxes”.

29. Cash fixed costs = survival revenues – variable cost revenue ratio × survival revenues.

True-false questions for Chapter 4, Appendix A:

1. “Economic value added” (EVA) measures a firm’s market value added over a specified time period.

2. Economic value added (EVA) is a measure of a firm’s economic profit over a specified time period.

3. NOPAT equals Net Sales multiplied by on minus the tax rate.

4. When EBIT is zero, a firm’s net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) also is zero because no taxes are payable.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Financial statement that provides a snapshot of a business’ financial position as of a specific date is called the:
a. income statement
b. balance sheet
c. statement of retained earnings
d. statement of cash flows

2. Financial statement that reports the revenues generated and expenses incurred over an accounting period is called the
a. income statement
b. balance sheet
c. statement of retained earnings
d. statement of cash flows

3. Financial statement that shows how cash, as reflected in accrual accounting, flows into and out of a company during a specific period of operation is called the:
a. income statement
b. balance sheet
c. statement of retained earnings
d. statement of cash flows

4. The balance sheet equation states that total assets =
b. total liabilities + depreciation
c. total liabilities + owners’ equity
d. owners’ equity + net income
e. owners’ equity + current liabilities
f. total liabilities + net income

5. Which one of the following is not considered to be a current asset?
a. cash
b. receivables
c. inventories
d. fixed assets

6. “Retained earnings” is:
a. a corporate asset
b. part of owners’ equity
c. neither a or b
d. both a and b

7. Cash includes all of the following except:
a. coins
b. currency
c. checking accounts
d. certificates of deposit

8. Which of the following is not a characteristic of marketable securities?
a. short-term
b. illiquid
c. high-quality
d. interest-bearing

9. Which of the following is not a characteristic of inventories?
a. raw materials
b. finished products
c. goods sold but not yet shipped
d. work-in-process

10. Which of the following is not depreciated?
a. inventory
b. machinery
c. land
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

11. Which of the following is a use of cash?
a. a decrease in inventory
b. an increase in accrued liabilities
c. the sale of an asset for a gain
d. a drop in the amount owed on a bond
e. an increase in stock issued

12. Which of the following is a source of cash?
a. an increase in accounts receivable
b. a decrease in wages payable
c. the acquisition of land
d. an increase in the amount owed on a note payable
e. the repurchase of outstanding shares of stock

13. Which of the following is not a category on the statement of cash flows?
a. cash flow from operating activities
b. cash flow from equity activities
c. cash flow from investing activities
d. cash flow from financing activities

Note: Use the following data for the next three problems (14, 15, & 16).
Acme Pest Control has sales of $13,500, cost of goods sold of $4,000, selling expenses of $3,500, depreciation of $2,000, interest expense of $2,000, and a tax rate of 34%.

14. What is Acme’s operating income?
a. $4,000
b. $2,000
c. $9,500
d. $6,000
e. $1,320

15. What is Acme’s taxable income and tax expense?
a. $6,000; $2,040
b. $2,000; $1,320
c. $4,000; $1,360
d. $2,000; $680
e. $9,500; $3,230

16. What is Acme’s net income?
a. $2,720
b. $897.60
c. $6,460
d. $2,040
e. $1,320

17. Your venture has total assets of $690, net fixed assets of $500, long term debt of $80, and stockholders’ equity of $400. What is the amount of your venture’s current liabilities?
a. -$100
b. $100
c. $210
d. $290
e. $1,090

18. In breakeven analysis, solving for when EBITDA is equal to zero gives breakeven in terms of:
a. economic revenues
b. variable costs
c. survival revenues
d. fixed costs

19. A lease that provides maintenance in addition to financing and is also usually cancelable is called:
a. capital lease
b. liability lease
c. operating lease
d. asset lease
e. equity lease

20. Which one of the following is not considered to be an internal operating schedule?
a. income statement
b. cost of production schedule
c. cost of goods sold schedule
d. inventories schedule

21. “Net cash burn” occurs when the sum of which of the following items is negative?
a. cash flows from operations and financing
b. cash flows from investing and financing
c. cash flows from operations and investing
d. cash flows from net income and depreciation
e. cash flows from operations and net income

22. Expenses or costs that vary directly with revenues are said to be:
a. fixed expenses
b. semi-fixed expenses
c. semi-variable expenses
d. variable expenses

23. EBDAT is equal to:
a. revenues – variable costs – cash fixed costs
b. revenues + variable costs + cash fixed costs
c. revenues – variables costs – total fixed costs
d. revenues + variable costs – cash fixed costs

24. “Gross earnings” is equal to:
a. Revenue – After-Tax cost of financial capital used
b. net income ÷ sales
c. (net sales – the cost of production) × tax rate
d. net sales – the cost of production

25. According to Appendix A of Chapter 4, NOPAT is defined as:
a. revenues times (1 + tax rate)
b. revenues times (1 – tax rate)
c. EBITDA times (1 – tax rate)
d. EBIT times (1 – tax rate)
e. net income times (1 + tax rate)

26. Last year a firm had sales of $200,000. Its cost of goods sold was $75,000, and administrative and marketing expenses were $25,000 each. Depreciation expense was $10,000, while interest expense was $15,000. If the tax rate is 30%, what was the firm’s NOPAT last year?
a. $19,500
b. $35,000
c. $45,500
d. $52,500
e. $80,500

27. What is the survival revenues breakeven based on: cash fixed costs = $400,000 and a variable cost revenue ratio = .65?
a. $460,500
b. $615,385
c. $1,142,857
d. $2,000,334
e. $4,000,667

28. Use the following information to determine the cash fixed costs: Administrative expenses = $200,000; Marketing expenses = $180,000; Depreciation expenses = $100,000; and Interest expenses = $20,000.
e. $380,000
f. $400,000
g. $480,000
h. $500,000
i. $620,000

29. Find the “contribution profit margin” based on the following information: cash fixed costs = $60,000; variable costs = $70,000; and sales = $100,000.
a. 70%
b. 60%
c. 30%
d. 40%
e. 100%

30. Find the “survival revenues” (SR), also known as the EBDAT breakeven) based on the following information: cash fixed costs = $60,000; variable costs = $70,000; and sales = $100,000.
a. $85,714
b. $100,000
c. $116,667
d. $200,000
e. $300,000

31. What is the survival revenues breakeven based on the following: Administrative expenses = $200,000; Marketing expenses = $180,000; Depreciation expenses = $100,000; and Interest expenses = $20,000; and a variable cost revenue ratio = .50?
a. $400,000
b. $600,000
c. $800,000
d. $1,000,000
e. $1,200,000

32. A firm with constant variable costs has a survival revenue breakeven of $375,000. This year it had $250,000 in sales, $100,000 of which was a fixed cos What are the firm’s cash fixed costs?
a. $150,000
b. $225,000
c. $625,000
d. $937,500

33. Last year, Beth’s Baked Goods exactly broke even with cash fixed costs of $63,000. If its breakeven survival revenue level was $94,000, what was its variable cost revenue ratio (VCRR)?
a. .27
b. .30
c. .33
d. .67

34. In its first year, Joe’s Start-Up Company had revenues of $125,000 and cost of goods sold of $81,250, which was the only variable cos Depreciation was $20,000, and cash costs were $5,000 in financing costs, admin expenses of $50,000, and $45,000 in marketing expenses – all of which were fixed. What is the survival breakeven revenue?
a. $342,857
b. $285,714
c. $271,429
d. $184,615
e. $153,846

Multiple Choice Questions and Problems for Chapter 4, Appendix A:

1. Economic Value Added (EVA) is calculated as:
a. NOPAT plus after-tax dollar cost of financial capital used
b. ROE minus percentage cost of financial capital
c. NOPAT minus after-tax dollar cost of financial capital used
d. ROE plus the percentage cost of financial capital

2. A firm’s net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) is calculated as:
a. net profit
b. EBIT times one minus the tax rate
c. EBT minus interest paid
d. EBIT times the tax rate

3. Total operating fixed costs (TOFC) equal:
a. cash operating fixed costs (excluding interest expenses)
b. noncash fixed costs (e.g., depreciation)
c. interest expenses
d. a plus b
e. a plus b plus c

4. Find the NOPAT given the following information: sales = $520,000, earnings before interest = $100,000; interest = $20,000; and the tax rate = 30%.
a. $70,000
b. $56,000
c. $30,000
d. $24,000
e. $10,000

5. Find the NOPAT breakeven revenues (NR) given the following information: total operating fixed costs = $75,000; variable costs = $150,000; and sales = $200,000.
a. $100,000
b. $240,000
c. $300,000
d. $400,000
e. $460,000

6. Determine the total operating fixed costs (TOFC) based on the following: Administrative expenses = $200,000; Marketing expenses = $180,000; Depreciation expenses = $100,000; and Interest expenses = $20,000.
a. $200,000
b. $380,000
c. $400,000
d. $480,000
e. $500,000

CHAPTER 5

EVALUATING OPERATING AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

True-False Questions

1. Showing the relationships between two or more financial variable and/or time, financial ratios are useful means of summarizing large amounts of financial data for comparative purposes.

2. Second-round, mezzanine, and liquidity-stage financing generally occur during a venture’s survival stage.

3. Commercial banks are important users of financial ratios and measures during the development and startup stages of ventures.

4. Investment bankers are users of financial ratios and measures of ventures primarily during the rapid-growth stage relative to the development and startup stages.

5. Trend analysis is used to examine a venture’s performance over time.

6. Cross-sectional analysis is used to examine a venture’s performance over time.

7. “Cash burn” is the cash a venture expends on its operating, financing, and depreciation expenses.

8. “Net cash burn” occurs when cash burn exceeds cash build in a specified time period.

9. The “cash burn rate” is the cash burn for a fixed period of time, typically a month.

10. The term “cash build” as used in Chapter 5 is equal to net sales minus the change in receivables.

11. Liquidity ratios indicate the venture’s ability to pay short term assets from short-term liabilities.

12. Net working capital reflects current assets deducted from current liabilities.

13. “Net working capital” is calculated as fixed assets minus current liabilities.

14. A venture’s cash, marketable securities, and receivables comprise the venture’s “liquid assets”.

15. The current ratio and the quick ratio differ only because average inventories are subtracted in the numerator of the quick ratio.

16. For a venture with inventories, the quick ratio will always be greater than the current ratio.

17. Net working capital is a dollar amount measure of the cushion between current assets and current liabilities.

18. Leverage ratios indicate the extent to which the venture has used debt and its ability to meet debt obligations.

19. Total debt includes current liabilities, long-term debt, and retained earnings.

20. How efficiently a venture controls its expenses and uses its assets and debt is evaluated with profitability and efficiency ratios.

21. During the development and startup stages of a venture’s life cycle, important financial ratios and measures include cash burn rates and liquidity ratios.

22. During the development and startup stages of a venture’s life cycle, important users of financial ratios and measures include the entrepreneur, business angels, and venture capitalists (VCs).

23. Leverage ratios are generally considered to be more important during the survival and rapid-growth stages compared to the development and startup stages.

24. The equity multiplier is considered an efficiency ratio.

25. The extent to which a venture is in debt and in its ability to repay its debt obligations is indicated by leverage ratios.

26. The equity multiplier shows the extent by which assets are supported by equity and deb

27. Accounting rules require that the current maturities of long-term debt obligations be classified as short-term liabilities.

28. Profitability and efficiency ratios are generally considered to be more important during the development and startup stages compared to the survival and rapid-growth stages.

29. The part of a venture’s interest payment that is subsidized by the government because of the deductibility of interest is called the interest tax shield.

30. How efficiently a venture controls its expenses and uses its assets and debt is evaluated with profitability and efficiency ratios.

31. The Return on Assets model states: ROA = net profit margin × asset turnover × the equity multiplier.

32. If a firm has positive net income, a drop in a venture’s asset intensity ratio will increase its ROE.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Investment bankers and commercial banks are important users of financial ratios and measures during which of the following life cycle stages?
a. Development stage
b. Startup stage
c. Survival stage
d. Rapid-growth stage
e. All four stages

2. The entrepreneur, angels, and VCs are important users of financial ratios and measures during which of the following life cycle stages?
a. Development stage
b. Startup stage
c. Survival stage
d. Rapid-growth stage
e. All four stages

3. Which of the following is used to examine a venture’s performance over time?
a. qualitative analysis
b. trend analysis
c. cross sectional analysis
d. industry comparable analysis

4. Which of the following is used to compare a venture’s performance against another firm at the same point in time?
a. qualitative analysis
b. trend analysis
c. cross sectional analysis
d. industry comparable analysis

5. Which of the following is used to compare a venture’s performance against the average performance of other firms in the same industry?
a. qualitative analysis
b. trend analysis
c. cross sectional analysis
d. industry comparable analysis

6. Which one of the following is not a basic ratio techniques used to conduct financial analysis?
a. trend analysis
b. sensitivity analysis
c. cross-sectional analysis
d. industry comparables analysis

7. The term “cash build” is measured as:
a. net income plus depreciation
b. net sales minus expenses minus (plus) an increase (decrease) in inventories
c. net sales minus (plus) an increase (decrease) in receivables
d. net income plus depreciation minus (plus) an increase (decrease) in payables

8. “Net cash burn” is calculated as:
a. cash burn plus cash build
b. cash build minus cash burn
c. cash burn minus cash build
d. cash burn minus cash build squared

9. Using the following information, determine the average monthly net cash burn rate: annual net income = $20,000; annual interest = $10,000; annual cash build = $150,000; and annual cash burn = $186,000.
a. $1,000
b. $3,000
c. $4,000
d. $6,000
e. $7,000

10. Use the following information to determine a firm’s “cash build:” net sales = $150,000; net income = $15,000; beginning-of-period accounts receivable = $60,000; end-of-period accounts receivable = $90,000; and interest = $10,000.
a. $10,000
b. $15,000
c. $30,000
d. $60,000
e. $120,000

11. Average current assets minus average inventories when divided by average current liabilities is called which of the following ratios?
a. current ratio
b. quick ratio
c. net working capital ratio
d. current liabilities to total debt ratio

12. Dividing the average total assets by the average owners’ equity is called which of the following ratios?
a. equity multiplier
b. debt to equity ratio
c. current liabilities to total debt ratio
d. current ratio

13. Net sales minus cost of goods sold when divided by sales is called which of the following ratios?
a. gross profit margin
b. operating profit margin
c. net profit margin
d. net operating profit after taxes margin

14. Net income divided by net sales is called which of the following ratios?
a. net operating profit after taxes margin
b. net profit margin’
c. operating profit margin
d. gross profit margin

15. The difference between a venture’s ability to generate cash to pay interest and the amount of interest it has to pay is determined by which of the following ratios?
a. fixed charges coverage
b. debt to asset
c. equity multiplier
d. debt to equity
e. interest coverage

16. Which of the following is not a profitability and efficiency ratio?
a. sales-to-total-assets
b. return on equity
c. return on assets
d. inventory-to-total assets
e. NOPAT profit margin

17. Which of the following is true?
a. ROA is always greater than or equal to ROE
b. an increase in the asset turnover ratio implies a decrease in the asset
intensity ratio
c. a and b
d. none of the above

18. A firm has the following balance sheet information: total assets = $100,000; current assets = $30,000; inventories = $10,000; cash = $5,000; total liabilities = $30,000; current liabilities = $15,000; notes payable = $2,000. What are the firm’s quick and NWC-to-Total-Assets ratios?
a. 1.00 and .13
b. 1.33 and .13
c. 1.00 and .15
d. 1.33 and .15

19. Last year, Nemo’s Fish ‘n Chips recorded the following financial data: sales = $85,000; cost of goods sold = $45,000; selling and administrative expenses = $25,000; depreciation and amortization = $7,000; interest expense = $12,000. The tax rate was 30%. Find Nemo’s interest coverage for last year.
a. -.29 times
b. .66 times
c. .86 times
d. 1.25 times
e. 3.33 times

20. A venture has net sales of $400,000, cost of goods sold of $200,000, operating expenses (selling, general, and administrative) of $100,000, and interest expenses of $50,000. What is the operating profit margin?
a. 50.0%
b. 75%
c. 25%
d. 40%

21. Last year, Lenny’s Lemonade had $3,500 in sales, and cost of goods sold was $2,000. Depreciation expenses totaled $500 and interest expense was $700. If the tax rate is 25%, what is the net profit margin for Lenny’s Lemonade? What is its NOPAT margin?
a. 6.43% and 21.43%
b. 20.7% and 21.43%
c. 2.14% and 32.14%
d. 22.86% and 32.14%

Note: The following information should be used for the next eleven (22 through 32) problems.
In its closing financial statements for its first year in business, the Runs and Goses Company, had cash of $242, accounts receivable of $850, inventory of $820, net fixed assets of $3,408, accounts payable of $700, short-term notes payable of $740, long-term liabilities of $1,100, common stock of $1,160, retained earnings of $1,620, net sales of $2,768, cost of goods sold of $1,210, depreciation of $360, interest expense of $160, taxes of $312, addition to retained earnings of $508, and dividends paid of $218.

22. What is the return on equity for Runs and Goses?
a. 26.1%
b. 44.7%
c. 62.6%
d. 18.4%
e. 7.9%

23. What is Runs and Goses’ return on total assets?
a. 9.6%
b. 13.6%
c. 19.1%
d. 37.9%
e. 22.5%

24. What is the net profit margin for Runs and Goses?
a. 60.0%
b. 22.7%
c. 7.9%
d. 18.4%
e. 26.2%

25. Runs and Goses operating profit margin is?
a. 26.2%
b. 56.3%
c. 43.3%
d. 30.3%
e. 60.0%

26. The gross profit margin for Runs and Goses is?
a. 26.2%
b. 30.3%
c. 43.3%
d. 56.3%
e. 60.0%

27. What is Runs and Goses’ sales to total asset ratio?
a. 1.91
b. 0.25
c. 0.52
d. 0.23
e. 0.57

28. What is the current ratio for Runs and Goses?
a. 1.46
b. 1.33
c. 1.23
d. 1.21
e. 1.13

29. The total-debt-total-asset ratio for Runs and Goses is?
a. 0.48
b. 0.71
c. 0.27
d. 0.53
e. 0.82

30. What is Runs and Goses’ debt-to-equity ratio?
a. 0.91
b. 2.15
c. 0.48
d. 1.12
e. 2.32

31. What is the equity multiplier for Runs and Goses?
a. 4.59 times
b. 2.35 times
c. 0.48 times
d. 1.12 times
e. 1.91 times

32. The interest coverage ratio for Runs and Goses is:
a. 6.5 times
b. 4.5 times
c. 9.7 times
d. 3.5 times
e. 1.5 times

CHAPTER 6

MANAGING CASH FLOW

True-False Questions

1. The actions of screening business ideas, preparing a business model/plan, and obtaining seed financing occurs during a venture’s development stage.

2. The actions of monitoring financial performance, determining project cash needs, and obtaining first-round financing occurs during a venture’s survival stage.

3. “First-round financing” usually occurs during a venture’s rapid-growth life cycle stage.

4. Short-term financial planning is critical during the survival stage because operations not yet turning a profit and the associated cash burn often lead to a venture’s inability to pay its maturing liabilities.

5. Cash shortages during the rapid growth stage frequently derive from the lack of operating profits to fund working capital and fixed asset investments needed to support sales growth.

6. Due to the difficulty of projecting financial statements for a young firm, short-term financial forecasts are never required of early-stage ventures.

7. Early-stage ventures are defined as firms that are only operating in either their development or startup stages.

8. Even in a young, successful venture, restricted access to bank credit and with little to no access to short-term lending markets can hinder operations until the next round of financing.

9. “First-round financing” usually occurs during a venture’s rapid-growth life cycle stage.

10. Short-term cash planning tools include preparation of a: sales schedule, a purchases schedule, a wages and commissions schedule, and a cash budge

11. Short-term financial planning typically involves preparing monthly financial statements and focuses on identifying and planning for net income demands on the business.

12. A venture’s operating schedules typically include a: sales schedule, purchases schedule, and wages and commissions schedule.

13. A cash budget shows a venture’s projected revenues and expenses over a forecast period.

14. Preparing monthly cash budgets for a full year allows the entrepreneur to determine whether there will be a cash need, the maximum size of the cash need, and whether the need can be repaid during the year.

15. Conversion period ratios show the average time in days it takes to convert certain current assets and current liabilities into cash.

16. A venture’s operating cycle is the same as its cash conversion cycle.

17. The sum of the inventory-to-sale conversion period and the purchase-to-payment conversion period minus the sale-to-cash conversion period is called the cash conversion cycle.

18. The cash conversion cycle refers to the time it takes to convert a sale into net income.

19. The “cash conversion cycle” measures the time it takes to pay off the principal on a loan.

20. The sale-to-cash conversion period is calculated by dividing average revenues by net sales per day.

21. A venture’s cash conversion cycle will decrease if the purchase-to-payment conversion period increases.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. A firm is said to be an early stage venture when it is in which of the following except?
a. rapid growth stage
b. startup stage
c. development stage
d. survival stage
e. early-maturity stage

2. Seed financing is generally associated with which one of the following life cycle stages:
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. rapid-growth stage
e. early-maturity stage

3. First-round financing is generally associated with which one of the following life cycle stages:
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. rapid-growth stage
e. early-maturity stage

4. Which of the following is not part of the operating cycle?
a. time it takes to purchase products
b. time it takes to produce products
c. time it takes to sell the products
d. time it takes to pay suppliers
e. time it takes to collect receivables

5. Which one of the following “measures” the average days of sales committed to the extension of trade credit?
a. sale-to-cash conversion period
b. inventory-to-sale conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. cash conversion cycle period

6. Which of the following is measured by dividing the average daily cost of goods sold into the average inventory?
a. sale-to-cash conversion period
b. inventory-to-sale conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. cash conversion cycle

7. Which of the following measures the average time from purchase of materials and labor to actual cash payment?
a. sale-to-cash conversion period
b. inventory-to-sale conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. cash conversion cycle

8. Which of the following measures the average time it takes a firm to complete its operating cycle after deducting the days supported by trade credit and delayed payroll financing?
a. sale-to-cash conversion period
b. inventory-to-sale conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. cash conversion cycle

9. Which one of the following conversion periods operates to reduce the length of the cash conversion cycle?
a. inventory-to-sale conversion period
b. sale-to-cash conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. fixed assets-to-usage conversion period

10. Which one of the following conversion periods is not a component in the cash conversion cycle?
a. inventory-to-sale conversion period
b. sale-to-cash conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. fixed assets-to-usage conversion period

11. Calculate the inventory-to-sale conversion period based on the following information: average inventories = $120,000; average receivables = $90,000; average payables = $40,000; cost of goods sold = $182,500; and net sales = $365,000.
a. 240.0 days
b. 180.0 days
c. 90.0 days
d. 60.0 days
e. 45.0 days

12. Calculate the sale-to-cash conversion period based on the following information: average inventories = $120,000; average receivables = $90,000; average payables = $40,000; cost of goods sold = $182,500; and net sales = $365,000.
a. 240.0 days
b. 180.0 days
c. 90.0 days
d. 60.0 days
e. 45.0 days

13. Based on the following information, determine the venture’s cash conversion cycle: Inventory-to-sale conversion period = 112.9 days; Sale-to-cash conversion period= 57.1 days; and Purchase-to-payment conversion period = 76.8 days.
a. 170.0 days
b. 189.7 days
c. 93.2 days
d. 246.8 days
e. 133.9 days

14. Determine the cash conversion cycle based on the following information: inventory-to-sale conversion period = 112.9 days; sale-to-cash conversion period = 57.1 days; and purchase-to-payment conversion period = 76.8 days.
a. 93.2 days
b. 132.6 days
c. 170.0 days
d. 246.8 days
e. 365.0 days

15. Based on the following information, determine the average receivables (rounded to thousands of dollars) that were outstanding: Net sales = $575,000; Sale-to-cash conversion period = 57.1 days; Purchase-to-payment conversion period = 76.8 days; and Cost of goods sold = $380,000.
a. $90,000
b. $180,000
c. $121,000
d. $31,000
e. $41,000

16. Based on the following information, determine the venture’s inventory-to-sale conversion period: cash conversion cycle = 250 days; sale-to-cash conversion period = 60 days; and purchase-to-payment conversion period = 70 days.
a. 70 days
b. 140 days
c. 240 days
d. 260 days
e. 330 days

ECO 450 Week 5 Mid-Term Exam – Strayer University New

ECO/450 Week 5 Mid-Term Exam – Strayer

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Chapters 1 Through 7

ECO 450 Week 2 Quiz – Strayer

CHAPTER 1
Individuals and Government
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. On average, persons in the United States devote more of their annual budgets to taxes than they do to food.
2. A universally observed function of government is the establishment of property rights.
3. The total share of GDP accounted for by government spending in the United States has declined significantly since 1980.
4. In 1929, the federal government spent more than was spent by state and local governments.
5. Since 1930, the percent of GDP devoted to government expenditures has more than tripled.
6. The costs imposed by government regulations on business firms are included in budget data on government expenditures.
7. Government consumption does not require resources to be reallocated from private to government use.
8. Since 1959, the percent of federal government expenditures devoted to transfers has increased by more than 50 percent.
9. Transfer payments, including Social Security and welfare and medical assistance, account for nearly 60 percent of federal government expenditures.
10. Interest on the federal government’s debt accounts for about 20 percent of federal government expenditure.
11. Federal grants-in-aid to state and local governments finance about 20 percent of annual spending by these governments.
12. The federal government allocates about 10 percent of its budget to Social Security.
13. State and local governments in the United States spend a bit more than one-third of their budgets on education.
14. Sales taxes account for about 22 percent of state and local government revenue in the United States.
15. The federal government obtains about half of its revenue annually from retail sales taxes.
16. State governments do not fund any part of Medicaid.
17. The social compact is an 18th century idea by political theorists.
18. The proportion of revenue received by the federal government from payroll taxes is higher than the proportion of revenue received by state and local governments from payroll taxes.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The real cost of government goods and services is:
a. money.
b. taxes.
c. the private goods and services foregone.
d. inflation.
2. If the economy is currently operating on a point on the production possibility curve for government goods and services versus private goods and services,
a. an annual increase in government goods and services can be obtained without any sacrifice of annual private goods and services.
b. it will be impossible to increase annual output of government goods and services.
c. a decrease in the annual output of government goods and services will have no effect on the annual output of private goods and services.
d. a decrease in the annual output of government goods and services will allow an increase in annual output of private goods and services.
3. Government goods and services are usually:
a. not rationed by prices.
b. sold in markets.
c. made available to persons according to their willingness and ability to pay.
d. financed by revenue obtained from sales.
4. Taxes:
a. are prices paid for the right to consume government goods and services.
b. are compulsory payments not directly related to the benefits received from government goods and services.
c. never affect economic incentives.
d. are used by private firms to raise revenue.
5. A mixed economy is one in which:
a. there are no markets.
b. government activity accounts for a significant proportion of the value of goods and services produced.
c. there is no government.
d. all goods and services are sold in markets.
6. Government purchases for consumption and investment:
a. are made to acquire resources necessary to produce government goods and services.
b. are designed to redistribute purchasing power among citizens.
c. have increased in importance as a percent of federal spending since 1959.
d. do not withdraw resources from private use.
7. Transfer payments by the federal government in the United States account for about:
a. 25 percent of federal government expenditures.
b. 10 percent of federal government expenditures.
c. 40 percent of GDP.
d. 60 percent of federal government expenditures.
8. Total annual expenditures by federal, state, and local governments in the United States in the 1990s accounted for roughly:
a. 20 percent of annual GDP.
b. 30 percent of annual GDP.
c. 50 percent of annual GDP.
d. 75 percent of annual GDP.
9. Federal government expenditures in the United States account for about:
a. 23 percent of annual GDP.
b. 33 percent of annual GDP.
c. 43 percent of annual GDP.
d. 53 percent of annual GDP.
10. About 80 percent of federal receipts are accounted for by:
a. corporate profits taxes.
b. sales taxes.
c. excise taxes.
d. payroll and personal income taxes.
11. If the economy is operating at full employment and using resources efficiently, then an increase in spending for homeland security this year will:
a. require that resources be reallocated to homeland security services without sacrificing any alternative goods and services.
b. be possible if resources are reallocated to homeland security services, but it will also mean that the output of some other goods and services will have to fall.
c. be impossible.
d. be possible only if there is an improvement in technology or more resources made available.
12. Which of the following is an example of a political institution?
a. a market
b. elections with winners determined by majority rule
c. representative government
d. both (b) and (c)

13. Nonmarket rationing means that:
a. those willing to pay can buy as much of a product as they choose.
b. prices are used to sell products.
c. goods and services are not rationed by prices.
d. willingness to pay is not a factor in determining who can enjoy a good or service.
e. both (c) and (d)
14. The U.S. economy is best characterized as a:
a. pure market economy.
b. socialist economy.
c. pure capitalistic, free-enterprise system.
d. mixed economy.
15. State and local government expenditure in the United States accounts for about:
a. 32 percent of GDP.
b. 22 percent of GDP.
c. 12 percent of GDP.
d. 7 percent of GDP.
16. Following the circular flow of a mixed economy, firms receive a flow of dollars from and send goods and services to:
a. Output Markets.
b. Input Markets.
c. Households.
d. Government.

17. Following the circular flow of a mixed economy, which entity or entities distribute resources?
a. Firms only.
b. Input Markets only.
c. Government and Households.
d. Households and Input Markets.

18. When has the U.S. experienced government expenditures in the range of 40% to 50% of GDP?
a. 2000 to 2009.
b. 1950 to 1959.
c. 1940 to 1949.
d. It has never happened.

19. In 2008, which country listed below has the highest percentage of government spending relative to GDP?
a. France.
b. Ireland.
c. Japan.
d. Canada.

20. The old-age dependency ratio is:
a. the proportion of the population that is 60 years or older over the proportion of the population that is less than 60 years of age.
b. the proportion of the population that is 65 years or older over the proportion of the population that is 15 to 64 years of age.
c. the proportion of the population that is 70 years or older over the proportion of the population that is 20 to 69 years of age.
d. the total government expenditure on programs for the elderly over the number of citizens that are 65 years or older.

ECO 450 Week 3 Quiz – Strayer

CHAPTER 2
Efficiency, Markets,
and Government
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. The normative approach to public finance prescribes certain actions to achieve predetermined criteria.
2. Positive economic analysis is based on underlying value judgments.
3. “The government should abolish tariffs to achieve efficiency” is a normative statement.
4. It is possible for efficiency not to be attained even if all production is carried on without waste.
5. Efficiency is attained when resources are used each year in such a way that no further net gain is possible.
6. The efficient annual output of any given good is attained if that good is made available in amounts up to the point at which the total social benefit of the good equals the total social cost.
7. If the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors exceeds its marginal social cost, then additional net gains are possible from an increased annual smoke detector production.
8. Monopoly power causes losses in efficiency because the marginal social benefit of output exceeds its marginal social cost at the monopoly output.
9. Government regulations that require airlines to serve routes for which the maximum price that pas¬sengers are willing to pay for a trip fall short of the minimum price that sellers are willing to accept are likely to cause losses in efficiency.
10. Points lying below a utility possibility curve are efficient.
11. Government programs can achieve efficiency when the gains to gainers from those policies exceed the losses to those who bear the costs.
12. If the marginal social cost of beer production exceeds its marginal social benefit, then more than the efficient about of beer is being produced.
13. Efficient outcomes are often viewed as inequitable.
14. If it is not possible to make someone better off without harming another, then resource allocation is efficient.
15. Compensation criteria are used to argue that changes in resource allocation should be made if the gains to some groups outweigh the losses to others, even though compensation for losses is not actually made.
16. All points on a utility possibility curve are efficient but differ in terms of the distribution of well-being.
17. A tax on a product shifts the demand curve.
18. A government subsidized price for a commodity that is higher than the market driven price results in oversupply relative to the efficient allocation.
19. When comparing the allocation of two goods relative to two consumers with individual utility functions, multiple points of Pareto efficiency can exist.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Positive economics:
a. makes recommendations designed to achieve certain goals.
b. establishes cause-and-effect relationships between economic variables.
c. is based on value judgments.
d. can never be used to make predictions.
2. If the efficient output of a good is produced each week, then the:
a. marginal social benefit of the good equals its marginal social cost each week.
b. marginal social benefit of the good is at a maximum.
c. total social benefit of the good is at a maximum.
d. total social benefit of the good equals its total social cost.
3. If the marginal social benefit of a good exceeds the marginal social cost at the current monthly output, then:
a. it will be possible to make buyers of the good better off without harming sellers of the good.
b. it will be possible to make sellers of the good better off without harming buyers of the good.
c. either (a) or (b)
d. a reduction in monthly output will be required for efficiency.
4. The marginal social cost of bread exceeds the marginal social benefit at the current weekly output. Therefore,
a. the marginal net benefit of bread is positive.
b. the output of bread is efficient.
c. a reduction in weekly output of bread is necessary to achieve efficiency.
d. an increase in weekly output of bread is necessary to achieve efficiency.
5. The total social benefit of automobiles equals the total social cost at current annual output. Then it follows that:
a. the annual output of automobiles is efficient.
b. the annual output of automobiles exceeds the efficient amount.
c. less than the efficient annual output of automobiles is produced.
d. it is not possible to make buyers of automobiles better off without harming sellers.
e. both (a) and (d)
6. Eggs are sold in a perfectly competitive market. No persons other than the buyers and sellers of eggs are affected in any way when eggs are traded in the market. Then it follows that:
a. the price of eggs equals the marginal social cost of eggs.
b. the price of eggs equals the marginal social benefit of eggs.
c. the price of eggs exceeds the marginal social benefit of eggs.
d. both (a) and (b)
7. Diamonds are sold by a monopoly firm that maximizes profits. Then it follows that:
a. the marginal social benefit of diamonds exceeds its marginal social cost.
b. the marginal social cost of diamonds exceeds its marginal social benefit.
c. the price of diamonds equals its marginal social cost.
d. the price of diamonds exceeds its marginal social benefit.
e. both (c) and (d)
8. Points on a utility possibility curve represent:
a. a given distribution of well-being between two persons.
b. an efficient allocation of resources.
c. the maximum well-being of any one person, given the resources available and the well-being of another person.
d. all of the above
9. If efficiency has been attained,
a. it will be possible to make any one person better off without harming another.
b. it will not be possible to make any one person better off without harming another.
c. perfect competition must exist.
d. the opportunity cost of any change in resource use must be zero.
10. A move from an inefficient resource allocation to an efficient one:
a. will always be unanimously approved, even if gainers do not compensate losers.
b. will be unanimously opposed.
c. will be unanimously approved if gainers compensate losers.
d. can never result in losers.
11. Which of the following is a normative statement?
a. When interest rates rise, the quantity of loanable funds demanded for new mortgages will decline.
b. To achieve efficiency, governments should prevent monopoly in markets.
c. Unemployment increases during a recession.
d. When governments increase income tax rates, people work less.
12. Normative economics:
a. is not based on underlying value judgments.
b. makes recommendations to achieve efficient outcomes.
c. establishes cause-and-effect relationships between economic variables.
d. makes “if…then” type statements and checks them against the facts.

13. The extra benefit on one more unit of a good or service is its:
a. marginal cost.
b. marginal benefit.
c. total benefit.
d. total cost.
14. If the efficient output of computers is achieved this year, then market price of computers is equal to:
a. the marginal social benefit of computers.
b. the marginal social cost of computers.
c. the total social cost of computers.
d. the total social benefit of computers.
e. both (a) and (b)
15. Suppose the efficient output currently prevails in the market for ice cream. A tax on ice cream con¬sumption will:
a. allow efficiency to continue to prevail in the market.
b. result in more than the efficient output in the market.
c. result in less than the efficient output in the market.
d. cause the marginal social cost of ice cream to exceed its marginal social benefit at the market equilibrium output.
16. Positive economics is:
a. an equity based approach in which income should be redistributed.
b. an objective approach without a particular goal based on underlying values.
c. a goal oriented approach based on desired policy outcomes.
d. a belief that governments can implement economic policies for the greater good of society.
17. Normative economics is:
a. completely free of any value system.
b. completely objective.
c. based on a a conscious effort to implement a particular social goal.
d. an approach that determines the effect of particular actions without judgment of the result being good or bad.
18. An efficient level of output means:
a. the total social benefit less the total social cost is maximized.
b. the total social benefit is below the total social cost.
c. the total social cost equals the total social benefit.
d. the total social benefit less the total social cost can be improved.
19. If a government desires to increase production beyond the current competitively determined efficient level, the government should:
a. tax the good.
b. subsidize the good at a price higher than its current price.
c. set the price below its current price.
d. impose a fixed fee whenever the good is purchased.
20. Pareto efficiency between two consumers is achieved:
a. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are equal to the marginal rate of transformation.
b. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are less than one, but not necessarily equal.
c. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are greater than one and equal.
d. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are equal.

CHAPTER 3
Externalities and
Government Policy
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. If a negative externality exists for sales of gasoline in a competitive market, more than the efficient amount of gasoline will be sold per year.
2. If the marginal external cost of pollution increases with the annual output of polluting goods, then the total external cost will increase at a constant rate with annual output.
3. When a positive externality exists, benefit to third parties other than the buyers and sellers of a good will result from market exchange of the good.
4. The marginal external benefit of the sale of smoke detectors in a city declines with annual output. The total external benefit of smoke detectors will therefore eventually become zero.
5. When a negative externality exists, the marginal social cost of annual output sold in a competitive market will exceed the marginal social benefit of that output in equilibrium.
6. If a negative externality is associated with the sale of wood stoves, then the marginal private cost of those stoves is less than their marginal social cost.
7. If a positive externality is associated with college enrollment, then when college instruction is pro¬vided in a competitive market, the marginal social benefit of enrollment will exceed its marginal social cost in equilibrium.
8. At the current level of annual supply of inoculations against polio, the marginal external benefit of an inoculation is zero. To achieve efficiency, a corrective subsidy must be provided to those being inoculated.
9. To internalize an externality, a corrective tax must be set equal to the marginal external cost.
10. According to the Coase theorem, corrective taxes are necessary to internalize negative externalities when the transactions costs of exchanging property rights to use resources are zero.
11. The efficient amount of pollution abatement is likely to be 100 percent.
12. Pollution rights can be used to price the right to emit pollutants and to provide incentives to reduce emissions by profit-maximizing firms.
13. Emissions standards allow businesses to emit waste at zero cost until the limits set by the standards are reached.
14. The market for sulfur dioxide allowance trading has lowered the cost of achieving a given reduc¬tion in sulfur dioxide emissions by electric power-generating plants.
15. Command-and-control regulation to reduce emissions is likely to be a less costly way of reducing a given amount of emissions than tradeable emissions permits.
16. When negative externalities exist, perfectly competitive markets produce less than the efficient output.
17. A toll road used to subsidize public transportation in an effort to reduce pollution is an example of a corrective tax.
18. Assuming no externalities and a competitive environment, the marginal private cost is equal to the marginal social cost.
19. Assuming a negative externality, the price of a good will be lower than if the price was set in a competitive environment without an externality.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. A negative externality results from the sale of firewood in competitive markets. Then it follows that:
a. the marginal private cost of firewood is less than its marginal social cost.
b. the marginal private cost of firewood exceeds its marginal social cost.
c. the marginal private benefit of firewood is less than its marginal social benefit.
d. the marginal private benefit of firewood exceeds its marginal social benefit.
2. If a negative externality prevails in a competitive market for air travel, then:
a. more than the efficient amount of annual air travel will be consumed in equilibrium.
b. less than the efficient amount of annual air travel will be consumed in equilibrium.
c. the marginal social cost of air travel will exceed its marginal social benefit in equilibrium.
d. both (a) and (c)
e. both (b) and (c)
3. A positive externality results from the purchase of smoke detectors. If smoke detectors are sold in a competitive market,
a. the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors is less than the marginal private benefit received by any consumer.
b. the marginal social benefit will exceed the marginal private benefit received by any consumer.
c. in equilibrium the marginal social cost of smoke detectors will equal the marginal social benefit.
d. in equilibrium the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors is zero.
4. The marginal external cost associated with air pollution increases with the annual output of a pollut¬ing industry. At the current competitive equilibrium level of output per year, the marginal external cost is $10 per unit of output. To achieve efficiency,
a. a corrective tax of $10 per unit of output is required.
b. a corrective tax of more than $10 per unit of output is required.
c. a corrective tax of less than $10 per unit of output is required.
d. a corrective subsidy of $10 per unit of output is required.
e. a corrective subsidy of less than $10 per unit of output is required
.
5. The marginal external cost associated with paper production is constant at $10 per ton per year. The competitive market equilibrium for paper production is currently 10 million tons per year. A corrective tax on paper production:
a. will collect $100 million annually.
b. will collect more than $100 million annually.
c. will collect less than $100 million annually.
d. will reduce annual damages to those other than buyers and sellers of paper to zero.
e. both (a) and (d)
6. The marginal external cost per unit of effluent discharged into a river by a perfectly competitive chemical industry is currently estimated to be $50 per ton per year. Which of the following state¬ments is true?
a. Efficiency can be achieved with a $50 per ton annual effluent charge.
b. At the competitive equilibrium output, the marginal social benefit of discharging effluent is $50.
c. Efficiency can be achieved by banning discharge of effluent.
d. At the efficient output, the marginal social benefit of discharging effluent will be zero.
7. Electric power is produced by an unregulated monopoly in a certain region. The monopolistic elec¬tric power company’s production of electricity results in $10 per kilowatt hour of pollution damage to parties other than the buyers of electricity in the region. To achieve efficiency,
a. a $10 per kilowatt hour corrective tax is required.
b. more than $10 per kilowatt hour corrective tax is required.
c. a $10 corrective subsidy is required.
d. less than $10 per kilowatt hour corrective tax is required.
8. The competitive market equilibrium price of sanitation services in a small town with no government-supplied sanitation services is $2 per trash pickup. There is a $1 marginal external benefit associated with each trash pickup. The elasticity of supply of trash pickups is infinite in the long run, implying a horizontal supply curve. To achieve the efficient output of sanitation services,
a. a corrective subsidy must increase the price received by suppliers to $3 per pickup.
b. a corrective subsidy must decrease the price paid by consumers of sanitation services to $1 per pickup.
c. a corrective tax of $1 per pickup is required.
d. a corrective subsidy must increase the price paid by buyers to $3 per pickup.
9. The current competitive market price of fish is $3 per pound. A chemical producer emits effluent into a lake used by a commercial fishing firm. Each ton of chemical output causes a 20-pound reduction in the annual catch of the fishing firm. Assuming that transactions costs are zero and the chemical firm has the legal right to dump effluent into the lake,
a. the fishing firm would be willing to pay up to $60 per ton of chemicals per year to induce the chemical firm to reduce chemical output.
b. the fishing firm would be willing to pay up to $3 per ton of chemicals per year to induce the chemical firm to reduce chemical output.
c. the chemical firm would never consider the damage caused by its effluent.
d. government intervention is required to achieve efficiency.
10. According to the Coase theorem, externalities can be internalized when transactions costs are zero through:
a. corrective taxes and subsidies.
b. effluent fees.
c. assigning property rights to resource use but outlawing their exchange.
d. assignment of property rights to use resources and allowing free exchange of assigned property rights.
11. Which of the following is true if a negative externality is associated with the sale of gasoline?
a. Third parties other than the buyers and sellers of gasoline receive benefits.
b. Third parties other than the buyers and sellers of gasoline bear costs.
c. The marginal social cost of gasoline exceeds its marginal private cost.
d. both (b) and (c)
12. If a positive externality prevails in the market for smoke detectors, then when the market is in equilibrium,
a. the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors exceeds the marginal social cost.
b. the marginal social cost of smoke detectors exceeds the marginal social benefit.
c. the marginal social cost of smoke detectors is equal to the marginal social benefit.
d. more than the efficient amount of smoke detectors is sold.
13. Regulations require that emissions of carbon monoxide be limited to 1,000 tons per 100 square miles for all regions of the nation. If the marginal external cost of the emissions varies among regions in the nation, then the regulations will:
a. achieve the efficient amount of pollution abatement.
b. achieve more than the efficient amount of pollution abatement.
c. achieve less than the efficient amount of pollution abatement.
d. be likely to achieve more than the efficient amount of abatement in some regions, but less than the efficient amount in others.
14. If the marginal costs of reducing emissions varies among regions, then regulations requiring all regions in a nation to reduce emissions by the same amount will achieve:
a. the efficient amount of pollution abatement.
b. more than the efficient amount of pollution abatement.
c. less than the efficient amount of pollution abatement.
d. more than the efficient amount of pollution abatement in some regions, but less than the efficient amount in other regions.
15. Which of the following is true about command-and-control regulation that allows businesses to emit pollutants up to a certain point and bans emissions after that limit is reached?
a. They are equivalent to emissions charges.
b. They make firms pay the marginal cost of the damages done by their emissions, no matter what the level.
c. They allow firms to emit some pollutants at zero charge.
d. They are likely to minimize the cost of achieving any given reduction in emissions.
16. Assuming a product can be manufactured competitively without any externalities at an efficient quantity of 1,000 units and an efficient price of $100.00 per unit, what efficient quantity-price combination would be consistent with a negative externality?
a. 1,000 units, $95.00 per unit price.
b. 950 units, $102.00 per unit price.
c. 900 units, $90.00 per unit price.
d. 1,100 units, $105 per unit price.
17. The effect of a negative externality is similar to:
a. A supply curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left.
b. A supply curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right.
c. A demand curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left.
d. A demand curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right.
18. Assuming a product can be manufactured competitively without any externalities at an efficient quantity of 1,500 units and an efficient price of $50.00 per unit, what efficient quantity-price combination would be consistent with a positive externality?
a. 1,500 units, $60.00 per unit price.
b. 1,300 units, $45.00 per unit price.
c. 1,600 units, $40.00 per unit price.
d. 1,700 units, $56.00 per unit price.
19. The effect of a positive externality is similar to:
a. A supply curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left.
b. A supply curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right.
c. A demand curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left.
d. A demand curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right.
20. Assuming a product can be manufactured competitively without any externalities at an efficient quantity of 500 units and an efficient price of $150.00 per unit, what efficient quantity-price net subsidy combination would be consistent with a corrective subsidy for a positive externality?
a. 500 units, $150.00 per unit price net subsidy.
b. 300 units, $120.00 per unit price net subsidy.
c. 600 units, $160.00 per unit price net subsidy.
d. 700 units, $100.00 per unit price net subsidy.

ECO 450 Week 4 Quiz – Strayer

CHAPTER 4
Public Goods
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Bread is an example of a good that is nonrival in consumption.
2. A pure public good is one for which it is easy to exclude consumers from benefits if they refuse to pay.
3. The marginal social cost of producing another unit of a pure public good will always be positive.
4. To obtain a demand curve for a pure public good, the marginal benefit of each consumer must be summed for each possible quantity produced per time period.
5. If the efficient amount of a pure public good is produced, each person consumes it up to the point at which his or her marginal benefit equals the marginal social cost of the good.
6. In a Lindahl equilibrium, each consumer of a pure public good consumes the same quantity and pays a tax share per unit of the good equal to his or her marginal benefit.
7. If the marginal social cost of a pure public good exceeds its marginal social benefit, additional units of the good can still be financed by voluntary contributions.
8. The free-rider problem is less acute in small groups than it is in large groups.
9. A congestible public good is one for which the marginal cost of allowing an additional consumer to enjoy the benefits of a given quantity is always zero.
10. Television programming is a good example of a price-excludable public good.
11. It is possible to price a pure public good and sell it by the unit.
12. The demand curve for a pure public good is obtained by adding the quantities demanded by each individual consumer at each possible price.
13. A Lindahl equilibrium usually has each participant paying the same tax share per unit of a public good even though their marginal benefit of that unit varies.
14. Internet service is an example of a price-excludable public good.
15. Clubs are a means of providing congestible public goods through markets.
16. A common way to fund a public good is through a government that raises funds through taxation.
17. Private education is an example of a price-excludable public good.
18. A congestible good has no limits in how much it can be consumed.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. A pure public good is:
a. one that can easily be sold by the unit.
b. one that is nonrival in consumption.
c. one whose benefits are not subject to exclusion.
d. both (b) and (c)
2. The marginal cost of providing a certain quantity of a pure public good to an additional consumer after it is provided to any one consumer is:
a. zero.
b. positive and increasing.
c. positive and decreasing.
d. positive and constant.
3. The nonrival property of pure public goods implies that the:
a. benefits enjoyed by existing consumers decline as more consumers enjoy a given quantity of the good.
b. benefits enjoyed by existing consumers are unaffected as more consumers enjoy a given quan¬tity of the good.
c. good cannot be priced.
d. marginal cost of producing the good is zero.
4. The demand curve for a pure public good is:
a. a horizontal line.
b. obtained by adding the quantities individual consumers would purchase at each possible price.
c. obtained by adding the marginal benefit obtained by each consumer at each possible quantity.
d. the marginal cost curve for the pure public good.
5. The efficient output of a pure public good is achieved at the point at which:
a. the marginal benefit obtained by each consumer equals the marginal social cost of producing the good.
b. the sum of the marginal benefits of all consumers equals the marginal social cost of producing the good.
c. the marginal benefit of each consumer equals zero.
d. the marginal social cost of producing the good is zero.
e. both (c) and (d)

6. The monthly rental rate for a satellite dish antenna is $200. The maximum marginal benefit that any resident of a condominium community will obtain per month from the antenna is $50. There are 100 residents in the community, none of whom values the antenna at less than $25 per month. Assuming that the antenna is a pure public good for residents of the community,
a. each resident of the community will rent his own antenna.
b. it is inefficient for the community to rent an antenna.
c. it is efficient for the members of the community to rent an antenna for their common use.
d. it is efficient for each resident to rent his own antenna.
7. In a Lindahl equilibrium,
a. each consumer purchases a pure public good up to the point at which his or her marginal bene¬fit equals the marginal social cost of the good.
b. each person pays a tax per unit of the pure public good equal to his or her marginal benefit.
c. the sum of the marginal benefits of all consumers equals the marginal social cost of the good.
d. both (a) and (c)
e. both (b) and (c)
8. The free-rider problem:
a. becomes more serious as the number of persons involved in voluntarily financing a pure public good decreases.
b. becomes more serious as the number of persons involved in voluntarily financing a pure public good increases.
c. is independent of the number of persons involved in a scheme to voluntarily finance a pure public good.
d. does not prevent voluntary cooperation from efficiently providing pure public goods.
9. The marginal cost of making a given quantity of a congestible public good available to more con¬sumers is:
a. always zero.
b. positive and increasing.
c. positive and decreasing.
d. zero at first but eventually becomes positive and increasing.
10. Cable TV programming is an example of a:
a. congestible public good.
b. price-excludable public good.
c. pure public good.
d. pure private good.
11. A major distinction between pure public goods and pure private goods is that:
a. pure private goods can easily be priced and sold in markets.
b. pure public goods can easily be divided into units.
c. pure public goods can only be collectively consumed.
d. both (a) and (c)
12. The principle of nonexclusion for pure public goods means that the benefits of the good:
a. are shared.
b. can be priced.
c. cannot be withheld from consumers even if they refuse to pay.
d. are not reduced to any one consumer when a given quantity is consumed by another.
13. Which of the following is true in a Lindahl equilibrium for cooperative supply of a pure public good?
a. The sum of the tax shares per unit paid by each consumer is equal to the marginal social cost of the public good.
b. The sum of the tax shares per unit paid by each consumer is equal to the marginal social benefit of the good.
c. The sum of the tax shares per unit paid by each consumer is maximized.
d. both (a) and (b)
14. Which of the following is a good example of a congestible public good?
a. TV programming
b. a road
c. a loaf of bread
d. homeland security
15. Education is:
a. a pure public good.
b. a pure private good.
c. a good that has characteristics of both public goods and private goods.
d. not subject to the exclusion principle.
16. An example of an undesirable public good (or public “bad”) is:
a. government.
b. private trash hauling.
c. poor air quality.
d. private property.
17. Public transportation is:
a. a congestible good.
b. a pure private good.
c. a good without limits to the number of consumers who desire to use it.
d. not subject to the exclusion principle.
18. A baseball field is:
a. a pure public good.
b. a pure private good.
c. a good that has characteristics of both public goods and private goods.
d. not subject to the exclusion principle.
19. A means of creating a price-excludable public good is:
a. allowing food and beverages when entering.
b. requiring costly tickets.
c. to fund through taxation.
d. requiring identification.
20. A free concert in a public arena is:
a. a non-congestible public good.
b. a good that can be consumed by all.
c. a private good.
d. subject to consumption limits.

CHAPTER 5
Public Choice and the
Political Process
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. A political equilibrium for a pure public good is generally independent of the collective choice rule used.
2. A voter’s most-preferred political outcome will change if, other things being equal, that person’s tax share per unit of the public good is changed.
3. A proposal is put forward to increase the number of police officers. You estimate that your mar¬ginal benefit from police protection just equals your tax per police officer at the number of officers that would constitute the police force if the proposal passes. You will therefore vote in favor of the proposal.
4. If all voters have the identical most-preferred political outcome, given their tax shares, then the political equilibrium under majority rule will be identical to the political equilibrium under unani¬mous consent.
5. The median voter is the one whose most-preferred political outcome is the median of the most-preferred outcome of all those voting.
6. If all voters have single-peaked preferences, a political equilibrium will not be possible under majority rule.
7. A person with multiple-peaked preferences is always made worse off as the quantity of a pure public good is increased, or decreased, once he or she attains his or her most-preferred political outcome.
8. Logrolling always succeeds in passing two paired issues that could not pass if voted on separately.
9. A bureaucrat who seeks to maximize the annual size of his budget each year will propose annual output levels corresponding to the amount for which MSB = MSC.
10. Political transactions costs are likely to be greater under unanimous consent than under majority rule.
11. Political externalities are likely to be negligible when collective choices are made under majority rule.
12. Unanimous consent is a collective choice rule that will protect the rights of minorities.
13. A person for whom the marginal benefit of a public good declines as more is made available has single-peaked preferences.
14. Cycling can occur in elections under majority rule if some voters have multiple-peaked prefer¬ences.
15. Special interest groups are more likely to gain income through the political process if they are a large percentage of the population.
16. A ration person’s most preferred political outcome is when the cost of the quantity of government-supplied goods is below the marginal benefit.
17. A budget-maximizing bureaucrat seeks funding levels where the total social cost equals the total social benefit.
18. Logrolling can allow more than one issue of minority interest to be passed.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. A community currently hires 10 security guards per week to patrol their neighborhood. Each secu¬rity guard costs $300 per week. Assuming that the tax-sharing arrangement agreed to results in each of 300 voters paying the same tax share, each voter pays a weekly tax bill of:
a. $1.
b. $3.
c. $10.
d. $30.
2. A small community currently taxes residents to provide monthly community concerts. Voter A currently pays a tax per concert equal to $50 per month. This voter receives a marginal benefit of $75 at the current political equilibrium number of concerts per month. Voter A:
a. is the median voter.
b. would be made better off if the number of monthly concerts were increased.
c. would be made worse off if the number of monthly concerts were increased.
d. has achieved his most-preferred political outcome for monthly concerts.
3. A proposal to build new roads in a small town is up for a vote. Voter B estimates that his marginal benefit of roads at the proposed new level would be $80 per year. This voter will vote against the proposal:
a. no matter what her tax share.
b. if her tax share is $80.
c. if her tax share is less than $80.
d. if her tax share exceeds $80.
4. Currently eight security guards patrol a condominium community each week. The number of guards has been determined by majority rule. Each voter pays a tax share of $50 per guard. If Voter M is the median voter,
a. his marginal benefit from security guards is $50.
b. his marginal benefit exceeds that of any other voter.
c. the difference between his marginal benefit and $50 is at a maximum.
d. he would be made better off if more security guards were hired per week.
5. If all voters have single-peaked preferences, then under majority rule:
a. cycling of political outcomes can occur.
b. a political equilibrium exists.
c. the political equilibrium is the median most-preferred outcome.
d. both (b) and (c)
6. If a person has multiple-peaked preferences for a pure public good,
a. that person is always made worse off when moving away from his or her most-preferred polit¬ical outcome.
b. that person will become worse off at first, but then become better off, when moving away from his or her most-preferred political equilibrium.
c. the marginal benefit of the pure public good always declines for that person as more is made available.
d. both (b) and (c)
7. Implicit logrolling results when:
a. any two issues are paired on a ballot.
b. two voters succeed in pairing two issues on a ballot that can pass together but would fail indi¬vidually.
c. voters agree to trade votes on an issue.
d. the pairing of two issues on a ballot allows the achievement of efficiency.
8. Voter A will normally vote in favor of one security guard per week because his marginal benefit is $125 and his tax share is $100 per week. Voter A receives zero marginal benefit from one concert a week and would vote against it. Voter B receives $125 marginal benefit from one concert per week but no marginal benefit from one security guard. One concert per week also will fail to gain a majority when put to the vote. Assuming that both Voter A and Voter B will pay $100 per week in tax for each concert and each security guard,
a. they can both gain by engaging in logrolling on the two issues.
b. pairing the issues on one ballot will result in both Voter A and Voter B voting in favor of the combined issue.
c. pairing the issues on one ballot will result in both Voter A and Voter B voting against the com¬bined issue.
d. implicit logrolling will result in Voter A voting in favor of the combined issue, but in Voter B voting against it.
9. A voter may choose not to vote in an election between two alternatives because:
a. he or she is indifferent between the two alternatives.
b. his or her probability of influencing the result is zero.
c. his or her most-preferred alternative is far from the two offered on the ballot.
d. all of the above
10. If bureaucrats seek to maximize the size of their budgets, they will:
a. seek to fund levels of services up to the point at which MSC = MSB.
b. seek to fund levels of services for which TSB > TSC.
c. seek to fund levels of services for which MSC > MSB.
d. both (b) and (c)
11. The demand curve for a pure public good is:
a. obtained by adding the quantity demanded at each possible price for all consumers.
b. obtained by summing the marginal benefits of each consumer for each possible quantity.
c. always upward sloping.
d. always a flat line.
12. A voter’s most-preferred political outcome will be that for which the:
a. marginal benefit of a pure public good is equal to the voter’s tax share per unit.
b. total benefit per unit of a pure public good is equal to the voter’s tax share per unit.
c. difference between the marginal benefit of a pure public good and the voter’s tax share per unit is maximized.
d. marginal benefit of a pure public good is equal to zero, no matter what the voter’s tax share per unit.
13. If all voters have single-peaked preferences for a pure public good, then the political equilibrium under majority rule:
a. cannot be defined.
b. is the median outcome.
c. is the median most-preferred outcome of all voter’s voting.
d. will not change if tax shares change.
14. Which of the following collective choice rules is likely to have the lowest political externalities?
a. two-thirds majority rule
b. simple majority rule
c. plurality rule
d. unanimous consent
15. Which of the following collective choice rules is likely to incur the highest political transactions costs?
a. two-thirds majority rule
b. simple majority rule
c. plurality rule
d. unanimous consent
16. If the marginal social benefit of one more unit of a good is 10 and the marginal social cost of one more unit of a good is 11, then:
a. the output of the good is efficient.
b. a bureaucrat can still increase the bureau’s budget.
c. a bureaucrat can increase the bureau’s budget if the total social cost exceeds the total social benefit.
d. a bureaucrat can increase the bureau’s budget if the total social cost is below the total social benefit.
17. The plurality rule is:
a. a collective bargaining rule.
b. a rule that is guaranteed to have majority decision.
c. a means of determining between only two possible outcomes.
d. a rule that cannot lead to a minority decision.
18. Arrow’s impossibility theorem states:
a. a unique political equilibrium for a public choice never exists.
b. a unique political equilibrium for a public choice cannot exist under majority rule.
c. a unique political equilibrium can exist if there is majority rule and multi-peaked preferences.
d. a unique political equilibrium for a public good cannot exist under unanimous consent.
19. Suppose tax shares are evenly distributed for a particular service at the amount of $100.00 per person. Which taxpayer suffers a political externality based on the taxpayer’s marginal benefit for the service?
a. Taxpayer A has a marginal benefit of $100.00.
b. Taxpayer B has a marginal benefit of $200.00.
c. Taxpayer C has a marginal benefit of $90.00.
d. Taxpayers B and C.
20. A public choice is:
a. free of any political interaction or process.
b. by majority rule only.
c. one made through political interaction of many people according to established rules.
d. by unanimous consent only.

CHAPTER 6
Cost-Benefit Analysis and Government Investments
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. A cost-effective program mix is one that accomplishes a given mission at minimum cost.
2. Cost-benefit analysis is a technique for determining the net benefits of alternative government projects.
3. An increase in the profits of gasoline dealers on an improved road is a benefit of the road project.
4. If increases in agricultural land values are viewed as a benefit of an irrigation project, then the market value of projected increased crops should also be included as a benefit of the project.
5. The social rate of discount must equal the opportunity cost of funds used to finance a project.
6. If a project has a B/C ratio of 0.9, its approval will result in net benefits to citizens of the nation.
7. The benefits of widening a road consist only of the cost savings to existing users of the road.
8. If the benefits of a new bridge exceed the costs, then there will be a net social gain from building the bridge.
9. If the marginal social cost of a new road exceeds its marginal social benefit, then building the road will result in a net social gain.
10. The higher the social rate of discount, the more government projects for which benefits will exceed costs.
11. A lower discount rate favors more capital-intensive investments that yield net benefits further into the future.
12. The present value of a stream of net benefits for 20 years will be less than the sum of those benefits unless the social rate of discount is zero.
13. Building a new sports stadium results in food sales at the facility. These food sales should be con¬sidered a benefit of the new stadium.
14. Program budgeting seeks to group agencies with similar purposes for budgeting, independent of the government department to which they belong.
15. Cost-benefit analysis can be viewed as a way of minimizing the cost of any given government output.
16. Assuming costs are paid immediately, an increase in the social discount rate will lower the benefit-cost rate.
17. The marginal rate of technical substitution (where the slope of the isocost and isoquant lines are equal) is the ratio of the prices of the two goods.
18. The marginal rate of technical substitution is the slope of the isoquant line.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. In program budgeting, an agency’s program is:
a. its mission.
b. a combination of government activities designed to produce a distinguishable output.
c. its output.
d. the cost of its output.
2. Program budgeting differs from line budgeting in that:
a. all agencies with similar missions are budgeted for together, irrespective of the government department to which they belong.
b. proposed expenditures in a given government department are compared only with other pro¬grams in the same department.
c. a computer program is used.
d. the effect of programs on the distribution of income is explicitly considered.
3. The mission of a government agency is:
a. its program.
b. its output.
c. its cost.
d. a measure of the inputs it uses.
4. Assuming a full-employment economy, which of the following should not be included as a benefit of a government project to build a new highway when doing a cost-benefit analysis?
a. the income of construction workers employed to build the highway
b. the value of the time saved on trips between points to be served by the new highway
c. the increase in retail sales at sites bordering the highway
d. both (a) and (c)
5. A cost-benefit analysis of an irrigation project shows that the ratio of the discounted present value of benefits to costs is less than one. This implies that:
a. the net benefit of the project is positive.
b. the net benefit of the project is negative.
c. efficiency can be attained by undertaking the project.
d. the project will redistribute income to the poor.
6. The social rate of discount is currently 10 percent. This implies that:
a. all government projects will yield a 10-percent return.
b. the opportunity cost of funds for all government projects is 10 percent.
c. more capital-intensive projects will be ranked over less capital-intensive projects.
d. the opportunity cost of funds for all government projects is 20 percent.
7. The social rate of discount used in cost-benefit analysis measures the:
a. benefits of a project.
b. cost of a project.
c. rate of return on the project.
d. opportunity cost of displaced private saving or investment.
8. Suppose that a business investment is subject to a 50-percent tax but that the return to private savings is not taxed. The after-tax rate of return on business investment is currently 9 percent. If a proposed government project is predicted to displace business investment, then the social rate of discount is:
a. 9 percent.
b. 18 percent.
c. 36 percent.
d. infinite.
9. A proposed road improvement project is expected to increase pollution in an urban area. The pollu¬tion damage should:
a. be considered a cost of the project.
b. be considered a benefit of the project.
c. not be considered in evaluation of the project.
d. be used as a justification to increase the social rate of discount.
10. A new road will lower the cost of a trip between two cities from $20 to $10. Currently, 100,000 trips per year are made between the two points. The benefit of the new road will:
a. be $1 million per year.
b. exceed $1 million per year.
c. be less than $1 million per year.
d. accrue only to current users.
11. Program budgeting is a way to:
a. minimize the cost of producing a given amount of government services.
b. rank projects according to their marginal net benefits.
c. maximize the output of government.
d. increase government spending.
12. Cost-benefit analysis is a way to:
a. minimize the cost of producing a given amount of government services.
b. rank projects according to their marginal net benefits.
c. maximize the output of government.
d. increase government spending.
13. If the social rate of discount falls, then the efficient amount of government capital spending will:
a. increase.
b. decrease.
c. be unaffected.
d. fall to zero.
14. A government agency has a new hydroelectric project that will take 15 years to build before it pro¬vides any benefits. The net present value of the project will be highest under which of the following discount rates?
a. 0 percent
b. 1 percent
c. 3 percent
d. 5 percent
15. Which of the following techniques is used by economists to value years of life saved by a highway safety program?
a. measuring the increased income that it allows
b. trying to get those affected by the improved safety to reveal their willingness to pay for the reduced risk of death
c. either (a) or (b)
d. none of the above, because economists believe that it is impossible to put a value on life
16. If the quantity of good A is on the vertical axis and the quantity of good B is on the horizontal axis, the slope of the corresponding isocost line is:
a. the price of good B divided by the price of good A.
b. the negative of the price of good B divided by the price of good A.
c. the price of good A divided by the price of good B.
d. the negative of the price of good A divided by the price of good B.
17. If the quantity of good A is on the vertical axis and the quantity of good B is on the horizontal axis, the marginal rate of technical substitution of the corresponding isoquant line is:
a. the marginal product of good B divided by the marginal product of good A.
b. the negative of the marginal product of good B divided by the marginal product of good A.
c. the marginal product of good A divided by the marginal product of good B.
d. the negative of the marginal product of good A divided by the marginal product of good B.
18. If the quantity of good A is on the vertical axis and the quantity of good B is on the horizontal axis, then the cost-effective mix between the two goods occurs when:
a. the slope of the associated isoquant line equals the price of A divided by the price of B.
b. the marginal rate of technical substitution equals the price of A divided by the price of B.
c. the marginal rate of technical substitution equals the price of B divided by the price of A.
d. either (a) or (c).
19. The process of taking a previous period’s budget and making minor changes to produce the current year’s budget is called:
a. zero based budgeting.
b. enumerated budgeting.
c. developmental budgeting.
d. incremental budgeting.
20. The nominal interest rate is:
a. the real rate of interest when there is inflation.
b. less than the real rate of interest when there is inflation.
c. inflation adjusted.
d. not adjusted by inflation.

CHAPTER 7
Government Subsidies and
Income Support for the Poor
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. The poverty threshold is independent of the size of a family and the age of a household head.
2. The rate of poverty has increased in the United States since 1959.
3. In calculating the official poverty rate, cash transfers to the poor are included in their income, but in-kind transfers are not.
4. All persons in the United States with income below the poverty level are eligible for TANF or for SSI transfers designed to assist the poor.
5. The cash benefit and eligibility for payments under TANF varies considerably from state to state.
6. Cash transfers currently account for much less of the total transfers to the poor than in-kind transfers do.
7. Medicaid is likely to result in incentives for recipients to consume medical services up to a point at which the marginal social cost of such services exceeds their marginal benefit.
8. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance (formerly called food stamps) lower the price of food to recipients.
9. A person receiving a lump-sum annual transfer is likely to work less than would otherwise be the case.
10. The annual income guarantee under a negative income tax is $10,000 per family of four. This transfer declines by 50 cents for each dollar of annual earnings. The transfer received by a family of four will decline to zero when its annual earnings is $20,000.
11. The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a way of subsidizing those who are unable to work and have no earnings.
12. The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a form of wage-rate subsidy that increases the incomes of low-income people with earnings.
13. The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a form of negative tax that increases the incomes of workers with earnings but is eventually phased out to zero as earnings rise above a certain level.
14. Medicaid is jointly financed by the federal government and the state governments in the United States and now absorbs more than 20 percent of state government budgets.
15. Since TANF has been introduced in the United States, welfare caseloads have declined and labor force participation of less-skilled single mothers has increased.
16. A two-person household headed by a person over 65 is classified as poor at the same level as a two-person household not headed by an elderly person.
17. The poverty threshold stays constant from year to year.
18. Less than one-third of the people classified as poor in the United States are children.

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. In the United States, the poverty threshold is:
a. the same for all households of a given size independent of the age of the household head.
b. the cost of a minimally accepted diet for persons in the family.
c. three times the cost of a minimally accepted diet for persons in the family, for families with household heads under the age of 65.
d. five times the cost of a minimally accepted diet for persons in the family, for families with household heads under the age of 65.
2. Government transfers to the poor in the United States:
a. are always in the form of cash.
b. are available to all persons whose income is below the poverty threshold.
c. succeed in eliminating poverty in the United States.
d. are available only to poor persons who fall into certain demographic categories.
3. The most expensive program of assistance to the poor in the United States in recent years has been:
a. TANF.
b. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance (formerly called food stamps).
c. Medicaid.
d. public housing.
4. Cash transfers are:
a. the dominant method of providing assistance to the poor in the United States.
b. included in the income of recipients when calculating the official poverty rate.
c. available only to the elderly in the United States.
d. both (a) and (b)
5. If the supply of medical services is perfectly elastic, then the effect of Medicaid is to:
a. increase the market price of medical services.
b. result in the efficient amount of medical services.
c. cause recipients to consume medical services beyond the point at which their marginal benefits per year equal the marginal social costs of medical services.
d. both (a) and (c)
6. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance (formerly called food stamps):
a. reduces the market price of food to those eligible for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance.
b. is likely to increase the market price of food to all consumers.
c. is likely to increase food purchases by recipients but not other purchases.
d. is likely to increase both food and nonfood purchases by recipients.
7. The value of a price-distorting subsidy for a three-bedroom apartment is $100 per month. This means that the person choosing to live in an apartment of that size would have to pay an extra $100 per month at the market rent. Then it follows that:
a. that person would be worse off if she received a cash subsidy of $100 per month.
b. that person would be better off if she received a cash subsidy of $100 per month.
c. that person would be just as well off if she received a cash subsidy of less than $100 per month.
d. both (b) and (c)
8. Suppose a welfare recipient is given a cash grant that increases his monthly income. That grant will never be taken away no matter how much the recipient earns. The grant will result in a(n):
a. substitution effect favorable to work.
b. substitution effect unfavorable to work.
c. income effect favorable to work.
d. income effect unfavorable to work.
9. A welfare recipient receives a cash transfer of $100 per week. This grant is not reduced if the recipient earns less than $20 per week. However, after the recipient earns more than $20 per week, the grant is reduced by 66 cents for each dollar of earnings. The cash transfer will be reduced to zero if the recipient earns:
a. $151.52 per week.
b. $171.52 per week.
c. $131.52 per week.
d. $100.00 per week.
10. An income guarantee of $10,000 per year for all families is established with a phase-out rate of benefits of 50 cents per dollar of earnings. Then it follows that:
a. only families with earnings of less than $10,000 per year will receive transfers.
b. all families with earnings of less than $20,000 per year will receive transfers.
c. all families with income of less than $30,000 per year will receive transfers.
d. all families will receive transfers.
11. The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is:
a. a transfer to low-income people who are unable to work.
b. a flat grant that increases by $4,000 the income of all workers below the poverty level.
c. a subsidy to the poor who have low earnings that increases as they earn more, reaches a maxi¬mum, and then is phased out to zero as earnings increase above a certain maximum.
d. available to all persons whose incomes are below the poverty level, whether they work or not.
12. The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC):
a. is a negative tax that transfers income to the poor who have earnings.
b. can increase the incomes of those eligible by as much as 40 percent.
c. is never phased out as the earnings of the recipients increase.
d.both (a) and (b)
13. Which of the following is true about Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)?
a. It is an entitlement program administered by the federal government.
b. It provides temporary and limited support for poor families through federal grants to state governments.
c. State governments determine eligibility for its benefits and administer it.
d. both (b) and (c)

14. Under Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF),
a. federal spending is capped and is allocated to states as a block grant.
b. federal spending is an open-ended entitlement program that requires federal payments to all eligible recipients who meet means and status tests.
c. the states do not determine eligibility and benefit levels; instead, the federal government sets these levels as national standards.
d. recipients are not required to work and will receive benefits as long as they meet a means test.

15. Which of the following is true about the Medicaid program in the United States?
a. It is entirely financed by the federal government.
b. It is a means-tested entitlement program that mandates payment for medical services, mainly to those with low incomes.
c. It is jointly financed by the federal and state governments and is absorbing a significant share of the state government budgets.
d. both (b) and (c)
16. In the United Stated, which of the following years had the highest poverty rate?
a. 2000
b. 1993
c. 1980
d. 1873

17. Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) replaced:
a. no existing programs.
b. one existing program.
c. two existing programs.
d. three existing programs.

18. Medicaid was enacted by Congress in:
a. 1965.
b. 1972.
c. 1977.
d. 1980.

19. Why rely on the government to aid the poor rather than private charities?
a. The government can establish uniform standards for eligibility.
b. Voluntary donations will most likely be inadequate.
c. The government will most likely be able to meet all needs to the satisfaction of all citizens.
d. both (a) and (b)

20. An EITC program is more likely to encourage working when compared to NIT program because:
a. participants are guaranteed income even if they are not working.
b. participants must work to receive benefits.
c. participants are eligible for work training.
d. participants receive a wage rate subsidy.

FIN 317 Week 5 Mid-Term Exam Chapters 1 Through 6 – Strayer University NEW

FIN 317 Week 5 Mid Term Exam – Strayer

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Chapters 1 Through 6

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO FINANCE FOR ENTREPRENEURS

True-False Questions

1. Entrepreneurs provide the financing to individuals who think, reason, and act to convert ideas into commercial opportunities and create opportunities.

2. Entrepreneurship is the process of changing ideas into commercial opportunities and creating value.

3. An entrepreneur is an individual who thinks, reasons, and acts to convert ideas into commercial opportunities and to create value.

4. Mark Twain once said, “I was always able to see an opportunity before it became one.”

5. Small businesses, those with less than 500 employees, represent over 99 percent of all employers, and account for about one-half of the gross domestic product in the United States.

6. Small and growing enterprises are critical to the U.S. economy; small firms provide 20 to 30 percent of net new jobs.

7. Small high-technology firms are responsible for twice as many product innovations per employee and obtain more patents per sales dollar than large high-technology firms.

8. Phillips and Kirchhoff, using Dun & Bradstreet data, found that 24 percent of new firms were still in existence after two years of operation.

9. Nearly half of business failures are due to economic factors such as inadequate sales, insufficient profits, and industry weakness.

10. Although the risks associated with starting a new entrepreneurial venture are large, there is always room for one more success.

11. Studies by Phillips and Kirchhoff, and by Headd, found that about 38%-40% of new firms survived six years of operation.

12. One study of Inc. magazine’s 500 high-growth firms suggests that about 88 percent of founders feel their firms’ successes are due to extraordinary ideas, while the remaining 12 percent feel their firms’ successes are due to exceptional execution of ordinary ideas.

13. “Fads” are large societal, demographic, or technological trends or changes that are slow in forming but once in place continue for many years.

14. “Fads” are not predictable, have short lives, and do not involve macro changes.

15. Three major megatrends discussed in Chapter 1 include: societal trends or changes, demographic trends or changes, and technological trends or changes.

16. In 1982, Harry Dent identified several major or megatrends shaping U.S. society and the world.

17. The so-called “baby boom” generation applies to people born in the United States during the 1946-1964 time period.

18. Perhaps the most important invention shuttling us from an industrial society to an information society is the computer chip.

19. Environmental commerce, or e-commerce, involves the use of electronic means to conduct business online.

20. The Office of Advocacy of the U.S. Small Business Administration documents that “employer firm births” have exceeded 700,000 annually in recent years.

21. Reasonable estimates place nonemployer (e.g., single person or small family) business started each year at less than 100,000.

22. Bill Gates once said: “I was seldom able to see an opportunity, until it ceased to be one.”

23. A study by Phillips and Kirchhoff using Dun & Bradstreet data found that about three-fourths of new firms were still in existence after two years of operation.

24. Studies by Phillips and Kirchhoff, and by Headd, found that one-half of new firms or new employers were still in existence after four years of operation.

25. Nine principles of entrepreneurial finance are identified and explored in this entrepreneurial finance textbook,

26. The “time value of money” is an important component of the rent one pays for using someone else’s financial capital.

27. A venture’s financial objective is to survive.

28. Private financial markets are a place where standardized contracts or securities are traded on organized security exchanges with restrictions on how they can be transferred.

29. Free cash flow is the net income forecast to be available to the venture’s owners over time.

30. Free cash flows are adjusted for risk and the time value of money when used to calculate the value of a venture.

31. Free cash exists when cash exceeds that which is needed to operate, pay creditors, and invest in assets.

32. Free cash is all the cash available to cover operating expenses.

33. Owner-manager (agency) conflicts are differences between manager’s self-interest and that of the owners who hired the manager.

34. The owner-debtholder conflict is the divergence of the owners’ and lenders’ self-interest as the firm gets close to going “public.”

35. The financial objective of increasing value is inconsistent with developing positive character and reputation.

36. Entrepreneurial finance is the application and adaptation of financial tools and techniques to the planning, funding, operations, and valuation of an entrepreneurial venture.

37. Financial distress occurs when cash flow is insufficient to meet current debt obligations.

38. The second stage in a successful venture’s life cycle is the startup stage.

39. The rapid growth stage directly follows the startup stage.

40. Early-stage ventures include firms in their development, startup, or survival live cycle stages.

41. Business angels are wealthy individuals acting as informal or private investors, who provide venture financing for small businesses.

42. Mezzanine financing is temporary financing needed to keep the venture afloat until the next offering.

43. “Crises and bubbles” and “emerging economies and global change” are considered to be sources of entrepreneurial opportunities.

44. In Chapter I five mega-trend categories are identified as sources of entrepreneurial opportunities.

45. Entrepreneurial opportunities can occur only when there are societal changes in the world.

46. One principal of entrepreneurial finance is “risk and expected reward go hand in hand.

47. While cash is the language of business, accounting is the currency.

48. Venture character and reputation can be assets or liabilities.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Successful entrepreneurs exhibit which of the following traits?
a. recognize and seize commercial opportunities
b. economic pessimism
c. tend to be doggedly optimistic
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

2. While one must be careful to avoid too many generalizations about entrepreneurial traits or characteristics, which one of the following characteristics would not normally be associated with successful entrepreneurs?
a. being able to see and seize a commercial opportunity
b. planning for the venture’s future
c. only being able to see an opportunity after it ceases to be one
d. being optimistic about the venture’s success

3. About one-half of all newly created businesses in the U.S. are dissolved or cease operations within how many years after being started?
a. two years
b. four years
c. six years
d. eight years

4. About 60 percent of all newly created businesses in the U.S. are dissolved or cease operations within how many years after being started?
a. two years
b. four years
c. six years
d. eight years

5. “Fads” are:
a. not predictable
b. have short lives
c. do not involve macro changes
d. all of the above

6. Harry Dent documented major generation waves in the United States during the twentieth century in:
a. 1972
b. 1982
c. 1993
d. 2003

7. “E-commerce” refers to:
a. environmental commerce
b. electronic commerce
c. economic commerce
d. exploratory commerce

8. While entrepreneurial opportunities come from an almost unlimited number of sources, this textbook focuses on:
a. societal changes
b. demographic changes
c. technological changes
d. crises and bubbles
e. emerging economies and global changes
f. all of the above

9. Indicate the number of principles of entrepreneurial finance that are emphasized in this textbook:
a. one
b. three
c. five
d. seven
e. nine

10. Maximizing the value of the venture to its owners is the common financial goal of which of the following?
a. the entrepreneur
b. the debtholders
c. the venture equity investors
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

11. Which of the following is considered to be an “agency” conflict?
a. owner-manager conflict
b. stockholder-manager conflict
c. stockholder-debtholder conflict
d. manager-debtholder conflict

12. Which one of the following possible conflicts of interest is usually minimized through the use of equity incentives?
a. owner-manager conflicts
b. owner-employee conflicts
c. manager-employee conflicts
d. manager-debtholder conflicts

13. Which one of the following possible conflicts of interest increases in divergence at venture gets close to bankruptcy?
a. owner-manager conflict
b. owner-employee conflict
c. manager-employee conflict
d. manager-debtholder conflict

14. Which of the following is not a life cycle stage of a successful venture?
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. cash cow stage
e. early-maturity stage

15. Which of the following does not describe activity during the venture’s life cycle startup stage?
a. venture’s organization
b. venture’s development
c. operating cash flows are generated
d. initial revenue model is put in place

16. At which stage of the venture’s life cycle stage is best characterized by the period when revenues start to grow and when cash flows from operations begin covering cash outflows?
a. survival stage
b. startup stage
c. rapid growth stage
d. early-maturity stage

17. Which is not a major source of start-up financing for a venture’s startup stage?
a. entrepreneur’s assets
b. business operations
c. family and friends
d. business angels
e. venture capitalists

18. Obtaining bank loan, issuing bonds, and issuing stock is characteristic of which type of financing during the venture’s life cycle?
a. seed financing
b. second round financing
c. mezzanine financing
d. seasoned financing
e. liquidity stage financing

19. During a venture’s rapid growth stage, funds for plant expansion, marketing expenditures, working capital, and product or service improvements is obtained through?
a. seed financing
b. second round financing
c. mezzanine financing
d. seasoned financing
e. liquidity stage financing

20. Founder and venture investor shares are sold to the public after the initial offering to the public is called?
a. secondary market transaction
b. secondary stock offering
c. venture offering
d. bridge loan

21. Which of the following advise and assist corporations on the type, timing, and costs of issuing new debt and equity securities and facilitate the sale of firms?
a. brokerage firms
b. venture law firms
c. specialist firms
d. investment banking firms

22. Which stage in the venture life cycle is characterized by creating and building value, obtaining additional financing, and examining opportunities?
a. survival stage
b. startup stage
c. rapid growth stage
d. early-maturity stage

23. Which of these statements is correct?
a. The development stage occurs between the startup and survival stages of a venture’s life cycle
b. The early-maturity stage is the final stage of a new venture’s lifecycle
c. Firms typically begin to cover all expenses with internally-generated funds during the survival stage
d. During the startup stage, revenues grow much more rapidly than cash expenditures
e. None of the above

24. The last three stages of a successful venture’s life cycle occur in the following order:
a. startup, development, rapid growth
b. startup, survival, rapid growth
c. survival, rapid growth, early-maturity
d. development, startup, survival

25. The stage that precedes the middle stage in a successful venture’s life cycle is called the:
a. rapid growth stage
b. early-maturity stage
c. development stage
d. survival stage
e. startup stage

26. During the maturity stage of a venture’s life cycle, the primary source of funds is in the form of:
a. mezzanine financing
b. seed financing
c. startup financing
d. first round financing
e. seasoned financing

27. The type of financing that occurs during the development stage of a venture’s life cycle is typically referred to as:
a. seed financing
b. startup financing
c. first round financing
d. second round financing
e. mezzanine financing

28. Mezzanine financing is associated with which one of the following life cycle stages:
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. rapid growth stage
e. early-maturity stage

29. Entrepreneurial finance is the application and adaptation of financial tools and techniques to an entrepreneurial venture. Entrepreneurial finance involves:
a. planning
b. funding
c. operations
d. valuation
e. a and d above
f. all of the above

30. The first three stages of a successful venture’s life cycle occur in the following order:
a. development, rapid growth, survival
b. startup, development, rapid growth
c. startup, survival, rapid growth
d. survival, rapid growth, early-maturity
e. development, startup, survival

31. The last stage in a successful venture’s life cycle is called the:
a. rapid growth stage
b. early-maturity stage
c. development stage
d. survival stage
e. startup stage

32. The type of financing that occurs during the survival stage of a venture’s life cycle is typically referred to as the:
a. seed financing
b. startup financing
c. first round financing
d. second round financing
e. mezzanine financing

33. Which one of the following would not be considered a type of venture financing?
a. seed financing
b. startup financing
c. mezzanine financing
d. liquidity-stage financing
e. seasoned financing

34. One study of successful entrepreneurs indicated that a majority felt that the most important factor in the long-term success of their ventures was:
a. being greedy
b. having high ethical standards
c. working hard
d. taking frequent vacations

35. Financial markets where customized contracts or securities are negotiated, created, and held with restrictions on how they can be transferred are called:
a. private financial markets
b. public financial markets
c. domestic financial markets
d. international financial markets
e. all of the above

36. The time value of money concept is associated with which one of the following principles of entrepreneurial finance:
a. real, human, and financial capital must be rented from owners
b. risk and expected reward go hand in hand
c. while accounting is the language of business, cash is the currency
d. it is dangerous to assume that people act against their own self-interests

37. The goal of the entrepreneurial process is to:
a. develop opportunities
b. gather resources
c. manage and build operations
d. create value

38. Which of the following is not considered to be a mega-trend in this textbook?
a. societal, demographic, and technological changes
b. crises and bubbles
c. fads
d. emerging economies and global changes

Supplementary Questions (may require basic knowledge of probability and/or prior introductory accounting and business concepts)

1. You have the opportunity of making a $5,000 investmen The outcomes one year from now will be either $4,500 or $6,000 with an equal chance of either outcome occurring. What is the expected outcome?
a. $4,500
b. $6,000
c. $5,250
d. $5,750
e. $5,000

2. You have the opportunity of making a $5,000 investmen The outcomes one year from now will be either $5,000 or $6,000 with an equal chance of either outcome occurring. What is the expected rate of return?
a. 10%
b. 15%
c. 20%
d. 25%
e. 30%

3. A project requires an initial investment of $1,000,000. In one year, there is a 40% chance of a $950,000 return; a 50% chance of a $1,200,000 return; and a 10% chance of a $2,000,000 return. What is the project’s expected return one year from now?
a. 12.8%
b. 15.5%
c. 18.0%
d. 38.3%

4. Lindsey and Tobias have the opportunity to invest in a project that requires an investment of $3,000. There is a 35% chance of a $2,900 return; a 40% chance of a $3,400 return; and a 25% chance of a $4,500 return one year from now. Lindsey requires a 15% return on the project after the first year, but Tobias requires a return of only 12%. Using the expected rate of return:
a. Lindsey and Tobias should both invest in the project
b. Only Tobias should invest in the project
c. Only Lindsey should invest in the project
d. Lindsey and Tobias should both reject the project

5. You are considering investing in two independent projects “A” and “B”. Project A requires an initial investment of $12,000. In one year, there is a 30% chance of a $10,500 return; a 50% chance of a $12,500 return; and a 20% chance of a $14,500 return. Project B requires an initial investment of $1,000. In one year, there is a 25% chance of a $950 return; a 25% chance of a $1,000 return; and a 50% chance of a $1,200 return. If you require a 7% return on your investment after one year, you should:
a. Accept A and reject B
b. Accept B and reject A
c. Accept both projects
d. Reject both projects

6. Assume that you can sell a new product at $5.00 per uni Your variable costs are $3.00 per unit and you fixed costs are $20,000. What is your breakeven point in sales units?
a. 5,000
b. 7,500
c. 10,000
d. 12,500
e. 15,000

7. Assume that you can sell a new product at $5.00 per uni Your variable costs are $3.00 per unit and you fixed costs are $20,000. What will be your profit before taxes if you sell 12,000 units next year?
a. $0
b. $1,000
c. $2,000
d. $4,000
e. $8,000

CHAPTER 2

DEVELOPING THE BUSINESS IDEA

True-False Questions

1. For ventures that first get to market or create intellectual property rights, it’s common to price new products or services at high markups or profit margins.

2. Lifestyle firms are growth-driven in terms of revenues, profits, and cash flows and also performance-oriented as reflected in rapid value creation over time.

3. “Salary-replacement” firms provide their owners with income levels comparable to what they could have earned working for much larger firms.

4. An entrepreneur may start a number of different types of businesses, including salary-replacement firms, lifestyle firms, and entrepreneurial firms or ventures.

5. “Entrepreneurial ventures” are firms that allow owners to pursue specific lifestyles while being paid for doing what they like to do.

6. Entrepreneurial ventures emphasize survival and providing an acceptable living for their owners with growth being a secondary goal.

7. A sound business model is a plan to generate investor interest, make profits, and grow asset investments.

8. A sound business model should provide a plan to generate revenues, make profits, and produce free cash flows.

9. Mark Twain said: “Like I tell anybody, if you fail to plan, you’re planning to fail.”

10. Best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms applied in the marketing practices area include “developing new products or services that are considered to be the bes ”

11. Best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms applied in the marketing practices area include “preparing detailed monthly financial plans for the next year and annual financial plans for the next five years.

12. Best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms applied in the financial practices area include “preparing detailed monthly financial plans for the next year and annual financial plans for the next five years.

13. Best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms applied in the management practices area include “assembling a management team that is balanced in both functional area coverage and industry/market knowledge.”

14. Business opportunities, because they exist in real time, have a relatively narrow window of opportunity to become a successful business venture. However being the first to market does not guarantee success.

15. Ideas that are said to be “ahead of their time” are too early to become viable business opportunities for the inventor or innovator.

16. Once conceptualized, a new idea should be examined for its business feasibility.

17. A SWOT analysis is an examination of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to determine the business opportunity viability of an idea.

18. A SWOT analysis focuses on strengths (S), worries (W), opportunities (O), and treats (T).

19. A “venture opportunity screening” is the same thing as preparing a business plan.

20. A SWOT analysis should consider as potential strengths or weaknesses whether there are unfilled customer needs and the extent to which intellectual property rights exis

21. A SWOT analysis should consider the extent of existing competition and the likelihood of substitute products or services as potential strengths or opportunities.

22. Venture opportunity screening involves assessment of an idea’s commercial potential to produce revenue growth, financial performance, and value.

23. A venture with a low score on the VOS Indicator should always be abandoned.

24. The VOS Indicator is useful in assessing the commercial potential of a venture, but should not be used as the sole tool to determine a venture’s fate.

25. The VOS Indicator provides both qualitative and quantitative information about a venture’s commercial potential.

26. A venture opportunity-screening guide, called the VOS Indicator, is used to determine potential attractiveness of venture opportunities as business opportunities.

27. Asset intensity is the net after-tax profit divided by total assets.

28. One way to describe asset intensity is the dollar investment in assets needed to generate a dollar in sales.

29. Business changes resulting in higher net profit always increases ROA.

30. The compound rate of return that equates the present value of the cash inflows with the initial investment outlay is called the internal rate of return (IRR).

31. Bootstrapping refers to the process of minimizing resources such as the need for financial capital and finding unique sources for financing a new venture.

32. Free cash flow to equity is the cash flow from producing and selling a product or providing a service.

33. In a typical business plan, the section covering the management team does not need to disclose the expertise and experience of the managemen

34. The non-financial option available to managers as the venture progresses through its lifecycle is known as real options.

35. The process of moving from entrepreneurial opportunities to new businesses, products, or services begins with ideas, then moves to the preparation of a business plan, and finally ends with a feasibility study.

36. A well-designed entrepreneurial venture bins with an idea that survives an analysis of its feasibility and results in a business model/plan.

37. A successful, sound business model does not have to ultimately produce free cash flows.

38. The first component of a sound business model is the need to generate revenues.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Firms that allow owners to pursue specific lifestyles while being paid for doing what they like to do are referred to as:
a. salary-replacement firms
b. lifestyle firms
c. entrepreneurial ventures
d. rapid value creation firms

2. U.S. small businesses are predominately:
a. salary-replacement or entrepreneurial firms
b. lifestyle or entrepreneurial firms
c. entrepreneurial ventures
d. salary-replacement or lifestyle firms

3. The definition of an entrepreneurial firm is:
a. survival, high growth
b. high growth, high performance
c. survival, average performance
d. high, growth, average performance

4. A sound business model provides a plan which includes all of the following except?
a. generates revenues
b. makes profits
c. retains all its earnings
d. produces free cash flows
e. all of the above are included

5. A sound business model includes a plan to:
a. generate revenues, make profits
b. make profits, produce free cash flows
c. produce free cash flows for the owners of the venture
d. generate revenues, make profits, and produce free cash flows

6. Which one of the following components is not a standard component of a sound business model?
a. produce low-cost products
b. generate revenues
c. make profits
d. produce free cash flows

7. Free cash flows, which can be paid back to investors occurs when cash generated from operations exceeds all of the following except?
a. borrowing costs
b. non-cash depreciation
c. taxes
d. investment in assets

8. A venture’s value is determined by
a. the size and timing of its future free cash flows
b. time value of money
c. its net income
d. a and b
e. a and c

9. Developing new and delivering high-quality products or services that command higher prices and margins best describes strong
a. marketing practices
b. financial practices
c. operating practices
d. management practices

10. Effective entrepreneurial management teams should include all of the following except?
a. provide expertise in the areas of marketing, finance, and operations
b. have successful experience in the venture’s industry and markets
c. work collaboratively with each other
d. share the entrepreneurial spirit
e. in-house accounting, auditing, and tax professionals

11. A viable venture opportunity is characterized by all of the following except?
a. creating or meeting a customer need
b. has perceived attraction to prospective investors
c. provides an initial competitive advantage
d. is timely in terms of time-to-market
e. offers the expectation of added value to investors

12. A SWOT analysis does not focus on which of the following components or areas?
a. strengths
b. weaknesses
c. new ideas
d. opportunities
e. threats

13. A SWOT analysis focuses on which of the following components or areas?
a. strengths
b. weaknesses
c. opportunities
d. threats
e. all of the above
a, b, and d

14. When conducting a SWOT analysis, “unfilled customer needs” are examined in terms of:
a. strengths
b. weaknesses
c. opportunities
d. threats
e. a or b
c or d

15. SWOT analysis should at the very least consider which of the following areas:
a. experience/expertise
b. reputation value
c. first mover
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

16. Which one of the following is not a part of the VOS indicator?
a. industry/market considerations
b. pricing/profitability considerations
c. financial/harvest considerations
d. management team considerations
e. location/profitability considerations

17. The evaluation of “entry barriers” occurs under which one of the following parts of the VOS indicator?
a. industry/market considerations
b. pricing/profitability considerations
c. financial/harvest considerations
d. management team considerations

18. A VOS indicator stands for:
a. venture opportunity screening indicator
b. viable opportunity statement indicator
c. venture only success indicator
d. viable assessment screening indicator

19. The factor categories in a VOS indicator are:
a. industry/market considerations
b. pricing/profitability considerations
c. financial/harvest considerations
d. management team considerations
e. all of the above
a, b, and d

20. A “score” in the range of 2.34-3.00 using the VOS IndicatorTM ¬¬¬¬ ¬would be considered a:
a. a low score
b. an average score
c. a high score
d. a very, very high score

21. An average score on using the VOS Indicator¬TM would fall in the range:
a. 0.00-0.99
b. 1.00-1.66
c. 1.67-2.33
d. 2.34-3.00

22. At the end of a qualitative-based venture opportunity screening exercise, the interviewer prepares a subjective assessment and indicates one of the following except for:
a. natural commercial potential
b. high commercial potential
c. average commercial potential
d. low commercial potential

23. Direct costs of producing a product or providing a service is called
a. gross profit
b. gross profit margin
c. net profit
d. net profit margin
e. cost of goods sold

24. Revenues minus the cost of goods sold is called
a. gross profit
b. gross profit margin
c. net profit
d. net profit margin

25. Dollar profit left after all expenses, including financing costs and taxes have been deducted from the firm’s revenues is called
a. gross profit
b. gross profit margin
c. net profit
d. net profit margin
e. cost of goods sold

26. Return on assets can be stated as which of the following?
a. net after-tax profit divided by total assets
b. net profit margin times asset turnover
c. net cash flow divided by total assets
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

27. All else held constant, a higher asset turnover:
a. increases ROA
b. decreases ROA
c. has no effect on ROA
d. may raise or lower ROA, depending on how it affects revenues.

28. The return on assets (ROA) model measures:
a. revenues divided by net profit times the asset turnover
b. net profit margin times the equity multiplier
c. net profit margin times asset turnover
d. net profit divided by total assets multiplied by the asset turnover

29. Free cash flow to equity is the cash available to the entrepreneur and venture investors after all of the following except?
a. net cash flows
b. operating cash outflows
c. financing and tax cash flows
d. investment in assets needed to sustain the venture’s group
e. net increase in debt capital

30. The free cash flows to equity of an entrepreneurial firm includes cash flows to:
a. venture investors
b. creditors
c. the entrepreneur
d. a and b
e. a and c
f a, b, and c

31. Determine the cost of goods sold for a venture with the following financial information: revenues = $50,000; net profit margin = 20%;
gross profit margin = 70%
a. $40,000
b. $35,000
c. $15,000
d. $10,000

32. Determine gross profit of a venture with the following
financial information: cost of goods sold = $30,000; net profit = $17,000; asset turnover = 1.6; return on assets 32%
a. $85,000
b. $72,000
c. $55,000
d. $38,000
33. Determine the return on assets (ROA) for a venture with the following financial information: revenues = $500,000; net profit = $70,000; and asset turnover = 2.00 times.
a. 10%
b. 14%
c. 20%
d. 28%
e. 34%

34. Determine the dollar amount of total assets for a venture with the following financial information: revenues = $500,000; net profit = $70,000; and asset turnover = 2.00 times.
a. $100,000
b. $250,000
c. $375,000
d. $500,000
e. $650,000

35. Determine the dollar amount of net profit for a venture with the following financial information: revenues = $500,000; return on assets = 20%; and asset turnover = 2.00 times.
a. $10,000
b. $25,000
c. $50,000
d. $60,000
e. $75,000

36. Determine the dollar amount of revenues for a venture with the following financial information: net profit = $60,000; assets turnover = 1.5 times; and return on assets 30%.
a. $300,000
b. $500,000
c. $800,000
d. $1,000,000
e. $1,200,000

37. Determine the asset intensity of a venture with the following financial information: net profit = $22,000; revenues = $132,000; return on assets 30%. a. .05
b. .56
c. 1.8
d. 20

38. In the venture life cycle, moving from the development stage to the startup stage frequently begins with the preparation of a business plan. The business plan is a written document that describes the proposed venture in all of the following terms except:
a. the proposed product or service opportunity
b. the accounting data for the last five years
c. current resources available to the venture
d. financial projections

39. A typical business plan includes all of the following sections except:
a. executive summary
b. business description
c. marketing plan and strategy
d. disclosure of pending litigation
e. operations and support

40. When composing the financial plans and projections section of a business plan, all of the following should be included except:
a. income statements and balance sheets
b. statement of cash flows
c. past and present dividend per share information
d. breakeven analysis
e. funding needs and sources

41. A typical business plan includes all of the following except:
a. management team
b. financial plans and projections
c. risk and opportunities
d. timeline and milestones
e. initial public offering information

42. The first two requirements of a sound business model are:
a. generate revenues, make profits
b. make profits, produce free cash flows
c. produce free cash flows for creditors and owners of the venture
generate revenues and produce free cash flows

43. The process involving minimizing the need for financial capital and finding unique sources for financing a new venture is referred to as:
a. mezzanine financing
b. financial bootstrapping
c. seed financing
d. startup financing

44. A written document that describes the proposed venture in terms of the product or service opportunity, current resources, and financial projections is called a:
a. financial plan
b. business plan
c. entrepreneurial plan
d. survival plan

45. In the Kauffman Center study of best practices of high-growth, high-performance firms, which of the following practices was not included?
a. marketing practices
b. financial practices
c. management practices
d. production/operations practices

46. When moving from entrepreneurial opportunities to new businesses, products, or services, which one of the following is not considered a component?
a. ideas
b. feasibility
c. business plan
d. harvest of venture

47. A firm’s option to abandon a venture is an example of a:
a. bootstrapping option
b. financial option
c. survival option
d. real option

48. A venture’s value to its owners is determined by the:
a. size and timing of its future free cash flows (to equity)
b. level of its past revenues
c. prior losses and expenses
d. all of the above

49. A well-designed entrepreneurial venture typically includes:
a. generating ideas
b. analyzing the feasibility of ideas
c. producing business models/plans
d. only a and c above
e. a, b, and c above

50. Some venture investors like to draw analogies between baseball terms and venture performance. The baseball term used to reflect a total loss of an investment is:
a. home run
b. single
c. strikeout
d. double

CHAPTER 3

ORGANIZING AND FINANCING A NEW VENTURE

True-False Questions

1. The difference between a limited partnership and a general partnership is that the limited partnership has partners who actively manage the day-to-day operations but also has passive investors.

2. A limited partnership limits certain partners’ liabilities to pay the venture’s obligations to the amount each paid for their partnership interests.

3. In a corporate legal entity, the personal assets of the owners are separate from the business’ assets, but the personal liabilities of the owners are no

4. Limited liability in the corporate business structure means creditors can seize only some of the corporation’s assets.

5. The articles of incorporation are the basic legal declarations contained in the corporate charter.

6. Limited liability companies (LLCs) are owned by shareholders with limited liability and its earnings are taxed at the corporate rate.

7. Partnerships are treated with pass-through taxation. This means that profits and losses of the business pass directly through to investors on the basis specified in the partnership agreemen

8. An employment contract is an agreement between an employer and employee about the terms and conditions of employment including the employee’s agreement to keep confidential information secret and to assign ideas and inventions to the employer.

9. Financial bootstrapping maximizes the need for financial capital.

10. The income received by a proprietorship is taxed at personal tax rates.

11. The equity capital sources for a proprietorship are partners, families, and friends.

12. The maximum number of owners in a Subchapter S corporation is 150.

13. An S corporation provides unlimited liability for its shareholders.

14. Professional corporations (PCs) and service corporations (SCs) are corporate structures that “states” provide for professionals such as physicians, dentists, lawyers, and accountants.

15. The marginal tax rate for the first dollar of taxable income is higher for corporations than for individuals.

16. Based on 201209 tax laws, the highest possible marginal tax table rate is higher for corporations than for individuals.

17. The highest marginal income tax rate for taxable personal income is 45 percen

18. There are four types of “marks” that can be used to try to protect intellectual property.

19. Patents, trade secrets, trademarks, and copyrights are intangible assets.

20. “Certification marks” cover memberships in groups (e.g., a sorority or a labor union).

21. “Collective marks” cover memberships in groups (e.g., a sorority or a labor union).

22. Most trademarks take the form of names, words, or graphic designs.

23. A “color mark” is considered to be one four types of “marks” used to try to protect intellectual property.

24. A copyright must be registered with the U.S. Copyright Office in order for a work to be protected.

25. A work does not need to be registered to receive copyright protection; the work’s creation is enough to provide copyright protection.

26. There are four kinds of patents.

27. “Business method” is one kind of paten

28. An idea is enough to be patented.

29. “Design patents” cover most inventions pertaining to new products, services, and processes.

30. “Business method” patents protect a specific way of doing business and the underlying computer codes, programs, and technology.

31. “Patents” are intellectual property rights granted for inventions that are useful, novel, and obvious.

32. Nondisclosure agreements prohibit the creator of an idea or other form of intellectual property from sharing it with others once it has been presented the first time.

33. Confidential disclosure agreements are used to protect intellectual property when disclosure must be made to an outside individual or organization.

34. “Certification marks” are intellectual property rights in the form of inventions and information (e.g., formulas, processes, customer lists, etc.) not generally known to others.

35. “Trademarks” are intellectual property rights that allow firms to differentiate their products and services through the use of unique marks.

36. A trademark must be novel in order to receive protection.

37. Business angels are wealthy individuals who invest in early-stage ventures in exchange for the excitement of launching the business, as well as a share of the firm’s financial gains.

38. “Service marks” refer to services such as those provided by a sorority or a labor union.

39. “Certification marks” provide indications of quality.

40. Copyrights are intellectual property rights to writings in printed and electronically stored forms.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. In which form of business organization are the owners not offered the protection of limited liability?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. limited liability corporation

2. In which form of business organization is the taxation effects characterized by the income flowing to shareholders taxed at personal tax rates?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. general partnership

3. Which form of business organization is characterized by having the shortest start-up time and lowest legal costs?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. limited liability corporation

4. Which form of business organization typically offers the easiest transfer of ownership?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. general partnership

5. Which form of business organization is characterized as having unlimited life?
a. proprietorship
b. limited partnership
c. limited liability corporation
d. subchapter S corporation
e. general partnership

6. Which of the following is not a right or a duty of general partners?
a. participation in profits and losses
b. some liability for partnership obligations
c. veto right on new partners
d. eventual return of capital
e. access to partnership books

7. The rules and procedures established to govern the corporation are called the
a. corporate charter
b. articles of incorporation
c. corporate bylaws
d. confidentiality disclosure agreements
e. partnership agreements

8. In a general partnership, legal action that treats all partners equally as a group is called:
a. joint and several liability
b. joint liability
c. limited liability
d. accrued liability
e. general liability

9. Which of the following business organizational forms provides the owners with limited investor liability and passes its income before taxes through to the owners?
a. partnership
b. subchapter S (or S) corporation
c. regular or (C ) corporation
d. limited liability company (LLC)
e. both a and b
f. both b and d

10. Which of the following numbers of shareholders is allowed in a Subchapter S (or S) corporation business form?
a. 74
b. 125
c. 130
d. 500

11. Based on 2012 tax schedules, the first dollar of personal taxable income is taxed at which of the following marginal tax rates:
a. 05.0%
b. 10.0%
c. 15.0%
d. 20.0%
e. 25.0%

12. Based on 2012 tax schedules, the first dollar of corporate income is taxed at which of the following marginal tax rates:
a. 05.0%
b. 10.0%
c. 15.0%
d. 20.0%
e. 25.0%

13. Based on 2012 tax schedules, the highest marginal tax rate on personal taxable income is:
a. 25.0%
b. 28.0%
c. 33.0%
d. 35.0%
e. 40.0%

14. Based on 2012 tax schedules, the highest marginal tax rate on corporate taxable income is:
a. 25.0%
b. 28.0%
c. 35.0%
d. 38.0%
e. 39.0%

Note: The following information should be used for multiple choice questions 15-19. Following is a partial 2012 personal income tax schedule for a single filer:
Taxable Income

Beginning Ending Bracket Marginal
Amount Amount Amount Tax Rate
$1 $8,700 $8,700 0.10
$8,700 $35,350 $26,650 0.15
$35,350 $85,650 $50,300 0.25

15. The dollar amount of income taxes paid by a single filer who has taxable income of $8,700 would be:
a. $150
b. $870
c. $3,840
d. $4,675
e. $10,385

16. The cumulative dollar amount of income taxes paid by a single filer who has taxable income of $35,350 would be:
a. $150
b. $835
c. $3,840
d. $4,867.50
e. $10,385

17. The maximum dollar amount of income taxes in the $35,350-$85,650 “bracket” paid by a single filer with taxable income of $85,650 would be:
a. $150
b. $870
c. $3,997.50
d. $4,675
e. $12,575

18. The average tax rate for a single filer with taxable income of $35,350 would be:
e. 10.0%
f. 13.8%
g. 15.0%
h. 16.7%
i. 20.0%

19. The average tax rate for a single filer with taxable income of $85,650 would be:
a. 14.7%
b. 16.7%
b. 20.0%
c. 20.4%
d. 25.0%

Note: The following information should be used for multiple choice questions 20-36. Following is a partial 2012 corporate income tax schedule:

Taxable Income
Beginning Ending Bracket Marginal
Amount Amount Amount Tax Rate
$1 $50,000 $50,000 0.15
$50,000 $75,000 $25,000 0.25
$75,000 $100,000 $25,000 0.34

20. The dollar amount of income taxes paid by a corporation with taxable income of $50,000 would be:
a. $1,500
b. $6,250
c. $7,500
d. $8,500
e. $10,850

21. The cumulative dollar amount of income taxes paid by a corporation with taxable income of $75,000 would be:
a. $6,250
b. $7,500
c. $8,500
d. $13,750
e. $22,250

22. The maximum dollar amount of income taxes in the $75,000-$100,000 bracket paid by a corporation with taxable income of $100,000 would be:
a. $6,250
b. $7,500
c. $8,500
d. $13,750
e. $22,250

23. The average tax rate for a corporation with taxable income of $75,000 would be:
a. 15.0%
b. 18.3%
c. 20.0%
d. 22.7%
e. 25.0%

24. The average tax rate for a corporation with taxable income of $100,000 would be:
a. 15.0%
b. 16.75%
c. 20.0%
d. 22.25%
e. 25.0%

25. Intellectual property can be protected by all of the following except:
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

26. Which of the following are intellectual property rights granted for inventions that are useful, novel, and non-obvious?
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

27. Which of the following are intellectual property rights in the form of inventions and information such as formulas, processes, and customer lists that are not generally known to others and which convey economic advantage to the holders?
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

28. Which of the following are intellectual property rights that allow firms to differentiate their products and services through the use of unique marks which allow consumers to easily identify the source and quality of the products and services?
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

29. Which of the following are intellectual property rights to writings in written and electronically stored forms?
a. patents
b. trademarks
c. legal disclaimers
d. copyrights
e. trade secrets

30. Which of the following are not sources of seed and start-up financing?
a. family and friends
b. the entrepreneur’s physical and financial assets
c. business angels
d. venture capitalists
e. stock and bond markets

31. Wealthy individuals who invest in early stage ventures in exchange for the excitement of launching a business and a share in any financial rewards are known as:
a. creditors
b. white knights
c. corporate raiders
d. business angels
e. stakeholders

32. Business angels typically initiate their investments during the:
a. early stages of a venture’s lifecycle
b. middle stages of a venture’s lifecycle
c. maturity stage of a venture’s lifecycle
d. all of the above

33. Which of the following forms of protecting intellectual property had its protection limit increased from 17 to 20 years?
a. copyrights
b. trademarks
c. patents
d. trade secrets

34. Patents are intellectual property rights granted for inventions that are:
a. not useful, novel, and non-obvious
b. not useful, not novel, and obvious
c. useful, novel, and non-obvious
d. useful, not novel, and obvious

35. Patents that cover most inventions pertaining to new products, services, and processes, are referred to as:
a. design patents
b. plant patents
c. utility patents
d. electrical patents
e. mechanical patents

36. Intellectual property rights to “writings” in written and electronically-stored forms are protected by:
a. Patents
b. copyrights
c. trade secrets
d. trademarks

37. Which of the following forms of protecting intellectual property currently has a protection limit of 20 years?
a. copyrights
b. patents
c. trade secrets
d. trademarks

38. Certification marks are typically used to:
a. indicate membership in a trade group
b. indicate a certain brand of service
c. indicate quality
d. are symbols used to associate products to a specific brand

39. Which of the following is not a “kind” of patent?
a. Utility
b. Design
c. Mark
d. Plant
e. Business method

40. Which of the following is not a “type” of mark?
a. Trademark
b. Service mark
c. Collective mark
d. Certification mark
e. Design mark

41. During the development stage, seed financing chiefly comprises:
a. funds from business angels and venture capitalists
b. the entrepreneur’s personal assets
c. funds from family and friends
d. a, b, and c
e. only b and c

42. The term that refers only to words, symbols, shapes, and similar items associated with products is:
a. trademarks
b. service marks
c. collective marks
d. certification marks

CHAPTER 4

PREPARING AND USING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

True-False Questions

1. Assets are financial and physical items controlled or owned by the business.

2. GAAP stands for “General American Accounting Principles.”

3. GAAP stands for “Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.”

4. The practice of recording economic activity when realized is known as accrual accounting.

5. Accrual accounting is the practice of recording economic activity when recognized rather than waiting until realized.

6. The balance sheet equation is: Total Assets = Total Liabilities + Net Income.

7. On the balance sheet, Total Liabilities = Total Assets – Owners Equity.

8. How quickly an asset can be converted into cash is called liability.

9. Cash or other assets that are expected to be converted into cash in less than one year are known as current liabilities.

10. The reduction in value of a fixed asset over its expected life intended to reflect the usage or wearing out of the asset is called accumulated depreciation.

11. Amounts owed to another for purchase made on credit which come due in less than one year are known as receivables.

12. Long-term, non-cancelable leases whereby the owner receives payments that cover the cost of the equipment plus a return on investment in the equipment is known as a capital lease.

13. Operating income, or earnings before interest and taxes, reflects the firm’s profits after all operating expenses, excluding financing costs, have been deducted from net sales.

14. Net income, or profit, is the bottom line measure of what’s left from the firm’s net sales after operating expenses, financing costs, and taxes have been deducted.

15. Net cash burn occurs when the sum of cash flows from operations and investing is positive.

16. Net cash build occurs when the sum of cash flows from operations and investing is negative.

17. During the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle, the balance sheet reflects the acquisition of initial assets and the obtaining of seed financing.

18. During the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle, the income statement typically shows no sales but expenses such as rent, utilities, and a subsistence salary for the entrepreneur.

19. During the startup stage in a new venture’s life cycle, the income statement typically shows no sales but expenses including the production and market of products or services.

20. Production assets (e.g., inventories and equipment to produce products and give credit to customers) usually occurs during the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle.

21. Seed financing (e.g., financing from the entrepreneur’s assets, family, and friends) usually occurs during the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle.

22. Startup financing (e.g., financing from business angels and venture capitalists) usually occurs during the development stage in a new venture’s life cycle.

23. “Cost of goods sold” is the cost of materials, labor, and advertising incurred to produce the products that were sold.

24. “Variable expenses” are costs or expenses that vary directly with revenues.

25. “Variable expenses” are costs that are expected to remain constant over a range of revenues for a specific time period.

26. EBDAT is earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization.

27. “Contribution profit margin” is the portion of the sale of a product that contributes to covering the cash fixed costs.

28. EBDAT stands for “Earnings Before Depreciation And Taxes”.

29. Cash fixed costs = survival revenues – variable cost revenue ratio × survival revenues.

True-false questions for Chapter 4, Appendix A:

1. “Economic value added” (EVA) measures a firm’s market value added over a specified time period.

2. Economic value added (EVA) is a measure of a firm’s economic profit over a specified time period.

3. NOPAT equals Net Sales multiplied by on minus the tax rate.

4. When EBIT is zero, a firm’s net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) also is zero because no taxes are payable.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Financial statement that provides a snapshot of a business’ financial position as of a specific date is called the:
a. income statement
b. balance sheet
c. statement of retained earnings
d. statement of cash flows

2. Financial statement that reports the revenues generated and expenses incurred over an accounting period is called the
a. income statement
b. balance sheet
c. statement of retained earnings
d. statement of cash flows

3. Financial statement that shows how cash, as reflected in accrual accounting, flows into and out of a company during a specific period of operation is called the:
a. income statement
b. balance sheet
c. statement of retained earnings
d. statement of cash flows

4. The balance sheet equation states that total assets =
b. total liabilities + depreciation
c. total liabilities + owners’ equity
d. owners’ equity + net income
e. owners’ equity + current liabilities
f. total liabilities + net income

5. Which one of the following is not considered to be a current asset?
a. cash
b. receivables
c. inventories
d. fixed assets

6. “Retained earnings” is:
a. a corporate asset
b. part of owners’ equity
c. neither a or b
d. both a and b

7. Cash includes all of the following except:
a. coins
b. currency
c. checking accounts
d. certificates of deposit

8. Which of the following is not a characteristic of marketable securities?
a. short-term
b. illiquid
c. high-quality
d. interest-bearing

9. Which of the following is not a characteristic of inventories?
a. raw materials
b. finished products
c. goods sold but not yet shipped
d. work-in-process

10. Which of the following is not depreciated?
a. inventory
b. machinery
c. land
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

11. Which of the following is a use of cash?
a. a decrease in inventory
b. an increase in accrued liabilities
c. the sale of an asset for a gain
d. a drop in the amount owed on a bond
e. an increase in stock issued

12. Which of the following is a source of cash?
a. an increase in accounts receivable
b. a decrease in wages payable
c. the acquisition of land
d. an increase in the amount owed on a note payable
e. the repurchase of outstanding shares of stock

13. Which of the following is not a category on the statement of cash flows?
a. cash flow from operating activities
b. cash flow from equity activities
c. cash flow from investing activities
d. cash flow from financing activities

Note: Use the following data for the next three problems (14, 15, & 16).
Acme Pest Control has sales of $13,500, cost of goods sold of $4,000, selling expenses of $3,500, depreciation of $2,000, interest expense of $2,000, and a tax rate of 34%.

14. What is Acme’s operating income?
a. $4,000
b. $2,000
c. $9,500
d. $6,000
e. $1,320

15. What is Acme’s taxable income and tax expense?
a. $6,000; $2,040
b. $2,000; $1,320
c. $4,000; $1,360
d. $2,000; $680
e. $9,500; $3,230

16. What is Acme’s net income?
a. $2,720
b. $897.60
c. $6,460
d. $2,040
e. $1,320

17. Your venture has total assets of $690, net fixed assets of $500, long term debt of $80, and stockholders’ equity of $400. What is the amount of your venture’s current liabilities?
a. -$100
b. $100
c. $210
d. $290
e. $1,090

18. In breakeven analysis, solving for when EBITDA is equal to zero gives breakeven in terms of:
a. economic revenues
b. variable costs
c. survival revenues
d. fixed costs

19. A lease that provides maintenance in addition to financing and is also usually cancelable is called:
a. capital lease
b. liability lease
c. operating lease
d. asset lease
e. equity lease

20. Which one of the following is not considered to be an internal operating schedule?
a. income statement
b. cost of production schedule
c. cost of goods sold schedule
d. inventories schedule

21. “Net cash burn” occurs when the sum of which of the following items is negative?
a. cash flows from operations and financing
b. cash flows from investing and financing
c. cash flows from operations and investing
d. cash flows from net income and depreciation
e. cash flows from operations and net income

22. Expenses or costs that vary directly with revenues are said to be:
a. fixed expenses
b. semi-fixed expenses
c. semi-variable expenses
d. variable expenses

23. EBDAT is equal to:
a. revenues – variable costs – cash fixed costs
b. revenues + variable costs + cash fixed costs
c. revenues – variables costs – total fixed costs
d. revenues + variable costs – cash fixed costs

24. “Gross earnings” is equal to:
a. Revenue – After-Tax cost of financial capital used
b. net income ÷ sales
c. (net sales – the cost of production) × tax rate
d. net sales – the cost of production

25. According to Appendix A of Chapter 4, NOPAT is defined as:
a. revenues times (1 + tax rate)
b. revenues times (1 – tax rate)
c. EBITDA times (1 – tax rate)
d. EBIT times (1 – tax rate)
e. net income times (1 + tax rate)

26. Last year a firm had sales of $200,000. Its cost of goods sold was $75,000, and administrative and marketing expenses were $25,000 each. Depreciation expense was $10,000, while interest expense was $15,000. If the tax rate is 30%, what was the firm’s NOPAT last year?
a. $19,500
b. $35,000
c. $45,500
d. $52,500
e. $80,500

27. What is the survival revenues breakeven based on: cash fixed costs = $400,000 and a variable cost revenue ratio = .65?
a. $460,500
b. $615,385
c. $1,142,857
d. $2,000,334
e. $4,000,667

28. Use the following information to determine the cash fixed costs: Administrative expenses = $200,000; Marketing expenses = $180,000; Depreciation expenses = $100,000; and Interest expenses = $20,000.
e. $380,000
f. $400,000
g. $480,000
h. $500,000
i. $620,000

29. Find the “contribution profit margin” based on the following information: cash fixed costs = $60,000; variable costs = $70,000; and sales = $100,000.
a. 70%
b. 60%
c. 30%
d. 40%
e. 100%

30. Find the “survival revenues” (SR), also known as the EBDAT breakeven) based on the following information: cash fixed costs = $60,000; variable costs = $70,000; and sales = $100,000.
a. $85,714
b. $100,000
c. $116,667
d. $200,000
e. $300,000

31. What is the survival revenues breakeven based on the following: Administrative expenses = $200,000; Marketing expenses = $180,000; Depreciation expenses = $100,000; and Interest expenses = $20,000; and a variable cost revenue ratio = .50?
a. $400,000
b. $600,000
c. $800,000
d. $1,000,000
e. $1,200,000

32. A firm with constant variable costs has a survival revenue breakeven of $375,000. This year it had $250,000 in sales, $100,000 of which was a fixed cos What are the firm’s cash fixed costs?
a. $150,000
b. $225,000
c. $625,000
d. $937,500

33. Last year, Beth’s Baked Goods exactly broke even with cash fixed costs of $63,000. If its breakeven survival revenue level was $94,000, what was its variable cost revenue ratio (VCRR)?
a. .27
b. .30
c. .33
d. .67

34. In its first year, Joe’s Start-Up Company had revenues of $125,000 and cost of goods sold of $81,250, which was the only variable cos Depreciation was $20,000, and cash costs were $5,000 in financing costs, admin expenses of $50,000, and $45,000 in marketing expenses – all of which were fixed. What is the survival breakeven revenue?
a. $342,857
b. $285,714
c. $271,429
d. $184,615
e. $153,846

Multiple Choice Questions and Problems for Chapter 4, Appendix A:

1. Economic Value Added (EVA) is calculated as:
a. NOPAT plus after-tax dollar cost of financial capital used
b. ROE minus percentage cost of financial capital
c. NOPAT minus after-tax dollar cost of financial capital used
d. ROE plus the percentage cost of financial capital

2. A firm’s net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) is calculated as:
a. net profit
b. EBIT times one minus the tax rate
c. EBT minus interest paid
d. EBIT times the tax rate

3. Total operating fixed costs (TOFC) equal:
a. cash operating fixed costs (excluding interest expenses)
b. noncash fixed costs (e.g., depreciation)
c. interest expenses
d. a plus b
e. a plus b plus c

4. Find the NOPAT given the following information: sales = $520,000, earnings before interest = $100,000; interest = $20,000; and the tax rate = 30%.
a. $70,000
b. $56,000
c. $30,000
d. $24,000
e. $10,000

5. Find the NOPAT breakeven revenues (NR) given the following information: total operating fixed costs = $75,000; variable costs = $150,000; and sales = $200,000.
a. $100,000
b. $240,000
c. $300,000
d. $400,000
e. $460,000

6. Determine the total operating fixed costs (TOFC) based on the following: Administrative expenses = $200,000; Marketing expenses = $180,000; Depreciation expenses = $100,000; and Interest expenses = $20,000.
a. $200,000
b. $380,000
c. $400,000
d. $480,000
e. $500,000

CHAPTER 5

EVALUATING OPERATING AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

True-False Questions

1. Showing the relationships between two or more financial variable and/or time, financial ratios are useful means of summarizing large amounts of financial data for comparative purposes.

2. Second-round, mezzanine, and liquidity-stage financing generally occur during a venture’s survival stage.

3. Commercial banks are important users of financial ratios and measures during the development and startup stages of ventures.

4. Investment bankers are users of financial ratios and measures of ventures primarily during the rapid-growth stage relative to the development and startup stages.

5. Trend analysis is used to examine a venture’s performance over time.

6. Cross-sectional analysis is used to examine a venture’s performance over time.

7. “Cash burn” is the cash a venture expends on its operating, financing, and depreciation expenses.

8. “Net cash burn” occurs when cash burn exceeds cash build in a specified time period.

9. The “cash burn rate” is the cash burn for a fixed period of time, typically a month.

10. The term “cash build” as used in Chapter 5 is equal to net sales minus the change in receivables.

11. Liquidity ratios indicate the venture’s ability to pay short term assets from short-term liabilities.

12. Net working capital reflects current assets deducted from current liabilities.

13. “Net working capital” is calculated as fixed assets minus current liabilities.

14. A venture’s cash, marketable securities, and receivables comprise the venture’s “liquid assets”.

15. The current ratio and the quick ratio differ only because average inventories are subtracted in the numerator of the quick ratio.

16. For a venture with inventories, the quick ratio will always be greater than the current ratio.

17. Net working capital is a dollar amount measure of the cushion between current assets and current liabilities.

18. Leverage ratios indicate the extent to which the venture has used debt and its ability to meet debt obligations.

19. Total debt includes current liabilities, long-term debt, and retained earnings.

20. How efficiently a venture controls its expenses and uses its assets and debt is evaluated with profitability and efficiency ratios.

21. During the development and startup stages of a venture’s life cycle, important financial ratios and measures include cash burn rates and liquidity ratios.

22. During the development and startup stages of a venture’s life cycle, important users of financial ratios and measures include the entrepreneur, business angels, and venture capitalists (VCs).

23. Leverage ratios are generally considered to be more important during the survival and rapid-growth stages compared to the development and startup stages.

24. The equity multiplier is considered an efficiency ratio.

25. The extent to which a venture is in debt and in its ability to repay its debt obligations is indicated by leverage ratios.

26. The equity multiplier shows the extent by which assets are supported by equity and deb

27. Accounting rules require that the current maturities of long-term debt obligations be classified as short-term liabilities.

28. Profitability and efficiency ratios are generally considered to be more important during the development and startup stages compared to the survival and rapid-growth stages.

29. The part of a venture’s interest payment that is subsidized by the government because of the deductibility of interest is called the interest tax shield.

30. How efficiently a venture controls its expenses and uses its assets and debt is evaluated with profitability and efficiency ratios.

31. The Return on Assets model states: ROA = net profit margin × asset turnover × the equity multiplier.

32. If a firm has positive net income, a drop in a venture’s asset intensity ratio will increase its ROE.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Investment bankers and commercial banks are important users of financial ratios and measures during which of the following life cycle stages?
a. Development stage
b. Startup stage
c. Survival stage
d. Rapid-growth stage
e. All four stages

2. The entrepreneur, angels, and VCs are important users of financial ratios and measures during which of the following life cycle stages?
a. Development stage
b. Startup stage
c. Survival stage
d. Rapid-growth stage
e. All four stages

3. Which of the following is used to examine a venture’s performance over time?
a. qualitative analysis
b. trend analysis
c. cross sectional analysis
d. industry comparable analysis

4. Which of the following is used to compare a venture’s performance against another firm at the same point in time?
a. qualitative analysis
b. trend analysis
c. cross sectional analysis
d. industry comparable analysis

5. Which of the following is used to compare a venture’s performance against the average performance of other firms in the same industry?
a. qualitative analysis
b. trend analysis
c. cross sectional analysis
d. industry comparable analysis

6. Which one of the following is not a basic ratio techniques used to conduct financial analysis?
a. trend analysis
b. sensitivity analysis
c. cross-sectional analysis
d. industry comparables analysis

7. The term “cash build” is measured as:
a. net income plus depreciation
b. net sales minus expenses minus (plus) an increase (decrease) in inventories
c. net sales minus (plus) an increase (decrease) in receivables
d. net income plus depreciation minus (plus) an increase (decrease) in payables

8. “Net cash burn” is calculated as:
a. cash burn plus cash build
b. cash build minus cash burn
c. cash burn minus cash build
d. cash burn minus cash build squared

9. Using the following information, determine the average monthly net cash burn rate: annual net income = $20,000; annual interest = $10,000; annual cash build = $150,000; and annual cash burn = $186,000.
a. $1,000
b. $3,000
c. $4,000
d. $6,000
e. $7,000

10. Use the following information to determine a firm’s “cash build:” net sales = $150,000; net income = $15,000; beginning-of-period accounts receivable = $60,000; end-of-period accounts receivable = $90,000; and interest = $10,000.
a. $10,000
b. $15,000
c. $30,000
d. $60,000
e. $120,000

11. Average current assets minus average inventories when divided by average current liabilities is called which of the following ratios?
a. current ratio
b. quick ratio
c. net working capital ratio
d. current liabilities to total debt ratio

12. Dividing the average total assets by the average owners’ equity is called which of the following ratios?
a. equity multiplier
b. debt to equity ratio
c. current liabilities to total debt ratio
d. current ratio

13. Net sales minus cost of goods sold when divided by sales is called which of the following ratios?
a. gross profit margin
b. operating profit margin
c. net profit margin
d. net operating profit after taxes margin

14. Net income divided by net sales is called which of the following ratios?
a. net operating profit after taxes margin
b. net profit margin’
c. operating profit margin
d. gross profit margin

15. The difference between a venture’s ability to generate cash to pay interest and the amount of interest it has to pay is determined by which of the following ratios?
a. fixed charges coverage
b. debt to asset
c. equity multiplier
d. debt to equity
e. interest coverage

16. Which of the following is not a profitability and efficiency ratio?
a. sales-to-total-assets
b. return on equity
c. return on assets
d. inventory-to-total assets
e. NOPAT profit margin

17. Which of the following is true?
a. ROA is always greater than or equal to ROE
b. an increase in the asset turnover ratio implies a decrease in the asset
intensity ratio
c. a and b
d. none of the above

18. A firm has the following balance sheet information: total assets = $100,000; current assets = $30,000; inventories = $10,000; cash = $5,000; total liabilities = $30,000; current liabilities = $15,000; notes payable = $2,000. What are the firm’s quick and NWC-to-Total-Assets ratios?
a. 1.00 and .13
b. 1.33 and .13
c. 1.00 and .15
d. 1.33 and .15

19. Last year, Nemo’s Fish ‘n Chips recorded the following financial data: sales = $85,000; cost of goods sold = $45,000; selling and administrative expenses = $25,000; depreciation and amortization = $7,000; interest expense = $12,000. The tax rate was 30%. Find Nemo’s interest coverage for last year.
a. -.29 times
b. .66 times
c. .86 times
d. 1.25 times
e. 3.33 times

20. A venture has net sales of $400,000, cost of goods sold of $200,000, operating expenses (selling, general, and administrative) of $100,000, and interest expenses of $50,000. What is the operating profit margin?
a. 50.0%
b. 75%
c. 25%
d. 40%

21. Last year, Lenny’s Lemonade had $3,500 in sales, and cost of goods sold was $2,000. Depreciation expenses totaled $500 and interest expense was $700. If the tax rate is 25%, what is the net profit margin for Lenny’s Lemonade? What is its NOPAT margin?
a. 6.43% and 21.43%
b. 20.7% and 21.43%
c. 2.14% and 32.14%
d. 22.86% and 32.14%

Note: The following information should be used for the next eleven (22 through 32) problems.
In its closing financial statements for its first year in business, the Runs and Goses Company, had cash of $242, accounts receivable of $850, inventory of $820, net fixed assets of $3,408, accounts payable of $700, short-term notes payable of $740, long-term liabilities of $1,100, common stock of $1,160, retained earnings of $1,620, net sales of $2,768, cost of goods sold of $1,210, depreciation of $360, interest expense of $160, taxes of $312, addition to retained earnings of $508, and dividends paid of $218.

22. What is the return on equity for Runs and Goses?
a. 26.1%
b. 44.7%
c. 62.6%
d. 18.4%
e. 7.9%

23. What is Runs and Goses’ return on total assets?
a. 9.6%
b. 13.6%
c. 19.1%
d. 37.9%
e. 22.5%

24. What is the net profit margin for Runs and Goses?
a. 60.0%
b. 22.7%
c. 7.9%
d. 18.4%
e. 26.2%

25. Runs and Goses operating profit margin is?
a. 26.2%
b. 56.3%
c. 43.3%
d. 30.3%
e. 60.0%

26. The gross profit margin for Runs and Goses is?
a. 26.2%
b. 30.3%
c. 43.3%
d. 56.3%
e. 60.0%

27. What is Runs and Goses’ sales to total asset ratio?
a. 1.91
b. 0.25
c. 0.52
d. 0.23
e. 0.57

28. What is the current ratio for Runs and Goses?
a. 1.46
b. 1.33
c. 1.23
d. 1.21
e. 1.13

29. The total-debt-total-asset ratio for Runs and Goses is?
a. 0.48
b. 0.71
c. 0.27
d. 0.53
e. 0.82

30. What is Runs and Goses’ debt-to-equity ratio?
a. 0.91
b. 2.15
c. 0.48
d. 1.12
e. 2.32

31. What is the equity multiplier for Runs and Goses?
a. 4.59 times
b. 2.35 times
c. 0.48 times
d. 1.12 times
e. 1.91 times

32. The interest coverage ratio for Runs and Goses is:
a. 6.5 times
b. 4.5 times
c. 9.7 times
d. 3.5 times
e. 1.5 times

CHAPTER 6

MANAGING CASH FLOW

True-False Questions

1. The actions of screening business ideas, preparing a business model/plan, and obtaining seed financing occurs during a venture’s development stage.

2. The actions of monitoring financial performance, determining project cash needs, and obtaining first-round financing occurs during a venture’s survival stage.

3. “First-round financing” usually occurs during a venture’s rapid-growth life cycle stage.

4. Short-term financial planning is critical during the survival stage because operations not yet turning a profit and the associated cash burn often lead to a venture’s inability to pay its maturing liabilities.

5. Cash shortages during the rapid growth stage frequently derive from the lack of operating profits to fund working capital and fixed asset investments needed to support sales growth.

6. Due to the difficulty of projecting financial statements for a young firm, short-term financial forecasts are never required of early-stage ventures.

7. Early-stage ventures are defined as firms that are only operating in either their development or startup stages.

8. Even in a young, successful venture, restricted access to bank credit and with little to no access to short-term lending markets can hinder operations until the next round of financing.

9. “First-round financing” usually occurs during a venture’s rapid-growth life cycle stage.

10. Short-term cash planning tools include preparation of a: sales schedule, a purchases schedule, a wages and commissions schedule, and a cash budge

11. Short-term financial planning typically involves preparing monthly financial statements and focuses on identifying and planning for net income demands on the business.

12. A venture’s operating schedules typically include a: sales schedule, purchases schedule, and wages and commissions schedule.

13. A cash budget shows a venture’s projected revenues and expenses over a forecast period.

14. Preparing monthly cash budgets for a full year allows the entrepreneur to determine whether there will be a cash need, the maximum size of the cash need, and whether the need can be repaid during the year.

15. Conversion period ratios show the average time in days it takes to convert certain current assets and current liabilities into cash.

16. A venture’s operating cycle is the same as its cash conversion cycle.

17. The sum of the inventory-to-sale conversion period and the purchase-to-payment conversion period minus the sale-to-cash conversion period is called the cash conversion cycle.

18. The cash conversion cycle refers to the time it takes to convert a sale into net income.

19. The “cash conversion cycle” measures the time it takes to pay off the principal on a loan.

20. The sale-to-cash conversion period is calculated by dividing average revenues by net sales per day.

21. A venture’s cash conversion cycle will decrease if the purchase-to-payment conversion period increases.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. A firm is said to be an early stage venture when it is in which of the following except?
a. rapid growth stage
b. startup stage
c. development stage
d. survival stage
e. early-maturity stage

2. Seed financing is generally associated with which one of the following life cycle stages:
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. rapid-growth stage
e. early-maturity stage

3. First-round financing is generally associated with which one of the following life cycle stages:
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. rapid-growth stage
e. early-maturity stage

4. Which of the following is not part of the operating cycle?
a. time it takes to purchase products
b. time it takes to produce products
c. time it takes to sell the products
d. time it takes to pay suppliers
e. time it takes to collect receivables

5. Which one of the following “measures” the average days of sales committed to the extension of trade credit?
a. sale-to-cash conversion period
b. inventory-to-sale conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. cash conversion cycle period

6. Which of the following is measured by dividing the average daily cost of goods sold into the average inventory?
a. sale-to-cash conversion period
b. inventory-to-sale conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. cash conversion cycle

7. Which of the following measures the average time from purchase of materials and labor to actual cash payment?
a. sale-to-cash conversion period
b. inventory-to-sale conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. cash conversion cycle

8. Which of the following measures the average time it takes a firm to complete its operating cycle after deducting the days supported by trade credit and delayed payroll financing?
a. sale-to-cash conversion period
b. inventory-to-sale conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. cash conversion cycle

9. Which one of the following conversion periods operates to reduce the length of the cash conversion cycle?
a. inventory-to-sale conversion period
b. sale-to-cash conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. fixed assets-to-usage conversion period

10. Which one of the following conversion periods is not a component in the cash conversion cycle?
a. inventory-to-sale conversion period
b. sale-to-cash conversion period
c. purchase-to-payment conversion period
d. fixed assets-to-usage conversion period

11. Calculate the inventory-to-sale conversion period based on the following information: average inventories = $120,000; average receivables = $90,000; average payables = $40,000; cost of goods sold = $182,500; and net sales = $365,000.
a. 240.0 days
b. 180.0 days
c. 90.0 days
d. 60.0 days
e. 45.0 days

12. Calculate the sale-to-cash conversion period based on the following information: average inventories = $120,000; average receivables = $90,000; average payables = $40,000; cost of goods sold = $182,500; and net sales = $365,000.
a. 240.0 days
b. 180.0 days
c. 90.0 days
d. 60.0 days
e. 45.0 days

13. Based on the following information, determine the venture’s cash conversion cycle: Inventory-to-sale conversion period = 112.9 days; Sale-to-cash conversion period= 57.1 days; and Purchase-to-payment conversion period = 76.8 days.
a. 170.0 days
b. 189.7 days
c. 93.2 days
d. 246.8 days
e. 133.9 days

14. Determine the cash conversion cycle based on the following information: inventory-to-sale conversion period = 112.9 days; sale-to-cash conversion period = 57.1 days; and purchase-to-payment conversion period = 76.8 days.
a. 93.2 days
b. 132.6 days
c. 170.0 days
d. 246.8 days
e. 365.0 days

15. Based on the following information, determine the average receivables (rounded to thousands of dollars) that were outstanding: Net sales = $575,000; Sale-to-cash conversion period = 57.1 days; Purchase-to-payment conversion period = 76.8 days; and Cost of goods sold = $380,000.
a. $90,000
b. $180,000
c. $121,000
d. $31,000
e. $41,000

16. Based on the following information, determine the venture’s inventory-to-sale conversion period: cash conversion cycle = 250 days; sale-to-cash conversion period = 60 days; and purchase-to-payment conversion period = 70 days.
a. 70 days
b. 140 days
c. 240 days
d. 260 days
e. 330 days

FIN 317 Week 11 Final Exam Chapters 7 Through 15 – Strayer University NEW

FIN 317 Week 11 Final Exam Chapters 7 Through 15,Part 1:Chapters 7 through 11,Part 2:Chapters 12 Through 15 – Strayer

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Chapters 7 Through 15

CHAPTER 7

TYPES AND COSTS OF FINANCIAL CAPITAL

True-False Questions

1. The accounting emphasis on accrued revenue and expenses and depreciation is the same emphasis as that of finance managers.

2. Traditional accounting does not focus on the implicit cost of equity that is the required capital gains to complement dividends. However, evaluation methods exist to determine this value by financial managers.

3. Formal historical accounting procedures include explicit records of debt (interest and principal) and dividend capital costs.

4. Public financial markets are markets for the creation, sale and trade of illiquid securities having less standardized negotiated features.

5. A venture’s “riskiness” in terms of poor performance or failure is usually very high during the maturity stage of its life cycle.

6. A venture’s “riskiness” in terms of poor performance or failure is usually high to moderate during the rapid-growth stage of its life cycle.

7. First-round financing during a venture’s survival stage comes primarily from venture capitalists and investment banks.

8. Startup financing usually comes from entrepreneurs, business angels, and investment bankers.

9. Commercial banks provide liquidity-stage financing for ventures in the rapid-growth stage of their life cycles.

10. A venture’s “riskiness” in terms of the likelihood of poor performance or failure decreases as it moves from its development stage through to its rapid-growth stage.

11. A nominal interest rate is an observed or stated interest rate.

12. The “real interest rate” (RR) is the interest one would face in the absence of inflation, risk, illiquidity, and any other factors determining the appropriate interest rate.

13. The risk-free interest rate is the interest rate on debt that is virtually free of inflation risk.

14. Inflation premium is the rising prices not offset by increasing quality of goods being purchased.

15. “Default-risk” is the risk that a borrower will not pay the interest and/or the principal on a loan.

16. The “prime rate” is the interest rate charged by banks to their highest default risk business customers.

17. Bond ratings reflect the inflation risk of a firm’s bonds.

18. The relationship between real interest rates and time to maturity when default risk is constant is called the term structure of interest rates.

19. The graph of the term structure of interest rates, which plots interest rates to time to maturity is called the yield curve.

20. Liquidity premiums reflect the risk associated with firms that possess few liquid assets.

21. Subordinated debt is secured by a venture’s assets, while senior debt has an inferior claim to a venture’s assets.

22. Early-stage ventures tend to have large amounts of senior debt relative to more mature ventures.

23. Investment risk is the chance or probability of financial loss on one’s venture investment, and can be assumed by debt, equity, and founding investors.

24. A venture with a higher expected return relative to other ventures will necessarily have a higher standard deviation or returns.

25. Historically, large-company stocks have averaged higher long-term returns than small-company stocks.

26. The coefficient of variation measures the standard deviation of a venture’s return relative to its expected return.

27. Closely held corporations are those companies whose stock is traded over-the-counter.

28. Typically, the stocks of closely held corporations aren’t publicly traded.

29. Organized exchanges have physical locations where trading takes place, while the over-the-counter market is comprised of a network of brokers and dealers that interact electronically.

30. Market cap is determined by multiplying a firm’s current stock price by the number of shares outstanding.

31. The excess average return of long-term government bonds over common stock is called the market risk premium.

32. The weighted average cost of capital is simply the blended, or weighted cost of raising equity and debt capital.

33. Venture capital holding period returns (all stages) for the 10-year period ending in 2012 were about the same as the returns on the S&P 500 stocks.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which one of the following markets involve liquid securities with standardized contract features such as stocks and bonds?
a. private financial market
b. derivatives market
c. commodities market
d. real estate market
e. public financial market

2. Which of the following markets involve direct two-party negotiations over illiquid, non-standardized contracts such as bank loans and direct placement of debt?
a. primary market
b. secondary market
c. options market
d. private financial market
e. public financial market

3. Which of the following is an example of rent on financial capital?
a. interest on debt
b. dividends on stock
c. collateral on equity
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

4. Which of the following describes the observed or stated interest rate?
a. real rate
b. nominal rate
c. risk-free rate
d. prime rate
e. inflation rate

5. Which of the following describes the interest rate in addition to the inflation rate expected on a risk-free loan?
a. real rate
b. nominal rate
c. risk-free rate
d. prime rate
e. inflation rate

6. Which of the following describes the interest rate on debt that is virtually free of default risk?
a. real rate
b. nominal rate
c. risk-free rate
d. prime rate
e. inflation rate

7. Which of the following describes the interest rate charged by banks to their highest quality customers?
a. real rate
b. nominal rate
c. risk-free rate
d. prime rate
e. inflation rate

8. Which of the following is not a component in determining the cost of debt?
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. interest rate premium

9. The additional interest rate premium required to compensate the lender for the probability that a borrower will not be able to repay interest and principal on a loan is known as?
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. investment risk premium

10. The additional premium added to the real interest rate by lenders to compensate them for a debt instrument which cannot be converted to cash quickly at its existing value is called?
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. investment risk premium

11. The added interest rate charged due to the inherent increased risk in long-term debt is called?
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. investment risk premium

12. Suppose the real risk free rate of interest is 4%, maturity risk premium is 2%, inflation premium is 6%, the default risk on similar debt is 3%, and the liquidity premium is 2%. What is the nominal interest rate on this venture’s debt capital?
a. 13%
b. 14%
c. 15%
d. 16%
e. 17%

13. A venture has raised $4,000 of debt and $6,000 of equity to finance its firm. Its cost of borrowing is 6%, its tax rate is 40%, and its cost of equity capital is 8%. What is the venture’s weighted average cost of capital?
a. 8.0%
b. 7.2%
c. 7.0%
d. 6.2%
e. 6.0%

14. Your venture has net income of $600, taxable income of $1,000, operating profit of $1,200, total financial capital including both debt and equity of $9,000, a tax rate of 40%, and a WACC of 10%. What is your venture’s EVA?
a. $400,000
b. $200,000
c. $ 0
d. ($180,000)
e. ($300,000)

15. The “risk-free” interest rate is the sum of:
a. a real rate of interest and an inflation premium
b. a real rate of interest and a default risk premium
c. an inflation premium and a default risk premium
d. a default risk premium and a liquidity premium
e. a liquidity premium and a maturity premium

16. Venture investors generally use which one of the following target rates to discount the projected cash flows of ventures in the “startup” stage of their life cycles:
a. 20%
b. 25%
c. 40%
d. 50%

17. Which one of the following components is not used when estimating the cost of risky debt capital?
a. real interest rate
b. inflation premium
c. default risk premium
d. market risk premium
e. liquidity premium

18. Which of the following components is not typically included in the rate on short-term U.S. treasuries?
a. liquidity premium
b. default risk premium
c. market risk premium
d. b and c
e. a, b, and c

19. The word “risk” developed from the early Italian word “risicare” and means:
a. don’t care
b. take a chance
c. to dare
d. to gamble

20. The difference between average annual returns on common stocks and returns on long-term government bonds is called a:
a. default risk premium
b. maturity premium
c. risk-free premium
d. liquidity premium
e. market risk premium

21. What has been the approximate average annual rate of return on publicly traded small company stocks since the mid-1920s?
a. 10%
b. 16%
c. 25%
d. 30%
e. 40%

22. Venture investors generally use which one of the following target rates to discount the projected cash flows of ventures in the “development” stage of their life cycles:
a. 15%
b. 20%
c. 25%
d. 40%
e. 50%

23. Corporate bonds might involve which of the following types of “premiums.”
a. inflation premium
b. default risk premium
c. liquidity premium
d. maturity premium
e. all of the above
none of the above

24. Which of the following venture life cycle stages would involve seasoned financing rather than venture financing?
a. Development stage
b. Startup stage
c. Survival stage
d. Rapid-growth stage
e. Maturity stage

25. A venture’s “riskiness” in terms of possible poor performance or failure would be considered to be “very high” in which of the following life cycle stages:
a. Startup stage
b. Survival stage
c. Rapid-growth stage
d. Maturity stage

26. Which of the following types of financing would be associated with the highest target compound rate of return?
a. public and seasoned financing
b. second-round and mezzanine financing
c. first-round financing
d. startup financing
e. seed financing

27. The cost of equity for a firm is 20%. If the real interest rate is 5%, the inflation premium is 3%, and the market risk premium is 2%, what is the investment risk premium for the firm?
a. 10%
b. 12%
c. 13%
d. 15%

28. Use the SML model to calculate the cost of equity for a firm based on the following information: the firm’s beta is 1.5; the risk free rate is 5%; the market risk premium is 2%.
a. 4.5%
b. 8.0%
c. 9.5%
d. 10.5%

29. Calculate the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) based on the following information: the capital structure weights are 50% debt and 50% equity; the interest rate on debt is 10%; the required return to equity holders is 20%; and the tax rate is 30%.
a. 7%
b. 10%
c. 13.5%
d. 17.5%
e. 20%

30. Calculate the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) based on the following information: the equity multiplier is 1.66; the interest rate on debt is 13%; the required return to equity holders is 22%; and the tax rate is 35%.
a. 11.5%
b. 13.9%
c. 15.0%
d. 16.6%

31. Calculate the after-tax WACC based on the following information: nominal interest rate on debt = 16%; cost of common equity = 30%; equity to value = 60%; debt to value = 40%; and a tax rate = 25%.
a. 10%
b. 16%
c. 19.8%
d. 22.8%
e. 30%

32. Calculate the after-tax WACC based on the following information: nominal interest rate on debt = 12%; cost of common equity = 25%; common equity = $700,000; interest-bearing debt = $300,000; and a tax rate = 25%.
a. 15%
b. 16.4%
c. 20.2%
d. 22.8%
e. 30%

33. Venture capital holding period returns (all stages) for the 20-year period ending in 2012, had a compound average return of approximately:
a. 35%
b. 28%
c. 21%
d. 14%
e. 7%

Supplemental Problems related to Chapter 7 Appendix A (and Chapter 4 Appendix A)

1. Estimate a firm’s NOPAT based on: Net sales = $2,000,000; EBIT = $600,000; Net income = $20,000; and Effective tax rate = 30%.
a. $600,000
b. $420,000
c. $150,000
d. $70,000
e. $40,000

2. Estimate a firm’s economic value added (EVA) based on: NOPAT = $400,000; amount of financial capital used = $1,600,000; and WACC = 19%.
a. $26,000
b. $36,000
c. $96,000
d. $54,000
e. $64,000

3. Find a venture’s “economic value added” (EVA) based on the following information: EBIT = $200,000; financial capital used = $500,000; WACC = 20%; effective tax rate = 30%.
a. $20,000
b. $25,000
c. $30,000
d. $40,000
e. $50,000

CHAPTER 8

SECURITIES LAW CONSIDERATIONS WHEN OBTAINING VENTURE FINANCING

True-False Questions

1. The securities Exchange act of 1934 provides for the regulation of securities exchanges and over-the-counter markets.

2. The Investment Company Act of 1940 defines investment companies and excludes them from using some of the registration exemptions originating in the 1933 Ac

3. The Investment Advisers Act of 1940 provides a definition of an investment company.

4. According to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, a bank would not be classified as an “investment advisor”.

5. The Securities Act of 1933 is the main body of federal law governing the creation and sale of securities in the U.S.

6. The Securities Exchange Act was passed in 1933 and the Securities Act was passed in 1934.

7. The trading of securities is regulated under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1954.

8. Regulation of investment companies (including professional venture capital firms) is carried out under the Investment Company Act of 1940.

9. State laws designed to protect high net-worth investors from investing in fraudulent security offerings are known as blue-sky laws.

10. Offerings and sales of securities are regulated under the Securities Act of 1933 and state blue-sky laws.

11. Blue-sky laws are federal laws designed to protect individuals from investing in fraudulent security offerings.

12. The typical business organization for a venture in its rapid-growth stage is a partnership or LLC.

13. Investor liability in a limited liability company (LLC) is limited to the owners’ investments.

14. Investor liability in a proprietorship or corporation is unlimited.

15. The life of a proprietorship is determined by the owner.

16. It is usually easier to transfer ownership in a proprietorship relative to a corporation.

17. The two basic types of exemptions from having to register securities with the SEC are security and transaction exemptions.

18. The Securities Act of 1933 provides a very narrow definition as to what constitutes a security.

19. SEC Rule 147 provides guidance on the issuer’s diligent responsibilities in assuring that offerees are in-state and that securities don’t move across state lines.

20. A private placement, or transactions by an issuer not involving any public offering, is exempt from registering the security.

21. Accredited investors are specifically protected by the Securities Act of 1933 from investing in unregistered securities issues.

22. The typical business organization for a venture in its rapid-growth stage is a partnership or LLC.

23. In SEC v. Ralston Purina (1953), the U.S. Supreme Court took an important step toward defining a public offering for the purposes of Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933.

24. SEC Regulation D requires the registration of securities with the SEC.

25. An early stage venture that is not an investment company and has written compensation agreements can structure compensation-related securities issues so they are exempt from SEC registration requirements.

26. SEC Regulation D took effect in 1932 and provides the basis for “safe harbor” as a private placemen

27. Rule 504 under Regulation D has a $2 million financing limit (i.e., applies to sales of securities not exceeding $2 million).

28. A Rule 504 exemption under Regulation D has no limit in terms of the number and qualifications of investors.

29. A Regulation D Rule 505 offering cannot exceed $5 million in a twelve-month period.

30. A Regulation D Rule 505 offering is limited to 35 accredited investors.

31. A Regulation D Rule 506 offering has no limit in terms of the dollar amount of the offering but is limited to 35 unaccredited investors.

32. Regulation A, while technically considered an exemption from registration, is a public offering rather than a private placemen

33. Regulation A allows for registration exemptions on private security offerings so long as all investors are considered to be financially sophisticated.

34. Regulation A issuers are allowed to “test the waters” before preparing the offering circular (unlike almost all other security offerings).

35. Regulation A offerings are allowed up $10 million and do not have limitations on the number or sophistication of offerees.

36. The objective of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 is to stimulate the initiation, growth, and development of small business companies.

37. Title II of the JOBS Act of 2012 eliminates the general solicitation and advertising restriction for Regulation D 506 offerings.

Note: Following are true-false questions relating to materials presented in Appendix B of Chapter 8.

1. The definition of an “accredited investor,” initially defined in the Securities Act of 1933, was expanded in Rule 501 of Reg D.

2. One of the monetary requirements for individuals or natural persons as accredited investors as defined in Regulation D Rule 501 is a net worth greater than $1,000,000.

3. One of the monetary requirements for individuals or natural persons as accredited investors as defined in Regulation D Rule 501 is individual annual income greater than $500,000.

4. Regulation D Rule 502 focuses, in part, on resale restrictions imposed on privately-placed securities.

5. Rule 503 of Regulation D states that a Form D should be filed with the SEC within six months after the first sale of securities.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is not true regarding the Securities Act of 1933?
a. it was passed in response to abuses thought to have contributed to the financial catastrophes of the Great Depression
b. it covers securities fraud
c. it requires securities to be registered formally with the federal government
d. it set of the nature and authority of the Securities and Exchange Commission
e. it focuses on those who provide investment advice

2. The U.S. federal law that impacts the creation and sales of securities is:
a. Securities Exchange Act of 1934
b. Securities Act of 1933
c. Investment Company Act of 1940
d. Investment Advisers Act of 1940

3. The efforts to regulate the trading of securities takes place under which of the following securities laws?
a. Securities Act of 1933
b. state “blue-sky” laws
c. Securities and Exchange Act of 1934
d. Investment Company Act of 1940
e. Investment Advisers Act of 1940

4. Efforts to regulate the offerings and sales of securities take place under which of the following securities laws?
a. Securities Act of 1933
b. state “blue-sky” laws
c. Securities and Exchange Act of 1934
d. Investment Company Act of 1940
e. Investment Advisers Act of 1940
Both a and b
g. Both a and c

5. In securities law, which of the following is (are) true?
a. ignorance is no defense
b. security regulators may alter your investment agreement to the benefit of the investors
c. Securities Act of 1933 gives the SEC broad civil procedures to use in enforcement
d. Securities Act of 1933 gives the SEC some criminal procedures to use in enforcement
e. a, b, and c above
a, b, c, and d above

6. Which of the following is not a security?
a. treasury stock
b. debenture
c. put option
d. real property
e. call option

7. State securities regulations are referred to as:
a. Regulation A legislation
b. “stormy day” laws
c. “blue sky” laws
d. SEC oversight legislation

8. Which of the following is not true about registering securities with the SEC?
a. it is a time consuming process
b. it required the disclosure of accounting information
c. it is usually done with the help of an investment bank
d. it is an inexpensive process
e. it provides information to prospective investors

9. All of the following do not create any securities registration responsibilities except?
a. Treasury securities
b. Municipal bonds
c. securities issued by publicly held companies
d. securities issued by banks
e. securities issued by the government

10. Ventures that reach their survival stage of their life cycles and seek first-round financing are typically organized as:
a. proprietorships or partnerships
b. LLCs or corporations
c. corporations
d. partnerships or LLCs
e. proprietorships or corporations

11. Investor liability is “unlimited” under which of the following types of business organizational forms?
a. proprietorship
b. limited liability company (LLC)
c. corporation
d. S corporation
e. S limited liability company (SLLC)

12. Which one of the following is not a requirement for registration of securities with the SEC?
a. the name under which the issuer is doing business
b. the name of the state where the issuer is organized
c. the names of all products sold by the issuer
d. the names and addresses of the directors
e. the names of the underwriters

13. The returning of all funds to equity investors as a common “remedy” for a “fouled up” securities offering is called:
a. just action
b. fraud
c. second round financing
d. a rescission
e. mezzanine financing

14. “Security” exemptions from registration with the SEC include which of the following:
a. securities issued by banks and thrift institutions
b. government securities
c. intrastate offerings
d. securities issued by large, high quality corporations
e. a, b, and c above
f. a, b, c, and d above

15. The basic types of “transaction” exemptions for registration with the SEC are:
a. private placement exemption
b. “too big to fail” exemption
c. accredited investor exemption
d. intrastate offering exemption
e. a and c above
b and d above

16. In the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals decision on SEC v. Murphy, all of the following were considerations in determining an offering to be a private placement except:
a. there must be an arm’s length relationship between the issuer of the security and the prospective purchaser
b. the number of offerees must be limited
c. the size and the manner of the offering must not indicate widespread solicitation
d. the offerees must be sophisticated
e. some relationship between the offerees and the issuer must be present

17. Which SEC Regulation took effect in 1982 and provides the basis for “safe harbor” as a private placement?
a. Regulation A
b. Regulation B
c. Regulation C
d. Regulation D
e. Regulation E

18. Unless your security is exempted, what Section of the Securities Act of 1933 requires you to file a registration statement with the SEC?
a. Section 1
b. Section 2
c. Section 3
d. Section 4
e. Section 5

19. Which one of the following is not an exemption method for making an offering exempt from SEC registration?
a. 4(2) private offering
b. accredited investor
c. Regulation D
d. Regulation A
e. Regulation Z

20. Exemptions for private placement offerings and sales of securities in the amount of $2 million are handled under which one of the follow rules under Regulation D?
a. Rule 501
b. Rule 502
c. Rule 503
d. Rule 504
e. Rule 505

21. Which one of the following SEC registration exemptions has a financing limit in a 12-month period and permits a maximum of 35 unaccredited investors?
a. Section 4(2)
b. Reg D: Rule 504
c. Reg D: Rule 505
d. Reg D: Rule 506
e. Regulation A

22. Rule 504 of Regulation D limits the total number of investors to:
a. 35
b. 100
c. 35 unaccredited investors and any number of accredited investors
d. there is no limit on the number of accredited or unaccredited
investors

23. Offerings exempted from registration under rule 505 of Regulation D may raise up to $5 million in a:
a. 6-month period
b. 9-month period
c. 12-month period
d. 18-month period
e. 24-month period

24. Rule 506 of Regulation D is limited in terms of the number of unaccredited investors to:
a. 20
b. 25
c. 30
d. 35
e. 40

25. Which one of the following “rules” under Regulation D has a $5 million financing limit?
a. Rule 504
b. Rule 505
c. Rule 506
d. Rule 507
e. Rule 508

26. While Section 4(2) does not limit the dollar amount of an offering, the interpretation of the law has stipulated that:
a. the investors must be sophisticated
b the number of investors must be limited to 35
c. the funds must be raised within a 12-month period
d. the offering must be extended to the public, and not only investors
who have a relationship with the issuer

27. An offering that raises $2,500,000 over a 12-month period, involving 35 unaccredited investors and 5 accredited investors, might be exempt from registration under:
a. Section 4(6)
b. Regulation D: Rule 504
c. Regulation D: Rule 505
d. none of the above

28. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of Regulation A?
a. An offering is limited to $5 million
b. the number offerees or investors is limited to 35
c. the offering is a public offering
d. the securities issued can generally be freely resold

29. Of the following, which is not true about Regulation A?
a. it is shorter and simpler than the full registration
b. it does not have limitations on the number or sophistication of offerees.
c. it is a public offering rather than a private placement
d. it can generally be freely sold
e. it requires no offering statement be filed with the SEC

30. Which of the following exemptions involves a public, and not a private, offering?
a. Section 4(2)
b. Rule 501
c. Rule 505
d. Rule 506
e. Regulation A

31. Under Regulation A, which one of the following is not true?
a. issuers are allowed to test the waters prior to preparing the offering circular
b. after filing a SEC statement, the issuer can communicate with perspective investors orally, in writing, by advertising in newspapers, radio, television, or via the mail to determine investor interest
c. issuers can take commitments or funds
d. there is a formal delay of 20 calendar days before sales are made
e. if the interest level is insufficient, the issuer can drop Regulation A filing

32. The JOBS Act of 2012 provides for which of the following:
a. establishes a new business classification called “Emerging Growth Company”
b. lifts restrictions on general solicitation and advertising for Reg D 506 accredited investor offerings
c. establishes a small offering registration exemption and calls for SEC rules relating to the sales of securities to an Internet :crowd” (security crowd funding)
d. a and b above
e. a, b, and c

Note: Following are multiple-choice questions relating to materials presented in Appendix B of Chapter 8.

1. Rule 501 of Regulation D expands the categories of accredited investors. Which is not one of the categories?
a. any organization formed for the specific purpose of acquiring securities with assets in excess of $5 million
b. any director or executive officer of the issuer of securities being sold
c. any individual whose net worth exceeds $1 million
d. any partnership
e. any trust with total assets greater the $5 million

2. Which of the following is not a condition of a Regulation D offering under Rule 502?
a. integration
b. offering
c. information
d. solicitation
e. resale

3. Which of the following are requirements of natural persons to be accredited investors under Regulation D Rule 501?
a. net worth greater than $5 million
b. total assets greater than $1 million
c. individual (single) annual income greater than $200,000
d. stock market portfolio greater than $2 million
e. all of the above

4. Rule 502 of Regulation D deals with:
a. integration
f. information
g. solicitation
h. resale
i. a and b above
e. a, b, c, and d above

5. Rule 503 dictates that for all Reg D exemptions, a Form D should be filed within how many days after the first sale of securities?
a. 1 day
b. 15 days
c. 30 days
d. six months
e. one year

6. The primary exemption from the prohibition of resale of unregistered securities (including, but not limited to, securities safely harbored in Rules 505 and 506 offerings) is:
a. Rule 111
b. Rule 122
c. Rule 133
d. Rule 144
e. Rule 147

CHAPTER 9

PROJECTING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

True-False Questions

1. Long-term financial planning begins with a forecast of annual working capital needs.

2. In a typical venture’s life cycle, the rapid-growth stage involves creating and building value, obtaining additional financing, and examining exit opportunities.

3. Forecasting for firms with operating histories is generally much easier than forecasting for early-stage ventures.

4. Sales forecasts usually are based on either a single specific scenario or weighted averages of several possible realizations.

5. The weighted average of a set of possible outcomes or scenarios is known as expected values.

6. A customer-driven or “bottom-up” approach to forecasting sales is used primarily to forecast industry sales growth rates.

7. Sales forecasting accuracy is usually highest during a venture’s startup stage in its life cycle.

5. “Public or seasoned financing” typically occurs during the survival stage of a venture’s life cycle.

8. The volatility of a firm’s cash balance will steadily decreases as the firm progresses from the survival stage to the rapid-growth stage.

9. “First-round financing” usually occurs during a venture’s rapid-growth life cycle stage.

10. Sales forecasting accuracy is usually lowest during a venture’s development stage in its life cycle.

11. “Internally generated funds” is the cash produced from operating a firm over a specified time period.

12. The rate at which a firm can grow sales based on the retention of business profits is known as sustainable sales growth rate.

13. A firm’s maximum sustainable sales growth rate occurs at a retention ratio of 100%.

14. When using the beginning of period equity base, the sustainable sales growth rate is equal to ROE times the retention ratio.

15. The sustainable sales growth rate is equal to ROA times the retention ratio.

16. “Financial capital needed” (FCN) is the amount of funds needed to acquire assets necessary to support a firm’s sales growth.

17. The cost of obtaining additional funds, such as additional interest expenses from borrowing funds, may be explicit and impact AFN.

18. The added costs associated with obtaining equity capital are based on investor expected rates of return and are explicit costs which affect AFN.

19. “Additional funds needed” (AFN) is the gap remaining between the financial capital needed and that funded by spontaneously generated funds and retained earnings.

20. Increases in accounts receivable and accounts payable that accompany sales increases are called “spontaneously generated funds”.

21. “Spontaneously generated funds” are increases in accounts receivable and accounts payable that accompany sales increases.

22. Increases in accounts payable and notes payable are examples of spontaneously generated funds.

23. A firm with a positive growth rate in sales will require some additional funds, assuming the existing ratios will not be changed.

24. An increase in accounts receivable will require additional financing unless the increase is offset by an equal decrease in another asset accoun

25. The percent of sales forecasting method must project all cost and balance sheet items at the same growth rate as sales.

26. The “constant-ratio forecasting method” is a variant of the “percent-of- sales forecasting method.”

27. The constant ratio forecasting method makes projections based on the assumption that certain costs and some balance sheet items are best expressed as a percentage of sales.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is not a step in forecasting sales for a seasoned firm?
a. forecast future growth rates based on possible scenarios and the probabilities of those scenarios.
b. attempt to corroborate the projected sales growth rates analyzing both industry growth rates and the firm’s own past market share.
c. refine the sales forecast by using the sales force as a direct contact with both existing and potential customers.
d. take into consideration the likely impact of major operating changes within the firm on the sales forecas
e. consider the effects of changes in the firm’s debt/equity blend on the sales forecasts.

2. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. forecasting sales is the first step in creating projected financial
statements
b. financial forecasting tends to be more accurate for mature ventures
than for early-stage ventures
c. forecasting is relatively unimportant for early-stage ventures with
little historical financial data
d. a and b
e. a and c

3. During which round of financing is a venture typically most accurate in forecasting sales?
a. seasoned financing
b. mezzanine financing
c. first round financing
d. startup financing
e. seed financing

4. During which life cycle stage is a venture typically most accurate in forecasting sales?
a. rapid growth stage
b. startup stage
c. development stage
d. early-maturity stage
e. survival stage
5. Public or seasoned financing is generally associated with which one of the following life cycle stages:
a. development stage
b. startup stage
c. survival stage
d. rapid-growth stage
e. early-maturity stage

6. A “new” venture usually begins its sales forecast by first:
a. forecasting industry sales and expressing the venture’s sales as a percent of industry sales
b. using a “bottom-up” market-driven approach
c. extrapolating past sales
d. working with existing and potential customers

7. An “expected value” is:
a. a simple average of a set of scenarios or possible outcomes
b. a weighted average of a set of scenarios or possible outcomes
c. the highest scenario value or outcome
d. the lowest scenario value or outcome

8. Lola is in the process of forecasting the sales growth rate for an early-stage venture specializing in the production of durable running shoes. Lola predicts a .2 probability of an 80% growth in sales, a .3 probability of a 60% growth in sales, a .4 probability of a 40% growth in sales, and a .1 probability of a 10% decrease in sales. What is the expected sales growth rate of the venture?
a. 47%
b. 49%
c. 51%
d. 53%

9. Which one of the following life cycle stages would generally be associated with the second lowest sales forecasting accuracy?
a. early-maturity
b. rapid-growth
c. survival
d. start-up
e. development

10. Internally generated funds which are available for distribution to owners of for reinvestment back into the business to support future growth can be characterized by which of the following?
a. operating income
b. operating cash flow
c. net income
d. net cash flow
e. pre-tax income

11. Which of the following is not part of the financial forecasting process used to project financial statements?
a. forecast sales
b. forecast tax rates
c. project the income statement
d. project the balance sheet
e project the statement of cash flows

12. A firm projects net income to be $500,000, intends to pay out $125,000 in dividends, and had $2 million of equity at the beginning of the year. The firm’s sustainable growth rate is:
a. 5%
b. 18.75%
c. 6.25%
d. 4.69%
e. none of the above

13. A firm has net income of $320,000 on sales of $3,200,000. Its assets total $2,000,000; the equity at the beginning of the year was $1,600,000 and dividends paid were $80,000. What is the sustainable growth rate?
a. 5%
b. 15%
c. 6.25%
d. 4.69%
e. none of the above

14. A sales growth rate based on the retention of profits is referred to as the:
a. real sales growth rate
b. sustainable sales growth rate
c. spontaneous sales growth rate
d. nominal sales growth rate
e. weighted average sales growth rate

15. Which one of the following ratios is not part of the “standard” return on equity (ROE) model?
a. net profit margin
b. asset turnover
c. equity multiplier
d. retention rate

16. If beginning of period common equity is $200,000 and end of period common equity is $300,000, the sustainable growth rate is:
a. 33%
b. 40%
c. 50%
d. 67%
e. 75%

17. Use the following information to estimate a venture’s sustainable growth rate: Net income = $200,000; Total assets = $1,000,000; equity multiple based on beginning common equity = 2.0 times; and Retention rate = 25%.
a. 50%
b. 25%
c. 20%
d. 10%
e. 5%

18. If a venture has a return on assets (ROA) = 10%, an equity multiplier based on beginning equity = 3.5 times, and a retention rate = 50%, the sustainable growth rate would be:
a. 10%
b. 17.5%
c. 35%
d. 40%
e. 20.5%

19. If a venture has a return on assets (ROA) = 10%, an equity multiplier based on beginning equity = 4.0 times, and a dividend payout ratio of 60%, the sustainable growth rate would be:
a. 10%
b. 16%
c. 20%
d. 24%
e. 40%

20. If a venture has a return on assets (ROA) = 12%, an equity multiplier based on beginning equity = 3.0 times, and a sustainable growth rate of 18%, the retention rate would be:
a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 30%
d. 40%
e. 50%

21. A venture’s common equity was $50,000 at the end of last year. If the venture’s common equity at the end of this year was $60,000, what was its sustainable sales growth rate?
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%
e. 25%

22. A venture’s common equity account increased by $100,000 the past year and ended the year at $500,000. What was its sustainable sales growth rate?
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%
e. 25%

23. Determine a venture’s sustainable growth rate based on the following information: sales = $1,000,000; net income = $100,000; common equity at the beginning of the year = $500,000; and the retention rate = 50%.
a. 10%
b. 15%
c. 20%
d. 25%
e. 30%

24. Determine a venture’s sustainable growth rate based on the following information: sales = $1,000,000; net income = $150,000; common equity at the end of last year = $520,000; and the dividend payout percentage = 20%.
a. 10%
b. 16%
c. 20%
d. 24%
e. 30%

25. Determine a firm’s “financial policy” multiplier based on the following information: sustainable growth rate = 20%; net profit margin = 10%; and asset turnover = 2 times.
a. 1.00
b. 1.25
c. 1.50
d. 1.75
e. 2.00

26. Determine a firm’s “return on assets” percentage based on the following information: sustainable growth rate = 20%; total assets $500,000; beginning of year common equity $200,000; and dividend payout percentage = 60%.
a. 10.0%
b. 12.5%
c. 15.0%
d. 17.5%
e. 20.0%

27. The financial funds needed to acquire assets necessary to support a firm’s sales growth is called: a. spontaneously generated funds
b. additional funds needed
c. addition in retained earnings
d. financial capital needed

28. The increase in accounts payables and accruals that occur with a sales increase is called:
a. spontaneously generated funds
b. additional funds needed
c. addition in retained earnings
d. financial capital needed

29. The financial funds still needed to finance asset growth after using spontaneously generated funds and any increase in retained earnings is called:
a. spontaneously generated funds
b. additional funds needed
c. addition in retained earnings
d. financial capital needed

30. Which one of the following would increase a firm’s need for additional funds?
a. an increasing profit margin
b. a decreasing expected sales growth rate
c. an increase in accruals
d. an increasing dividend payout rate
e. a decrease in assets

31. Your firm recorded sales for the most recent year of $10 million generated from an asset base of $7 million, producing a $500,000 net income. Sales are projected to grow at 20%, causing spontaneous liabilities to increase by $200,000. In the most recent year, $200,000 was paid out as dividends, and the current payout ratio will continue in the upcoming years. What is your firm’s AFN?
a. $200,000
b. $600,000
c. $840,000
d. $960,000
e. $1,400,000

32. Which of the following is a forecasting method used to project financial statements?
a. percent-of-sales method
b. percent-of-expenses method
c. GNP-ratio method
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

33. When projecting financial statements, one would first , and then proceed to :
a. project of the balance sheet, forecast sales.
b. forecast sales, project the income statement
c. forecast sales, project the balance sheet
d. forecast sales, project the statement of cash flows

CHAPTER 10

VALUING EARLY-STAGE VENTURES

True–False Questions

1. The valuation approach involving discounting present value cash flows for risk and delay is called discounted cash flow (DCF).

2. The stepping stone year is the first year before the explicit forecast period.

3. The terminal or horizon value is the value of a venture at the end of its explicit forecast period.

4. The “stepping stone” year is the second year after the explicit forecast period when valuing a venture.

5. The explicit forecast period is the two to ten year period in which the venture’s financial statements are explicitly forecas

6. The maximum dividend valuation method involves explicitly forecasted dividends to provide surplus cash which is positive.

7. The easiest way to value a venture is to discount the projected maximum dividend/issue stream.

8. The pseudo dividend method treats surplus cash as a free cash flow to equity.

9. The reversion value of a venture is the present value of the venture’s terminal value.

10. A venture’s reversion value is the present value of ongoing expenses.

11. The “reversion value” is the future value of the terminal value.

12. The “terminal” value is the value of the venture at the beginning of the explicit forecast period.

13. As used in this textbook, the “terminal” value is the same as the “horizon” value.

14. Finding the present value of the horizon value produces the venture’s reversion value.

15. Surplus cash is the cash remaining after required cash, all operating expenses, and reinvestments are made.

16. Surplus cash is the cash remaining after required cash, all operating expenses, reinvestments, and dividends payouts are made.

17. Required cash is the amount of cash required to operate a venture through its day-to-day business.

18. Surplus cash is the amount of cash required to pay scheduled dividends for next quarter.

19. The capitalization or “cap” rate is the spread between the discount rate and the growth rate of cash flow in the terminal value period.

20. Pre-money valuation is the present value of a venture prior to a new money investmen

21. Post-money valuation is the pre-money valuation of a venture plus all monies previously contributed by the venture’s founders.

22. “Net operating working capital” is current assets other than surplus cash less non-interest-bearing current liabilities.

23. “Equity valuation cash flow” is defined as: net sales + depreciation and amortization expense – change in net operating working capital (excluding surplus cash) – capital expenditures + net debt issues.

24. The “pseudo dividend method” (PDM) is a valuation method involving zero explicitly forecasted dividends and an adjustment to working capital to strip surplus cash.

25. A “post-money” valuation differs from a “pre-money” valuation by the cost of financial capital.

26. Applying the “maximum dividend method” (MDM) and the “pseudo dividend method” (PDM) result in different valuation estimates.

27. The “maximum dividend method” assumes that all surplus cash will be paid out as dividends.

28. A pseudo dividend involves excess cash that does not need to be invested in a venture’s assets or operations, and may be invested elsewhere for a period of time.

29. The pseudo dividend method treats equity infusions and withdrawals in a “just in time” fashion.

30. The pseudo dividend method treats surplus cash either as stripped out while not in use or as employed outside the venture and stored in a zero NPV investmen

31. The wider the capitalization or “cap” rate (i.e., the discount rate minus the growth rate in the terminal period), the higher the terminal value.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The present value of the venture’s expected future cash flows is called?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

2. The value today of all future cash flows discounted to the present at the investor’s required rate of return is called?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

3. The value of the venture at the end of the explicit forecast period is called the horizon value, or what?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

4. The present value of the terminal value is called?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

5. The present value of a set of future flows plus the current undiscounted flow is called?
a. going-concern value
b. present value
c. terminal value
d. reversion value
e. net present value

6. The calculation of equity valuation cash flows nets the cash impact of all other balance sheet and income accounts to focus on the ______ account as the repository of any remaining cash flow.
a. cash
b. debt
c. equity
d. non-interest-bearing liabilities
e. net income

7. Equity valuation cash flow = Net income plus
a. Depreciation and amortization expense minus the change in net operating working capital plus capital expenditures plus net debt issues
b. Depreciation and amortization expense plus the change in net operating working capital plus minus capital expenditures plus net debt issues
c. Depreciation and amortization expense minus the change in net operating working capital plus capital expenditures minus net debt issues
d. Depreciation and amortization expense minus the change in net operating working capital plus minus capital expenditures plus net debt issues
e. Depreciation and amortization expense minus the change in net operating working capital plus capital expenditures plus net debt issues

8. In a wildly successful first year in business that started and ended with no required cash, your firm has operating income of $989,000, net income of $637,000, current assets of $900,000, current liabilities of $659,000, net capital expenditures were $690,000, and depreciation was $460,000. The firm has never financed itself with deb What is your equity valuation cash flow?
a. $648,000
b. $900,000
c. $2,028,000
d. $166,000

9. Your firm has been in business for two years. In its first year, the firm ended with $227,000 of current assets, long-term assets of $143,000, $70,000 in surplus cash, current liabilities of $52,000, and long-term assets of $68,000. At the end of the second year, current assets were $279,000, long-term assets of $195,000, surplus cash of $90,000, current liabilities of $62,000, and long-term assets of $78,000. What is your firm’s change in net operating working capital?
a. $22,000
b. $62,000
c. $42,000
d. $244,000
e. $32,000

10. The equity valuation method involving explicitly forecasted dividends to provide surplus cash of zero is called?
a. maximum dividend method
b. pseudo dividend method
c. sustainable growth method
d. dividend payout method

11. The equity valuation method involving zero explicitly forecasted dividends and an adjustment to working capital to strip surplus cash is called?
a. maximum dividend method
b. pseudo dividend method
c. sustainable growth method
d. dividend payout method

12. “Just in time” capital injections by equity investors is a reference to
a. sustainable growth
b. the present value of the terminal value
c. equity investors’ providing money only when needed
d. dividend payout

13. The maximum dividend method is
a. the cleanest for valuing assets, but creates problems valuing surplus cash
b. the cleanest for valuation purposes but its dividend-laden financial statements can dramatically understate the firm’s cash position
c. the cleanest for cash planning, but creates problems valuing the venture by discounting the dividends
d. calculated by directly discounting the cash flow statement’s projected dividend flow to investors, but ignores risks associated with periodic gluts of surplus cash

14. The pseudo dividend method is
a. the cleanest for valuing assets, but creates problems valuing surplus cash
b. the cleanest for valuation purposes but its dividend-laden financial statements can dramatically understate the firm’s cash position
c. the cleanest for cash planning, but creates problems valuing the venture by discounting the dividends
d. calculated by directly discounting the cash flow statement’s projected dividend flow to investors, but ignores risks associated with periodic gluts of surplus cash

15. “Required cash” is?
a. the cash needed to pay interest expense
b. a valuation method for early stage ventures
c. cash needed to cover a venture’s day-to-day operations
d. cash available to pay as a dividend

16. Most discounted cash flow valuations involve using cash flows from an:
a. historical period, an explicit forecast period, and a terminal value
b. historical period and a terminal value
c. historical period and an explicit forecast period
d. explicit forecast period and a terminal value

17. Which one of the following equity valuation methods records surplus cash on the balance sheet but assumes that the surplus cash is paid out over time for valuation purposes?
a. maximum dividend method
b. pseudo dividend method
c. sustainable growth method
d. return on equity method

18. When estimating the terminal value of a venture using an equity valuation method, a perpetuity growth equation is often applied that uses the capitalization rate for discounting purposes. This “cap” rate is measured as the:
a. equity discount rate minus the perpetuity growth rate
b. equity discount rate plus the perpetuity growth rate
c. risk-free rate plus the perpetuity growth rate
d. risk-free rate minus the perpetuity growth rate

19. A venture’s going-concern value is the:
a. present value of the expected future cash flows
b. net present value of the current and expected future cash flows
c. future value of the expected cash flows
d. net future value of the current and expected cash flows

20. The purpose of the stepping stone year is?
a. to assure that there is sufficient required cash
b. to assure that future dividends are constant
c. to assure that investment flows are consistent with terminal growth rates
d. to allow for a final year of higher-than-sustainable growth

21. When estimating the terminal value of a cash flow perpetuity, which one of the following is not a component?
a. the next period’s cash flow
b. a constant discount rate
c. a constant growth rate
d. the payback period

22. Which one of the following components is not a component of the equity valuation cash flow?
a. NOPAT
b. depreciation and amortization expense
c. change in net operating working capital (without surplus cash)
d. capital expenditures
e. net debt issues

23. What is the difference between pre-money valuation and post-money valuation?
a. size of the capitalization rate
b. amount of money injected by new investors
c. revision value
d. amount of money previously contributed by founders
e. amount of money previously contributed by venture investors

24. To calculate a terminal value, one divides the next period’s cash flow by the:
a. constant discount rate plus a constant growth rate
b. constant discount rate plus a variable growth rate
c. constant discount rate minus a constant growth rate
d. constant growth rate minus constant discount rate
e. constant growth rate plus a variable discount rate

25. The MDM equity valuation method is an abbreviation for:
a. minimum dividend method
b. maximum discount method
c. maximum dividend method
d. minimum discount method
e. Montgomery design method

26. The PDM equity valuation method is an abbreviation for:
a. pseudo dividend method
b. proximate dividend method
c. pseudo discount method
d. proximate discount method
e. pre-money discount method

27. Estimate a venture’s equity valuation cash flow based on the following information: net income = $6,372; depreciation = $4,600; change in net operating working capital = $2,415; capital expenditures = $6,900; and new debt issues = $1,000.
a. $6,487
b. $5,487
c. $4,487
d. $3,787
e. $5,787

28. Estimate a venture’s terminal value based on the following information: current year’s net income = $20,000; next year’s expected cash flow = $26,000; constant future growth rate = 7%; and venture investors’ required rate of return = 20%.
a. $156,846
b. $285,714
c. $200,000
d. $150,000
e. $428,571

29. Estimate a venture’s required rate of return based on the following information: terminal value = $400,000; current year’s net income = $20,000; next year’s expected cash flow = $25,000; and a constant growth rate = 7%.
a. 6%
b. 7%
c. 8%
d. 9%
e. 10%

30. Estimate a venture’s constant growth rate (g) based on the following information: terminal value = $400,000; current year’s net income = $20,000; next year’s expected cash flow = $25,000; and a required rate of return of 20%.
a. 2%
b. 4%
c. 6%
d. 8%
e. 10%

31. Which one of the following components is not a component of the equity valuation cash flow calculation?
a. net income
b. depreciation and amortization expense
c. change in net operating working capital (without surplus cash)
d. capital expenditures
e. net equity repurchases

32. Estimate a venture’s terminal value based on the following information: current year’s net sales = $500,000; next year’s expected cash flow = $16,000; constant future growth rate = 10%; and venture investors’ required rate of return = 20%.
a. $156,846
b. $285,714
c. $200,000
d. $150,000
e. $160,000

33. Estimate a venture’s cash flow expected next year based on the following information: current year’s net sales = $400,000; terminal value = $500,000; constant future growth rate = 10%; and venture investors’ required rate of return = 20%.
a. $20,000
b. $40,000
c. $50,000
d. $60,000
e. $80,000

CHAPTER 11

VENTURE CAPITAL VALUATION METHODS

True–False Questions

1. The venture capital valuation method estimates the venture’s value by projecting both intermediate and terminal/exit flows to investors.

2. Venture investors returns depend on the venture’s ability to generate cash flows or to find an acquirer for the venture.

3. The value of the venture’s equity is equal to the value the financing contributed in the first venture capital round.

4. A direct application of the earnings-per-share ratio to venture earnings is known as the direct comparison valuation method.

5. The venture capital valuation method which capitalizes earnings using a cap rate implied by a comparable ratio is known as direct capitalization.

6. Failure to account for any additional rounds of financing and its accompanying dilution in order to meet projected earnings will result in the investor’s not receiving an adequate number of shares to ensure the required percent ownership at the time of exi

7. Almost without exception, professional venture investors demand that some equity or deferred equity compensation be structured into any valuation.

8. If a venture issues debt prior to the exit period, the initial equity investors will still receive first claims on the venture’s net worth at exit time.

9. The utopia discount process allows the venture investors to value their investment using only the business plan’s explicit forecasts, discounting it at a bank loan interest factor.

10. The internal rate of return is the simple (non-compounded) interest rate that equates the present value of the cash inflows received with the initial investmen

11. The basic venture capital method estimates a venture’s value using only terminal/exit flows to all the venture’s owners.

12. The basic venture capital method estimates a venture’s value using only terminal/exit flows to founders.

13. Post-money valuation of a venture is the pre-money valuation plus money injected by new investors.

14. Staged financing is financing provided in sequences of rounds rather than all at one time.

15. In staged financing, the expected effect of future dilution is borne by both founders and the investors currently seeking to inves

16. The capitalization rate is the sum of the discount rate and the growth rate of the cash flow in the terminal value period.

17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is the compound rate of return that equates the present value of the cash inflows received with the initial investmen

18. The discount rate that one applies in a multiple scenario valuation will usually be lower than the discount rate that would be applied to the business plan cash flows.

19. All of the scenarios in a multiple scenario analysis must have exit cash flows in the same year.

20. The discount rate applied in an Expected PV approach should be the same rate across scenarios.

21. The expected present value method incorporates the present values of different scenarios, as well as their probabilities, into the valuation process.

Note: The following TF questions relate to Learning Supplements 11A and 11B:

1. The return on book equity equals the sustainable growth rate when all earnings are paid out in the form of dividends.

2. A price-earnings ratio is related to the level and growth of earnings.

3. The Venture Capital ShortCut (VCSC) method is a post-money version of the Delayed Dividend Approximation (DDA).

4. The VSCS and DDA methods are “just-in-time” capital methods which do not assess capital charges for idle cash.

5. For the typical business plan having current and early cash outflows and later-stage cash inflows, the VCSC and DDA methods will typically give lower valuations than the MDM and PDM.

6. The VSCS is like a post-money version of the DDA.

7. For the typical business plan having current and early cash outflows and later-stage cash inflows, the VSCS will give a higher valuation than the DDA.

8. The DDA and VCSC methods give the same valuation.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The return to venture investors directly depends on which of the following?
a. venture’s ability to generate cash flows
b. ability to convince an acquirer to buy the firm
c. the amount of its short-term liabilities
d. both a and b
e. all of the above

2. To obtain the percent ownership to be sold in order to expect to provide the venture investor’s target return, one must consider the:
a. cash investment today and the cash return at exit multiplied by the venture investor’s target return, then divide today’s cash investment by the venture’s NPV
b. cash investment today and the cash return at exit discounted by the venture investor’s target return, then divide today’s cash investment by the venture’s NPV
c. cash investment today and the cash return at exit multiplied by the venture investor’s target return, then divide today’s cash investment by the venture’s NPV
d. cash investment today and the cash return at exit discounted by the venture investor’s target return, then multiply today’s cash investment by the venture’s NPV

3. The value of the existing venture without the proceeds from the potential new equity issue is known as?
a. pre-money valuation
b. post money valuation
c. staged financing
d. the capitalization rate

4. The value of the existing venture plus the proceeds from the potential new equity issue is known as?
a. pre-money valuation
b. post money valuation
c. staged financing
d . the capitalization rate

5. Financing provided in sequences of rounds rather than all at one time is
known as?
a. pre-money valuation
b. post money valuation
c. staged financing
d. the capitalization rate

[Note: Use the following information for Problems 6 through 11.]

A potential investor is seeking to invest $500,000 in a venture, which currently has 1,000,000 million shares held by its founders, and is targeting a 50% return five years from now. The venture is expected to produce half a million dollars in income per year at year 5. It is known that a similar venture recently produced $1,000,000 in income and sold shares to the public for $10,000,000.

6. What is the percent ownership of our venture that must be sold in order to provide the venture investor’s target return?
a. 33.33%
b. 75.94%
c. 12.76%
d. 15.00%

7. What is the number of shares that must be issued to the new investor in order for the investor to earn his target return?
a. 3,156,276
b. 1,578,138
c. 4,156,276
d. 2,578,138

8. What is the issue price per share?
a. $0.1939
b. $0.1203
c. $0.3168
d. $0.1584

9. What is the pre-money valuation?
a. $120,300
b. $316,800
c. $158,400
d. $193,900

10. What is the post-money valuation?
a. $658,354
b. $499,954
c. $408,377
d. $249,977

11. What is the value of the venture in year five using direct capitalization?
a. $500,000
b. $5,000,000
c. $1,000,000
d. $100,000

12. For early stage ventures, which of the following is a strong reason for having an equity component in employee compensation?
a. the expected deferred and tax-preferred compensation allows the venture to pay a lower current compensation to employees
b. as a way to motivate employees to strive for the same goal of high equity value
c. because any dividends received as part of the equity compensation reduces taxable income
d. both a and b
e. all of the above

13. During the exit period, which of the following will have last crack at the venture’s wealth?
a. banks giving loans to the venture
b. convertible debt holders of the venture
c. initial equity investors of the venture
d. participating preferred equity holders

14. Suppose your venture’s expected mean cash flows are $(85,000) initially, followed by expected mean cash flows at the end of the first, second, and third years of $40,000, $40,000, and $35,000. What is the internal rate of return?
a. 13.9%
b. 14.7%
c. 16.2%
d. 17.2%
e. 19.2%

15. A P/E multiple refers to:
a. price/expectations multiple
b. price/earnings multiple
c. profit/EBIT multiple
d. profit/earnings multiple
e. price/EBITDA multiple

16. Estimate the value of a privately-held firm based on the following information: stock price of a comparable firm = $20.00; net income of a comparable firm = $20,000; number of shares outstanding for the comparable firm = 10,000; and earnings per share for the target firm = $3.00.
a. $10.00
b. $20.00
c. $30.00
d. $40.00
e. $50.00

17. Estimate the value of a privately-held firm based on the following information: total market value (or capitalization value) of a comparable firm = $200,000; net income of a comparable firm = $40,000; number of shares outstanding for the comparable firm = 20,000; net income for the target firm = $15,000; and number of shares outstanding for the target firm = 10,000.
a. $5.00
b. $7.50
c. $10.00
d. $12.50
e. $15.00

18. Determine the market value of a “comparable” firm based on the following information: value of target firm = $4,000,000; net income of target firm = $200,000; and net income of “comparable” firm = $500,000.
a. $4 million
b. $7.5 million
c. $10 million
d. $12.5 million
e. $15 million

19. Determine the net income of a “comparable” firm based on the following information: value of target firm = $4,000,000; net income of target firm = $200,000; stock price of “comparable” firm = $30.00; and 300,000 shares of stock outstanding for the comparable firm.
a. $450,000
b. $500,000
c. $550,000
d. $600,000
e. $700,000

20. Determine the future value of a target venture which has net income expected to be $40,000 at the end of four years from now. A comparable firm currently has a stock price of $20.00 per shares; 100,000 shares outstanding; and net income of $50,000.
a. $1.0 million
b. $1.4 million
c. $1.6 million
d. $2.0 million

21. Which of the following financing rounds dilutes the ownership founders?
a. first-round
b. second-round
c. incentive ownership round
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

22. The utopian approach to valuation ignores which of the following venture scenarios:
a. black hole scenarios
b. living dead scenarios
c. both a and b
d. neither a or b

23. Which of the following is not a variation of the venture capital valuation method?
a. venture capital method
b. expected present value
c. utopian discount process
d. none of the above

Following are MC questions relating to Learning Supplements 11A and 11B:

1. When a firm has growth that only meets, rather than exceeds, the cost of capital, we would expect its price-earnings multiple to be approximately equal to:
a. the reciprocal of its required return on equity
b. its earnings per share
c. its book-to-market ratio
d. its debt-to-value ratio

2. The two “just-in-time” capital methods are:
a. DDA and VCSC
b. DDA and PDM
c. VSCS and MDM
d. MDM and PDM

3. For the typical venture investing project, the valuation will be highest under:
a. DDA
b. PDM and MDM
c. VCSC
d. initial book value of equity

CHAPTER 12

PROFESSIONAL VENTURE CAPITAL

True–False Questions

1. In addition to having personal financial stakes in their portfolio of investments, professional venture capitalists have raised funds from other investors to invest in the portfolio.

2. The establishment of the Small Business Administration was the first major government foray into venture investing.

3. Created by the Small Business Administration, Small Business Investment Companies possess important tax advantages and were eligible to borrow amounts up to four times their equity base from the governmen

4. Initially, Small business Investment Companies access to borrowed funds appeared attractive. This was because venture investing and debt service commitments are an ideal mixture of financing for start-ups.

5. Professional venture capital, as we know it today, did not exist before World War II.

6. Most venture investing came from wealthy individuals and families prior to World War II.

7. The beginning of professional venture capitalists began with the formation of American Research and Development in 1966.

8. In 1958 the Small Business Administration created Small Business Investment Companies.

9. The first major government foray into venture investing came with the formation of the Small Business Administration (SBA) in 1947.

10. The American Research and Development (ARD) company was formed in 1946.

11. Internet financing led the record level of venture investing in the 1999-2000 time period.

12. The phrase “two and twenty shops” refers to investment management firms having a contract that gives them two percent carried interest and 20 percent of assets annual management fee.

13. When the venture fund calls upon the investors to deliver their investment funds, it reflects the deal flow.

14. The deal flow reflects the flow of business plans and term sheets involved in the venture capital investing process.

15. In the venture investing context, due diligence describes the process of investigating a potentially worthy concept or plan.

16. The summary of the investment terms and conditions accompanying an investment proposed by the venture capitalist is known as the statement of strengths and weaknesses.

17. “Carried interest” is the portion of profits paid to the professional venture capitalist as incentive compensation.

18. The term “capital call” refers to the flow of business plans and term sheets involved in the venture capital investing process.

19. Pension funds are the dominant source of funds for venture investing.

20. Individuals and families are more important suppliers of venture capital relative to finance and insurance firms.

21. Endowments and foundations are more important suppliers of venture capital relative to individuals and families.

22. “Due diligence,” in venture investing context, is the process of ascertaining the viability of a business plan.

23. When a syndicate of VCs invests in a venture, the investor in charge of organizing the due diligence process is known as the “lead investor.”

24. SLOR stands for “standard letter of recognition.”

25. SLOR stands for “standard letter of rejection.”

26. A “term sheet” is a summary of the investment terms and conditions accompanying an investment by venture capitalists.

27. Term sheets consist of the terms and conditions accompanying an investment, as stipulated by the founders of the venture.

28. Two typical issues addressed in a term sheet are valuation and the size and staging of financing.

29. Term sheets may contain demands regarding the voting rights of shares issued to venture investors.

30. Once the venture capital firm has received exit proceeds from a venture in the form of cash or securities, some method of returning the proceeds (less the carried interest) must be determined.

31. Annual VC investments, as indicated in Figure 12.1, reached an all-time high in the year 2000.

32. According to Figure 12.4, individuals and families were the largest supplier of venture capital in 2009.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The beginning of professional venture capitalists is considered to have occurred:
a. prior to World War II
b. 1946
c. 1956
d. 1966
e. after the Vietnam War

2. The beginning of professional venture capitalists is considered to have begun with the establishment or formation of:
a. Small Business Administration
b. Small Business Investment Companies
c. American Research and Development organization
d. Professional Venture Capitalists organization

3. Which of the following was the largest source of venture capital funds in 2009 (as reported in Figure 12.4)?
a. pension funds and corporations
b. individuals and families
c. endowments and foundations
d. finance and insurance

4. Venture Capital firms tend to specialize in publicly identified niches because of the potential for value-added investing by venture capitalists. Which is not one of these niches?
a. industry type
b. venture stage
c. size of investment
d. management style
e. geographic area

5. As venture firms attract money from investors, it is placed in a fund. Important issues that must be put in place with the establishment of the fund include all of the following except:
a. determine the general partners
b. establishing a fee structure
c. a profit sharing arrangement
d. establish its governance
e. the management team assigned to each borrower

6. All of the following are typically part of a venture fund’s typical compensation and incentive structure except:
a. some percent annual fee on invested capital
b. a percent share of any profits to the managing general partner
c. carried interest
d. salary for the general partners

7. When evaluating the prospects of a new venture, venture capital firms consider which of the following?
a. characteristics of the proposal
b. characteristics of the entrepreneur/team
c. nature of the proposed industry
d. both b and c
e. all of the above

8. When screening prospective new ventures, venture capital firms consider their own funds’ requirements. Which of the following is not one of the venture firm’s requirements relating to its own funds?
a. investor control
b. rate of return
c. size of investment
d. probable stock listing exchange for the mature venture
e. financial provisions for investors

9. When evaluating the prospects of a new venture, venture capital firms consider the characteristics of the entrepreneur and its team. Which of the following is not part of the review of the entrepreneur/team?
a. its background and experience
b. its managerial capabilities
c. management’s stake in the firm
d. the VC firms’ ability to cash out
e. the capability to sustain an effort

10. When screening prospective new ventures, venture capital firms must consider the nature of the proposed industry. Which of the following is not part of the screening of the proposed industry?
a. market attractiveness
b. managerial references
c. potential size
d. technology
e. threat resistance

11. Professional venture investing usually involves setting up a venture capital firm as a:
a. proprietorship
b. corporation
c. partnership
d. S corporation

12. After a new professional venture capital fund is organized, the fund managers:
a. conduct due diligence and actively invest
b. solicit investments and obtain commitments
c. arrange harvest or liquidation
d. identify prospective venture investments and then solicit investments

13. After determining the next fund’s objectives and policies, the “professional venture investing cycle’s” next step is:
a. solicit investments in new fund
b. organize the new fund
c. obtain commitments for a series of capital calls
d. conduct due diligence and actively invest
e. arrange harvest or liquidation

14. The term “carried interest” refers to:
a. interest not currently paid but which must be paid in the future by a professional venture capitalist
b. interest transported directly to a bank
c. interest owed on a loan in default
d. the portion of profits paid to the professional venture capitalist as incentive compensation

15. If an investment management firm is known to be a “two and twenty shop”, this implies that the firm:
a. receives an annual 2% fee on invested capital, and a 20% carried interest
b. receives an annual 20% fee on invested capital, and a 2% carried interest
c. receives an annual 2% fee on gross operating profits, and a 20% carried interest
d. receives an annual 20% fee on gross operating profits, and a 2% carried interest

16. A venture fund calls upon its investors to deliver their investment funds. This is known as:
a. due diligence
b. deal flow
c. a capital call
d. carried interest
e. a SLOR

17. All of the following are typical issues addressed in a term sheet except?
a. valuation
b. board structure
c. registration rights
d. management fees
e. employment contracts

18. Term sheets are usually drafted by:
a. the mangers of the venture seeking VC funding
b. the VC fund seeking to fund the venture
c. management and founders
d. it is usually done by an third party, in order to
ensure the fair treatment of both parties

19. In a syndicate of venture investors, the investor who is responsible for governing the process of due diligence is:
a. the primary investor
b. the lead investor
c. a small group of secondary investors
d. the investor in charge of issuing SLORs for the syndicate
e. it is a democratic process that is shared by all investors in the group

20. A summary of the investment terms and conditions accompanying an investment is referred to as a:
a. term sheet
b. business plan
c. fund created by professional venture capitalists
d. due diligence in venture investing
e. capital call

21. When screening possible investments, a venture capital firm might issue an SLOR which stands for:
a. standard letter of rejection
b. standing letter of reconciliation
c. standard letter of reassessment
d. senior letter of reference

22. Which of the following is not one of the four likely outcomes of the venture firm’s screening process?
a. seek the lead investor position
b. seek a non-lead investor position
c. close the capital fund
d. refer the venture to more appropriate financial market participants
e. issue a standard letter of rejection

Note: The following MC questions relate to Figure 12.3 Elements of a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum

1. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, which of the following is not a front matter declaration?
a. description of limited manner of the offering
b. targeted fund size
c. imposition of confidentiality
d. notice of lack of SEC registration
e. declaration of the highly risky nature of investment

2. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, which of the following is not part of the offering summary?
a. objective of formation
b. declaration of general partner
c. management fee
d. minimum capital restrictions
e. targeted fund size

3. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, which of the following is not part of the fund overview?
a. fund size
b. investment focus
c. fund management
d. portfolio size
e. general partners’ capital contributions

4. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, all of the following are part of the executive summary except?
a. special limited partners
b. general partners’ capital contributions
c. limitation of liability
d. allocation of gains and losses
e. imposition of confidentiality

5. In a Venture Capital Fund Placement Memorandum, all of the following are included in the summary of terms except?
a. indemnification
b. objective
c. liquidation
d. valuation
e. expenses

CHAPTER 13

OTHER FINANCING ALTERNATIVES

True–False Questions

1. Despite the high risk and costs of using a facilitator or up-front fee solicitor to obtain financing, many start-ups never-the-less seek them as a source of funds due to the length of time it takes to raise new funds.

2. Collateral plays an important role in determining the willingness to lend and the amount and terms of the loan, making it the most important factor in the lending process.

3. Commercial loan officers have the expertise to project new venture’s business successes, and thus are as willing to make funds available to entrepreneurs on the same basis as other businesses.

4. Because investors and commercial lenders both seek returns on the funds given to start-up firms, entrepreneurs can obtain financing as easily from either source.

5. Because of loan restrictions, obtaining funding from commercial lenders is prohibitive for entrepreneurs.

6. Unlike traditional commercial banks, venture banks typically provide debt to start-ups that have already received equity financing from professional venture capital firms.

7. Among start-ups, it is widely understood that bank debt (outside of Small Business Administration loans), is not a very realistic source of financing for ventures with less than two years operating results.

8. Compensation received by commercial loan officers makes them more likely to finance early-stage ventures.

9. Warrants allow lenders to buy equity at a specified price.

10. Warrants are a debt instrument frequently used by commercial banks when financing entrepreneurial ventures.

11. Credit cards issued to start-ups have proven to be an alternative source of start-up financing.

12. The returns to venture bank lenders are generated solely from interest payments made by borrowers plus the return of the loan principal.

13. Commercial banks receive a portion of their returns from warrants in addition to the receipt of interest and the repayment of the principal that was len

14. By an act of Congress, the Small Business Administration (SBA) was created for the purpose of fostering the initiation and growth of small businesses.

15. The Small Business Administration was created by an Act of Congress in 2003.

16. Microloans in the SBA credit program are intended for very small businesses with a maximum amount of $35,000 to be used for general purposes.

17. The SBA’s role in its microloan credit program is to approve the loans and guarantee up to 85% of the loan value.

18. Microloans in the SBA credit program are made by not-for-profit or government-affiliated Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs).

19. The SBA’s venture capital credit program works through Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs).

20. The 7(a) loan traditionally has been the SBA’s primary loan program

21. SBA 7(a) loans are made usually for 1 to 3 years in amounts up to $5,000,000, require collateral, and can be used for most business purposes.

22. The SBA approves the standard 7(a) loan and guarantees up to 85% of the loan value.

23. For the 504 loan, the SBA approves and guarantees the development company’s portion of the debt but does not guaranteed the debt of the participating commercial bank.

24. Factoring is the sale of payables to a third party at a discount to their face value.

25. In a factoring arrangement, the third party makes its money by purchasing the receivables at a discount from the total amount due on the receivables.

26. With venture leasing, one component of the return to the lessor is the opportunity to take an equity interest in the venture.

27. Receivables lending is the use of receivables as collateral for an equity issue.

28. Factoring is the selling of receivables to a third party at a discount from their face value.

29. Direct public offerings have recently become a serious challenge to traditional venture capital firms.

30. The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1990 provided an opportunity for foreign nationals to obtain a “green card” through the EB-5 immigrant visas program.

31. A foreign national may seek Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR) status by investing $1 million in the U.S. that will preserve or create at least 100 jobs for U.S. workers.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The ability of the entrepreneur to repay borrowed funds is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

2. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The money the entrepreneur has invested in the business, which is an indication how much is at risk if the business should fail is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

3. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The guarantees, or additional forms of security (such as assets), the entrepreneur can provide the lender is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

4. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The focus on the intended purpose of the loan is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

5. When assessing the creditworthiness of new entrepreneurs, lending institutions review the “Five C’s”. The general impression the entrepreneur makes on the potential lender or investor is known as:
a. capacity
b. capital
c. collateral
d. conditions
e. character

6. All of the following are common loan restrictions except?
a. limits on total debt
b. limits on total equity
c. restrictions on dividends or other payments to owners and/or investors
d. restrictions on additional capital expenditures
e. performance standards on financial ratios

7. Unlike traditional commercial banks, venture banks typically provide debt to start-ups that have already received equity financing from professional venture capital firms. In return for providing additional debt financing, these venture banks receive in return all of the following except?
a. interest payments
b. repayment of principal
c. implementation of loan restrictions
d. tax breaks on the interest
e. right to buy equity at a specific price

8. Bank debt is not a realistic source of financing for start-ups due to all of the following reasons except?
a. a large portion of the assets are intangible and provide no collateral
b. payables either don’t yet exist or its history is inadequate
c. the start-up’s dependence on a small number of irreplaceable people is not a good match to demand deposits or other bank liabilities
d. receivables collection track record is incomplete
e. in the event of a default, it is now plausible for the bank to install a management team to help right the operations

9. A provision that allows lenders to acquire equity at a specific price is known as a(n):
a. factor
b. warrant
c. venture lease
d. equity carve-out

10. Personal credit cards have proven to be a source of financing for start-up firms for all of the following reasons except?
a. credit card debt is not based on the firm’s ability to repay, but rather the individual card holder’s ability to repay
b. teaser rates afford initial low cost borrowing
c. balance transfer at below-prime rates
d. credit card debt can create problems if the firm doesn’t generate cash flows to cover credit card payments once low introductory rates expire

11. In the context of new ventures, what does SBA stand for?
a. Standard Business Arrangement
b. Small Business Association
c. Small Business Administration

12. By an act of Congress, the Small Business Administration (SBA) was created in which one of the following years?
a. 1953
b. 1968
c. 1973
d. 1985
e. 1993

13. Which is not a duty of the Small Business Administration?
a. provide capital and credit to entrepreneurial start-ups
b. guaranteeing general business loans
c. provide equity financing for start-ups
d. help create new jobs in small businesses
e. help small firms obtain Federal contracts

14. Which of the following is not a Small Business Administration program?
a. loan guaranty programs
b. certified and preferred lender programs
c. low documentation loan programs
d. energy and conservation loan programs
e. certified financial planner funding programs

15. Which of the following is not a source of debt funding for a start-up firm?
a. accounts payable
b. vendor financing
c. factoring
d. trade notes
e. leasing

16. Venture banks seek loan returns from:
a. interest received
b. principal repayments
c. warrants being exercised
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

17. Which one of the following is not a current Small Business Administration (SBA) credit program?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

18. In which of the following credit programs does the SBA approve and guarantee a not-for-profit Certified Development Company’s portion of the debt?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

19. In which of the following credit programs does the SBA approve a loan and guarantees up to 85% of loan value?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

20. In which of the following credit programs is the SBA role in the loan one of providing a direct loan to a community organization, which reloans the funds in small amounts?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

21. In which of the following credit programs does the SBA borrow money to be lent Small Business Investment Companies (SBICs) and guarantees payment to investors?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

22. Commercial banks, credit unions, and/or financial services firms are lenders in which of the following SBA credit programs?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

23. Commercial banks, jointly with not-for-profit Certified Development Companies, are lenders in which of the following SBA credit programs?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

24. Not-for-profit or government-affiliated Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) are lenders in which of the following SBA credit programs?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

25. Small Business Investment Companies (SBICs) are lenders in which of the following SBA credit programs?
a. 7(a) loan
b. 504 loan
c. microloan
d. venture capital loan
e. credit card loan

26. Concerning factoring, all of the following are true except:
a. factors prefer business over consumer accounts
b. factoring is done at a discount to the third party purchaser
c. factoring discounts are often a function of the riskiness of the receivables
d. factoring speeds the inflow of cash to the seller of the receivables
e. receivable lending is the process of factoring

27. The use of receivables as collateral for a loan is known as:
a. capital leasing
b. warehouse financing
c. receivables lending
d. a microloan
e. venture leasing

28. Selling receivables to a third party at a discount from their face value is referred to as:
a. factoring
b. receivables lending
c. venture banking
d. vendor financing
e. mortgage lending

29. Which of the following is/are not a type of leasing arrangement?
a. factoring
b. capital lease
c. venture lease
d. mortgage lease
e. both a and d

30. Arranging for partial ownership as a component of the expected return to a lessor is known as:
a. venture leasing
b. capital leasing
c. investment leasing
d. none of the above

CHAPTER 14

SECURITY STRUCTURES AND DETERMINING ENTERPRISE VALUES

True–False Questions

1. Preferred stock is the equity claim senior to common stock providing preference on dividends but not liquidation proceeds.

2. For preferred noncumulative stock, all previously unpaid preferred dividends must be paid before any common stock dividend is paid.

3. Convertible preferred stockholders have the right to convert a preferred share into a specified number of common shares at any time after the expiration date.

4. If a share of preferred stock has a $10 par value, and the stock has a 2:1 conversion ratio, then the conversion price would be $5.

5. By issuing preferred stock, and thus forfeiting bankruptcy rights from the use of debt, the venture and its investors can benefit by committing to an internal reorganization as opposed to bankruptcy reorganization.

6. A call option is the obligation to purchase a specific asset at a pre-determined price.

7. Options generally have no effect on the value of a venture capital investmen

8. For American and Bermudan embedded options, the exercise price can change over time as specified in the security agreemen

9. An American-style option is an option that can be exercised only at the expiration date

10. A European-Style Option may only be exercised on a specific date.

11. A warrant is a call option issued by a company granting the holder the right to buy common stock at a specific price at a specific time.

12. An option granting the right to sell a stock at $10 when that stock currently has a market price $8 is “in the money.”

13. If a call option can be bought for $12 and the stock’s market value is $12, it’s said to be “at the money”.

14. As the underlying stock price increases in value, a put option to sell it becomes more valuable.

15. The value of a warrant can be directly derived from the value of a call option.

16. A preemptive right is a right for existing owners to buy sufficient shares to preserve their ownership share.

17. Convertible debt is debt that converts into preferred stock.

18. An option is a right to buy or sell additional shares of stock.

19. A warrant is a type of call option.

20. An option not currently worth exercising is said to be an out of the money option.

21. Owning a put option on a stock is the same as selling a call option on that same stock.

22. The enterprise method of valuation can be executed with either an after-tax or before-tax weighted cost of capital as long as the rate is applied to the appropriate enterprise cash flows.

23. Entity valuation allows us to answer the question of how much debt a venture needs to issue to achieve a target capital structure (D/V).

24. The concept of an enterprise value is that it is the combined value of all of venture’s financing, typically equity plus all of the deb

25. The enterprise value includes the value of the debt, equity, and warrant pieces of a venture.

Note: The following TF questions relate to Learning Supplements 14A and 14B:

1. An alternative approach to the Enterprise Valuation method adds the tax shield from paying interest back into the flows and discounts at a before-tax weighted average cost of capital.

2. Warrant valuation (as presented in this text) is similar to option valuation except that one applies a dilution factor to the option value to arrive at a warrant value.

3. The unadjusted Black and Scholes model is a model for determining the value of a warrant to buy a new share.

4. The Black and Scholes model requires the stock price as an inpu

5. The Black and Scholes model requires the inflation rate as an inpu

6. The Black and Scholes model requires an exercise price as an inpu

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following have the least senior claim on a venture’s asset?
a. common Stock
b. preferred stock
c. convertible preferred stock
d. convertible debt
e. American-style option

2. The right for existing owners to maintain their ownership share by purchasing sufficient shares to keep their percentage share of the firm is called:
a. stock option
b. stock warrant
c. preemptive right
d. participating stock
e. paid-in-kind preferred stock

3. Which of the following stock can be structured to assure the shareholder that they will share in the payment of any dividends to common stockholders?
a. paid in kind preferred stock
b. cumulative preferred stock
c. participating preferred stock
d. convertible preferred stock
e. non-cumulative preferred stock

4. Which of the following provides the option to transform preferred stock into common stock?
a. paid in kind preferred stock
b. cumulative preferred stock
c. participating preferred stock
d. convertible preferred stock
e. non-cumulative preferred stock

5. Which of the following offers the option where the dividend obligation can be satisfied in cash or by issuing additional par amounts of the preferred security?
a. paid in kind preferred stock
b. cumulative preferred stock
c. participating preferred stock
d. convertible preferred stock
e. non-cumulative preferred stock

6. Which of the following requires that all previously unpaid preferred dividends must be paid prior to any common dividend?
a. paid in kind preferred stock
b. cumulative preferred stock
c. participating preferred stock
d. convertible preferred stock
e. non-cumulative preferred stock

7. Which of the following is never a component of a preferred stock’s security structure?
a. the right to participate in any dividends paid to common stock shareholders
b. payment of dividends in the form of additional shares of preferred stock
c. the option for the holder to convert preferred stock into common stock
d. the option for the venture to call outstanding preferred stock
e. none of the above; all of these may be included in the structure of
preferred stock

8. A round of financing where shares sell for a lower price than previous rounds is known as a:
a. down round
b. recessive round
c. reset round
d. a and c

9. Which of the following are components of common equity?
a. common stock
b. preferred stock
c. a and b
d. none of the above

10. Convertible debt has all of the following except:
a. bankruptcy rights
b. regular dividend payments
c. it can be structured to provide senior interest in specific assets
d. a tax shield due to interest expense
e. a security interest in the firms’ assets

11. Which of the following is not a type of option?
a. call option
b. put option
c. warrant
d. LBO

12. The right to buy a specified asset at a specified price on a specified date is called:
a. a forward contract
b. an American-style put option
c. an American-style call option
d. a European-style call option
e. a European style put option

13. The right to sell a specified asset at a specified price up until a specified date is called:
a. a forward contract
b. an American-style put option
c. an American-style call option
d. a European-style call option
e. a European style put option

14. An option that can be exercised at any time until its expiration is called a:
a. forward contract
b. lookback option
c. American-style option
d. European-style option
e. Bermuda-style option

15. An option that can be exercised only at its expiration date is called a:
a. forward contract
b. lookback option
c. American-Style option
d. European-Style option
e. Bermuda-Style option

16. An option that can be exercised only at a specific set of dates is called a:
a. forward contract
b. lookback option
c. American-Style option
d. European-Style option
e. Bermuda-Style option

17. Which of the following is an example of a call option which is out of the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to buy at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12.

18. Which of the following is an example of a call option which is in the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to buy at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12.

19. Which of the following is an example of a put option which is out of the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to buy at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12.

20. Which of the following is an example of a put option which is in the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to buy at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12.

21. Which of the following is an example of a put option which is at the money?
a. The option to sell at $11, the stock is worth $12.
b. The option to buy at $13, the stock is worth $12.
c. The option to sell at $12, the stock is worth $12.
d. The option to sell at $13, the stock is worth $12.
e. The option to buy at $11, the stock is worth $12

22. Generally speaking, warrants are call options that allow the holder to purchase what type of security at a specific price?
a. common stock
b. preferred stock
c. convertible debt
d. none of the above

23. To calculate the enterprise valuation cash flow, one begins with which of the following items from the income statement?
a. net sales
b. operating profit
c. (earnings before interest and taxes) × (1 – enterprise tax rate)
d. net income
e. net income times the enterprise tax rate

24. When consistent assumptions are used, we
a. get the same value for equity under the enterprise and equity methods of valuation
b. we get a higher value of equity under the equity method of valuation
c. we get a lower value of equity under the equity method of valuation
d. we get equity values that cannot be compared across the equity and enterprise methods of valuation

Note: The following MC questions relate to Learning Supplement 14B:

1. The Black and Scholes model is intended to be used to value
a. stocks
b. bonds
c. options
d. futures contracts

2. Which of the following is not an input to the Black and Scholes model?
a. earnings per share
b. stock price
c. risk free rate
d. volatility

3. N(h) in the Black and Scholes model involves the use of
a. the number of shares issued
b. the next time that a venture capitalist will invest money
c. the normal distribution cumulative density function
d. the number of times that the venture will have to raise money

CHAPTER 15

HARVESTING THE BUSINESS VENTURE INVESTMENT

True–False Questions

1. The process of exiting the privately held business venture to unlock the owners’ investment value is known as harvesting.

2. When harvesting a venture, the methodical distribution of assets directly to the owners is known as a systematic liquidation.

3. When harvesting a venture, the outright purchase of the going concern by managers, employees, or external buyers is known as going public.

4. When harvesting a venture, the two-step public equity registration and sale is known as an outright sale.

5. When an initial business plan is prepared, attention should be paid to the investors’ and founders’ desire for eventual liquidity by anticipating a harvest for the venture investors.

6. An advantage of an exit strategy that pays out the venture’s investment value over several years can make it more difficult for entrepreneurs to start a new venture because adequate capital has not been released from the existing venture.

7. When an industry is in decline, systematic liquidation is typically the most attractive harvest strategy.

8. Exit values for many mature ventures are usually determined by (1) discounted cash flow (DCF) methods or (2) relative valuation models based on some form of multiples analysis.

9. In determining a harvest value, non-monetary items such as culture, managerial succession, and employee retention are not factored in.

10. Harvesting is the process of exiting the privately held business venture to unlock the owners’ investment value.

11. Valuation methods that estimate a firm’s worth using value-related multiples of comparable firms are sometimes known as “relative value methods.”

12. The two discounted cash flow (DCF) methods covered in this text are the enterprise method and the debt funds method.

13. One method of harvesting a venture is through systematic distribution of assets directly to the owners.

14. One method of harvesting a successful venture is through systematic distribution of assets directly to lenders.

15. Other than when the venture is operating in a declining industry, it is difficult to think of cases where the disadvantages of liquidation outweigh the advantages.

16. A special type of harvesting process where the firm’s top management continues to run the firm and has a substantial equity position in the reorganized firm is known as a leveraged buyou

17. A leveraged buyout (LBO) takes place when the purchase price of a firm is financed largely with debt financial capital.

18. Ultimately for harvesting purposes, we need to decide on the venture’s value at exit and how that exit value pie will be divided up among investors.

19. An “initial public offering” is the only method used by entrepreneurs when exiting a venture.

20. A management buyout (MBO) is a special type of leveraged buyout (LBO).

21. A leveraged buyout (LBO) is a special type of management buyout (MBO).

22. ESOP stands for “employee stock ownership plan.”

23. An obligatory disclaimer disavowing any intent to act as an offer to sell, or solicit an offer to buy securities is known as a red herring.

24. The sale of new shares of common stock is a secondary offering.

25. The sale of used shares of common stock is a secondary market offering.

26. Most companies choose “best efforts” agreements in order to minimize the inherent risks of going public.

27. IPO underpricing results in a direct loss to the venture’s owners.

28. While not a direct loss to a venture, underpricing can represent a significant opportunity cost to the venture’s owners.

29. A “lockup provision” prohibits insiders from selling their existing shares for a specified period of time.

30. In a typical venture’s life cycle, the rapid-growth stage involves managing ongoing operations, maintaining and adding value, and obtaining seasoned financing.

31. In a typical venture’s life cycle, the examining of exit opportunities often occur during the rapid-growth stage.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is not a way to harvest a venture?
a. systematic liquidation
b. outright sale
c. chapter 11 bankruptcy
d. going public

2. When registering equity and selling it via an IPO of new shares followed by a secondary offering of existing shares, this venture harvesting process is known as:
a. systematic liquidation
b. outright sale
c. chapter 11 bankruptcy
d. going public

3. The acquisition of the venture by family members, managers, or outside buyers is a venture harvesting process known as:
a. systematic liquidation
b. outright sale
c. chapter 11 bankruptcy
d. going public

4. The distribution of the venture’s cash flows directly to the owners is a venture harvesting process known as:
a. systematic liquidation
b. outright sale
c. chapter 11 bankruptcy
d. going public

5. Which of the following is not an advantage of a systematic liquidation?
a. maintaining control throughout the harvest period
b. harvesting of the investment value can be spread out over a number of years
c. the taxation treatment of liquidation proceeds as ordinary income
d. the time, effort, and costs of finding a buyer for the venture can be avoided

6. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of a systematic liquidation?
a. the treatment and taxation of liquidation proceeds as ordinary income rather than capital gains
b. the commitment of the entrepreneur’s resources and focus on a dying venture rather than on other more lucrative ventures
c. the harvesting of the investment gets spread out over a number of years
d. the acceleration of the venture’s rate of decline as other industry participants respond to the reduction in investment

7. A venture can be harvested in which of the following ways?
a.. systematic liquidation, outright sale, going public
b. outright sale, going public, acquisition
c. going public, acquisition
d. acquisition, systematic liquidation

8. Which of the following is not a candidate for a leveraged buyout?
a. a venture with stable and adequate operating cash flows
b. a venture with a high amount of equity relative to debt
c. a venture with the ability to protect market share
d. a venture with a high debt ratio

9. Which of the following is the premium that would be applied to venture valuation due to an investor’s majority ownership of a venture?
a. proxy premium
b. control premium
c. influence premium
d. liquidity premium
e. illiquidity premium

10. Shares registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission and state securities regulators and sold to the public are known as:
a. primary offering
b. secondary offering
c. initial public offering
d. shelf offering

11. In an outright sale of a venture, the venture can be sold to:
a. family members
b. managers
c. employees
d. outside (external) buyers
e. all of the above

12. The sale of new securities is known as:
a. primary offering
b. secondary offering
c. initial public offering
d. shelf offering

13. The sale of used shares is known as:
a. primary offering
b. secondary offering
c. initial public offering
d. shelf offering

14. The NYSE participates in:
a. the sale of new securities to private investors
b. primary offerings
c. secondary offerings
d. b and c

15. In the investment banking process, which of the following is a duty of the investment bank?
a. to be the targeted investors for a firm’s securities
b. to provide banking services such as checking accounts to firms
c. to find buyers for a firm’s securities
d. both a and b
e. all of the above

16. Based on the following information, estimate the percentage appreciation on stock bought by the venture investors: founders’ purchase price $.50; venture investors’ purchase price $2.00; current stock price $10.00; founders holding period = 5 years; venture investors holding period = 3 years.
a. 100%
b. 400%
c. 600%
d. 800%

17. Based on the following information, estimate the percentage appreciation on stock bought by the founders: founders’ purchase price $1.00; venture investors’ purchase price $2.00; current stock price $10.00; founders holding period = 5 years; venture investors holding period = 3 years.
a. 100%
b. 400%
c. 600%
d. 900%

18. Assume that a venture is expected to have an EBITDA of $1,500,000 at the end of five years from now. If the venture’s value is expected to be $12,000,000, what “valuation multiple” was being assumed?
a. 1 time
b. 4 times
c. 8 times
d. 10 times
e. 12 times

19. A venture is expected to have an exit value of $10,000,000 two years from now. If venture investors invest $2,000,000 now, and expect a 20% compounded rate of return on their investment, what portion of the exit value would they need?
a. 10%
b. 20.2%
c. 25%
d. 28.8%
e. 32%

20. A venture is expected to have an exit value of $10,000,000 five years from now. If venture investors invest $1,000,000 now, and expect a 20% compounded rate of return on their investment, what portion of the exit value would they need?
a. 10.5%
b. 20.1%
c. 24.9%
d. 28.8%
e. 32.5%

21. If venture investors invest $1,000,000 now, will receive 50% of the exit value, and expect a 20% compounded rate of return on their investment, what will be the amount of the exit value at the end of two years?
a. $1,000,000
b. $1,440,000
c. $2,880,000
d. $5,000,000
e. $5,760,000

22. If venture investors invest $1,000,000 now, will receive 25% of the exit value, and expect a 20% compounded rate of return on their investment, what is the approximate expected exit value at the end of five years?
a. $1,000,000
b. $2,490,000
c. $4,980,000
d. $7,470,000
e. $9,950,000

23. If venture investors invest $6,750,000 now, will receive 32% of the exit value, and expect a 22% compounded rate of return on their investment, what is the exit value at the end of seven years?
a. $27,153,298
b. $39,931,321
c. $69,552,505
d. $84,854,057
e. $103,521,949

24. The difference between what the investment bank gets from selling securities to public investors and what they pay to the issuing firm is known as:
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

25. A type of agreement with an investment bank employing only marketing and distribution efforts without the actual transfer of securities ownership to the investment banking syndicate is called:
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

26. An agreement with an investment bank that involves the purchase and distribution of new securities is known as:
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

27. The investment banks process of ascertaining, to the extent possible, an issuing firm’s financial condition and investment intent is known as:
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

28. The arrangement where an underwriter has the option of selling additional shares when the issue is heavily oversubscribed is known as
a. green shoe
b. red herring
c. best efforts
d. lockup

29. Which of the following describes when a syndicate’s offering price is less than the market price immediately following the offering?
a. IPO underpricing
b. due diligence
c. firm commitment
d. best efforts
e. underwriting spread

30. In the aftermarket trading for the venture’s securities, an order that is to be executed as soon as possible at the prevailing market price is known as a:
a. put order
b. market order
c. limit order
d. stop order

31. In the aftermarket trading for the venture’s securities, an order that converts to a market order once a certain price is achieved is known as a:
a. put order
b. market order
c. limit order
d. stop order

32. An order to purchase stock that can be executed only at a specified price or better is called a:
a. market order
b. limit order
c. stop order
d. stock order
e. private order

33. Which of the following is not a type of trading order?
a. market order
b. limit order
c. stop order
d. none of the above

34. The letters IPO stand for:
a. investment pricing organization
b. initial public offering
c. institutional pricing overhead
d. immediate pricing opportunity

35. The negotiated period around an equity securities offering during which insiders are prohibited from selling their existing shares is called:
a. a seasoned offering
b. an unseasoned offering
c. underpricing
d. an underwriting spread
e. a lockup provision

36. An initial public offering (IPO) involves:
a. sale of new securities to private investors
b. sale of used securities to the public
c. a venture’s first offering of SEC-registered securities to the public
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

37. The type of agreement with an investment bank involving the investment bank’s underwritten purchase and resale of securities is called:
a. firm commitment
b. best efforts commitment
c. due diligence
d. making a red herring disclaimer
e. a private placement

ECO 450 Week 11 Final Exam Chapters 8 Through 18 – Strayer University NEW

ECO 450 Week 11 Final Exam – Strayer

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Chapters 8 Through 18

ECO 450 Week 6 Quiz

CHAPTER 8
Social Security and
Social Insurance
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. The Social Security pension system is a fully funded retirement plan.
2. Social Security pension benefits are transfers from workers to retirees.
3. Social Security pensions are financed by voluntary contributions by workers.
4. The gross replacement rate measures the ratio of taxes paid per year by workers to their annual Social Security pension when they retire.
5. In the year prior to retirement, a worker earned $20,000 and paid $5,000 in taxes on those earnings. His annual Social Security pension is $10,000 per year. Then it follows that his net replacement rate is 50 percent.
6. The gross replacement rate for Social Security pensions is the same for all workers independent of their preretirement earnings.
7. The annual growth in wages subject to Social Security taxes is 3 percent. Given the payroll tax rate, the growth in funds available to pay pension benefits is also 3 percent.
8. The asset-substitution effect of Social Security pensions discourages saving.
9. The availability of Social Security pensions to workers over normal retirement age results in an income effect unfavorable to work but no substitution effect.
10. The bequest effect of Social Security encourages workers to save less.
11. The normal retirement age for Social Security old-age pensions is 67 for people born in the United States in 1960 or later.
12. Workers in the United States can retire under Social Security at age 62 with lower pensions than they would receive at their normal retirement age.
13. As of 2009, retired workers between the ages of 62 and their normal retirement age were subject to an “earnings test” that reduced their pension by $1 for each $2 of earnings after a certain minimum level of earnings.
14. Reducing the replacement rate will have no effect on the tax rate necessary to finance pensions under a pay-as-you-go, tax-financed pension system.
15. Workers who quit their jobs are eligible for unemployment insurance benefits in the United States.
16. By 2050, the expected percentage of the U.S. population that is considered elderly will be less than 20%.
17. Social Security was created in 1965.
18. On average, the elderly are less likely to be poor when compared to the rest of the U.S. population.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The Social Security retirement system:
a. is a fully funded pension system.
b. is a tax-financed system that pays benefits from taxes that are invested to return principal and interest to workers when they retire.
c. is a tax-financed retirement system that finances pensions by taxing workers each year and transferring the bulk of revenues obtained directly to retirees.
d. does not use taxes on workers to pay pensions to retirees.
2. The gross replacement rate:
a. measures a worker’s monthly retirement benefit divided by monthly earnings before taxes in the year prior to retirement.
b. measures a worker’s monthly retirement benefit divided by monthly earnings after taxes in the year prior to retirement.
c. is an increasing function of gross monthly earnings prior to retirement.
d. is independent of gross monthly earnings prior to retirement.
3. A worker earns $2,000 per month before taxes. He pays $140 per month payroll tax on those wages. In addition, the income taxes on those wages are $360 per month. On retirement, the worker receives a Social Security pension of $750 per month. Which of the following statements is true?
a. The worker’s gross replacement rate is 50 percent.
b. The worker’s net replacement rate is 50 percent.
c. The worker’s net replacement rate is 38 percent.
d. The worker’s net replacement rate is 75 percent.
4. The growth in hourly wages over the past 50 years has averaged about 2 percent per year. How¬ever, the growth in Social Security pensions has far exceeded this 2-percent rate. The growth in tax revenue to finance Social Security benefits in excess of 2 percent per year can be accounted for by:
a. increases in payroll tax rates.
b. use of other taxes beside the payroll tax to pay Social Security benefits.
c. an increase in the number of workers paying Social Security taxes.
d. either (a) or (b)
e. either (a) or (c)
5. Given the structure and level of gross replacement rates and the expected future growth of labor earnings subject to the payroll tax, the tax rates used to tax payrolls were increased in the 1980s because:
a. the number of retirees per worker will increase.
b. the number of retirees per worker will decrease.
c. wages are expected to decline.
d. the size of the work force is expected to increase.
6. Which of the following is likely to increase the net federal debt as a share of GDP?
a. a federal budget surplus.
b. a federal budget deficit.
c. a recession.
d. either b or c.
7. The asset-substitution effect of the Social Security retirement system leads all workers to:
a. save more for retirement.
b. save less for retirement.
c. save absolutely nothing for retirement.
d. work more
8. Which of the following is a consequence of a growing federal budget deficit in the United States?
a. A decrease in the federal debt outstanding.
b. An increase in the federal debt outstanding.
c. A decrease in the portion share of federal government expenditures that must be allocated to interest in the future.
d. An increase in national saving.
9. The induced-retirement effect of the Social Security pension system induces workers to:
a. save less for retirement.
b. save more for retirement.
c. reduce savings for retirement to zero.
d. work more after retirement.
10. Unemployment insurance benefits are:
a. financed by payroll taxes levied on workers.
b. financed by payroll taxes levied on employers.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. financed by sales taxes.
11. Which of the following is true about the Social Security pension system in the United States?
a. Pensions received by retired workers are based entirely on their contributions to the Social Security pension trust fund and the investment return on that fund.
b. Pensions received by married retirees with dependents are greater than that received by those without dependents.
c. Gross replacement rates are inversely related to preretirement earnings.
d. both (b) and (c)
12. Which of the following can decrease tax rates necessary to pay pensions for a pay-as-you-go pension system?
a. an increase in replacement rates
b. a decrease in the retirement age
c. an increase in the size of the work force
d. an increase in the number of retirees
13. Unless legislation is introduced to change the normal retirement age, people born in 1960 or later will be able to retire with full Social Security benefits at age:
a. 62.
b. 65.
c. 66.
d. 67.
14. The earnings test for retirees:
a. increases their incentive to work.
b. is applied to all retirees.
c. is applied only to retirees below normal retirement age.
d. reduces pension benefits by $1 for each $2 of earnings.
e. both (c) and (d)
15. A nation has 40 million current retirees and a work force of 100 million. Which of the following is true?
a. The replacement rate is 40 percent.
b. The replacement is 2.5.
c. The dependency ratio is 0.4.
d. The dependency ratio is 2.5.
16. Social Security tax rates can be reduced if:
a. taxable wages decline.
b. the retirement age is lowered.
c. the retirement age is raised.
d. the work force decreases in size.
17. A retiree subject to the earnings test under Social Security:
a. can earn as much as he or she chooses without losing Social Security pension benefits.
b. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced by one dollar for each dollar of labor earnings.
c. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced immediately by one dollar for each three dollars of labor earnings.
d. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced by one dollar for each two dollars of earnings after a certain minimum amount per year.
18. A pay-as-you-go social security retirement system is:
a. exemplified by the current U.S. social security system.
b. exemplified by the current Chilean social security system.
c. designed to have retirees set aside a contribution specifically for themselves during their earlier working life.
d. both (a) and (b).
19. Approximately, what percentage of beneficiaries of U.S. Social Security are retired workers?
a. 50%
b. 60%
c. 70%
d. 80%
20. The Social Security Act was implemented in the United States in:
a. 1927.
b. 1935.
c. 1947.
d. 1965.

CHAPTER 9
Government and Health Care

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. In the United States the government pays the health bills of 90 percent of the population.
2. The American system of health care is financed by a mix of private and government insurance programs that pay over 80 percent of the health care bills for U.S. citizens.
3. Spending per person on health care in the United States is less than in the United Kingdom where national health insurance finances health expenditures.
4. Government spending on health care is declining as a percent of total government spending.
5. Medicare is a government program of health insurance for the elderly.
6. Exclusion of employer-provided health insurance to employees is an indirect subsidy to private provision of health insurance.
7. Third-party payments for health care services increase the quantity of health care demanded by reducing out-of-pocket costs to patients.
8. An increase in coinsurance and deductibles for health insurance can contribute to a reduction in expenditures on health care.
9. Half of Americans do not have health insurance coverage.
10. Under national health insurance in Great Britain, the price system is used to ration health care.
11. Approximately 16 percent of GDP was allocated to provision of health care in the United States as of 2006.
12. Individuals in the United States, on average, pay 50 percent of their health care costs out-of-pocket, and the remaining 50 percent is paid by insurance, governments, and charity.
13. Asymmetric information in the market for health care occurs when sellers of medical care are better informed about cost and quality of care than buyers.
14. Because of third-party payment for services in the market for health care, the price paid by buyers is less than the payment sellers receive, and the marginal social cost of health care exceeds its mar¬ginal social benefit.
15. Medicaid costs are paid entirely by the federal government.
16. Healthcare expenditures in the U.S. are projected to be 20% of GDP by 2017.
17. Asymmetric information can occur when the provider of a service is better informed than the consumer of the service.
18. A risk averse individual prefers to pay certain modest costs in exchange for possible unforeseen high costs.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Most of the medical bills of Americans in the United States are paid by:
a. the patients.
b. private and government health insurance.
c. charities.
d. Medicaid.
2. Since 1960, expenditures on health care as a percent of GDP has:
a. been cut in half.
b. nearly tripled.
c. remained the same.
d. doubled.
3. The government program that provides the health insurance to the poor in the United States is called:
a. national health insurance.
b. Medicare.
c. Medicaid.
d. employer-provided health insurance.
4. Which of the following programs accounts for the greatest amount of government expenditures on public health in the United States?
a. Medicare
b. worker’s compensation
c. the Public Health Service
d. medical research
5. Which of the following subsidizes private provision of health insurance?
a. Medicare
b. Medicaid
c. the Public Health Service
d. tax exclusion of the value of employer-provided health insurance to workers
6. Which of the following could help decrease the rate of increase of spending on health care in the United States?
a. a reduction in the deductibles on private health insurance policies
b. an increase in the coinsurance rate on health insurance and subjecting a larger volume of ser¬vices to coinsurance
c. extension of Medicaid insurance to all persons who are poor
d. a reduction in the coinsurance rate on health insurance and subjecting a smaller volume of ser¬vices to coinsurance
7. Which of the following is an example of the “moral hazard of health insurance”?
a. an increase in the number of surgeries prescribed for benign prostate disease beyond the point at which the marginal benefit equals the marginal cost
b. a decreased willingness of individuals to go to the doctor for minor ailments because of increases in coinsurance rates
c. an underallocation of resources to medical care because of monopoly power of hospitals
d. experience rating of health insurance groups by health insurers
8. A third-party payment system for health care:
a. results because of externalities in the production of health care services.
b. encourages more than the efficient amount of resources to be allocated to health care.
c. encourages patients and health care providers to economize on the use of health care resources.
d. means that patients pay the full price for health care services they consume.
9. Which of the following services is typically not covered under private health insurance and Medicare in the United States?
a. treatment for heart attack
b. surgery
c. office visits to physicians
d. long-term care services
10. Under national health insurance as operated in Great Britain,
a. the British system pays fees equal to half of the costs of services provided to them.
b. general practice physicians are paid on a per-patient rather than on a per-unit-of-service basis.
c. patients requiring surgery can pick their surgeons and can usually obtain the surgery in a matter of days, even if it is not an emergency.
d. there are no government limits on health care spending by hospitals.
11. Which of the following is true about the Medicaid program in the United States?
a. It is a program of health insurance for the elderly.
b. Its costs are paid entirely by the federal government.
c. It is a program of health insurance for the poor.
d. Its costs have been declining in recent years.
12. In the United States, individuals pay approximately what percent of the cost of their medical care directly to providers?
a. 100 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 15 percent
d. zero
13. The percent of total health care costs in the United States paid for by governments is approximately:
a. 90 percent.
b. 45 percent.
c. 25 percent.
d. 10 percent.
14. The system of third-party payment for medical care in the United States has which of the following effects in the market for health care?
a. It improves efficiency in the market.
b. It causes the marginal social benefit of health care to exceed its marginal social cost.
c. It causes the marginal social cost of health care to exceed its marginal social benefit.
d. It results in less than the efficient quantity of health care services.
15. Which of the following is true about the Medicare program in the United States?
a. It is only available to those who pass a means test.
b. It is available to all citizens over the age of 65.
c. The costs are completely financed by fees paid by insurees.
d. It places no limits on reimbursement to medical care providers.
16. What would be the effect of having no health insurance available?
a. The quantity of healthcare would be set at where the marginal benefit and marginal cost are equal.
b. Excess demand for healthcare would be the result because the quantity supplied would be at a level where the marginal benefit exceeds the marginal cost.
c. Excess supply for healthcare would be the result because the quantity supplied would be at a level where the marginal benefit would be below the marginal cost.
d. the quantity of healthcare would be at an inefficient level.
17. The elderly are what proportion of beneficiaries of Medicare?
a. 95%
b. 85%
c. 77%
d. 70%
18. What is the moral hazard associated with third party payment for health services?
a. The recipient of the service is not as informed as the provider of the service.
b. The recipient of services tends to decline more services than they should.
c. The recipient of services tends to have more services than what is needed relative to the efficient level of services.
d. There is no moral hazard.
19. Which is not reason for excalating healthcare costs in the U.S.?
a. Increase in malpractice insurance.
b. Cross-subsidization of patients who cannot pay for healthcare or insurance.
c. Overuse of new technology.
d. Both (b) and (c).
20. If the quantity of healthcare is more than the efficient quantity, what is the consequence?
a. Some will not have access to healthcare that would have access at the efficient level.
b. The healthcare will suffer in quality.
c. Capital could be more efficiently spent elsewhere leading to less overall productivity.
d. Lower marginal costs and marginal benefits.

ECO 450 Week 7 Quiz

CHAPTER 10
Introduction to
Government Finance
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Taxes simultaneously ration and finance government goods and services.
2. The federal government finances only half of its expenditures with taxes.
3. The benefit principle argues that the means of financing government goods and services should be linked to the benefits received from those goods and services.
4. Horizontal equity is achieved when individuals of the same economic capacity pay the same amount of taxes over a given period.
5. A flat-rate income tax is a proportional tax on an income base.
6. The marginal tax rate will eventually exceed the average tax rate if the tax rate structure is propor¬tional.
7. The marginal tax rate for a payroll tax is 7 percent on all wages up to $60,000 per year. The marginal tax rate for wages in excess of $60,000 per year is zero. The payroll tax is therefore a regressive tax.
8. Tax evasion would be less of a problem if tax rates were lowered.
9. The user charge for a congestible public good should be zero at all times.
10. Zero prices for price-excludable government services provide benefits only to the poor.
11. The gasoline tax is an example of a general tax on consumption.
12. For a proportional tax, the marginal tax rate is always equal to the average tax rate.
13. Tax avoidance is an illegal activity in the United States.
14. An increase in marginal tax rates is likely to increase tax evasion.
15. Most studies indicate that state-run lotteries are equivalent to a progressive tax on gambling.
16. Government activity requires the reallocation of resources from government to private use.
17. A flat income tax (i.e. a fixed amount paid by every taxpayer) is an example of a selective tax.
18. The average tax rate and marginal tax rate are the same under a progressive tax rate structure.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. According to the benefit principle,
a. taxes should be distributed according to ability to pay.
b. user charges are an ideal source of finance for government goods and services.
c. the progressive income tax represents the ideal way of distributing taxes among citizens.
d. flat-rate taxes are always the best kind.
2. If horizontal equity is achieved in taxation,
a. vertical equity will also be achieved.
b. individuals of equal economic capacity will pay equal taxes.
c. a flat-rate tax will be used.
d. the tax system will not result in losses in efficiency in markets.
3. The tax base of a payroll tax is:
a. consumer expenditures.
b. interest income.
c. labor income.
d. both (b) and (c)
4. A 5-percent retail sales tax on all consumer purchases in a state is imposed. The sales tax is:
a. a flat-rate tax.
b. a tax with a regressive rate structure.
c. levied on an income base.
d. all of the above
5. A tax on the value of real estate holdings is a:
a. selective tax on wealth.
b. general tax on wealth.
c. general tax on income.
d. selective tax on income.
6. An excise tax is a:
a. general consumption tax.
b. selective consumption tax.
c. general wealth tax.
d. selective tax on wealth.

7. A proportional income tax has an average tax rate that:
a. always is less than the marginal tax rate.
b. always exceeds the marginal tax rate.
c. equals the marginal tax rate at first and then becomes less than the marginal tax rate.
d. always equals the marginal tax rate.
8. A payroll tax taxes a worker’s wages at 14 percent until the worker earns $60,000 per year. All labor earnings in excess of $60,000 are not subject to tax. The tax rate structure of the payroll tax is therefore:
a. proportional.
b. progressive.
c. regressive.
d. flat-rate.
9. A bridge becomes congested after 100 vehicles per hour use it on any day. To achieve efficiency, a toll:
a. that charges all users of the bridge, no matter how many vehicles use it per hour, should be imposed.
b. on additional users in excess of 100 per hour should be imposed.
c. on all users should be imposed, if more than 100 users per hour are expected.
d. is not required.
10. A government prints money to finance its expenditures. As a result,
a. the economy can operate at a point outside its production possibility curve.
b. inflation will occur.
c. consumers will give up private goods to finance the increased government expenditures.
d. both (b) and (c)
11. Taxes are likely to affect:
a. market equilibrium.
b. political equilibrium.
c. the distribution of income.
d. all of the above
12. Taxes:
a. are voluntary payments to governments.
b. are unlikely to affect market supply and demand.
c. never affect efficiency in the allocation of resources.
d. are compulsory payments associated with certain activities.
13. A tax on real estate is a:
a. general wealth tax.
b. general consumption tax.
c. selective wealth tax.
d. selective income tax.
14. The marginal tax rate will eventually exceed the average tax rate for a:
a. proportional tax.
b. regressive tax.
c. progressive tax.
d. flat-rate tax.
15. Marginal tax rates were reduced in 2001. Other things being equal, this is likely to:
a. increase tax evasion.
b. decrease tax evasion.
c. have no effect on tax evasion.
d. increase tax avoidance.

16. What is an example of a normative criterion that a government must trade-off in its method of
taxation?
a. Equity
b. Efficiency
c. Administrative ease
d. all of the above
17. Tax avoidance is:
a. a means of tax evasion.
b. a means of decreasing taxes paid by adjusting behavior.
c. a political process explicitly for the reduction of taxation.
d. a means to avoid tax owed.
18. If the marginal tax rate is 20% under a proportional tax rate structure, the average tax rate:
a. should be 20%.
b. should be above 20%.
c. should be below 20%.
d. cannot be determined.
19. If the average tax rate under a progressive tax rate structure is 35%, a possible marginal tax rate is:
a. 30%.
b. 25%.
c. 42%.
d. not able to be determined.
20. Which of the following countries has the highest average tax rate relative to GDP?
a. Japan
b. Sweden
c. Iceland
d. United Kingdom

ECO 450 Week 8 Quiz

CHAPTER 11
Taxation, Prices, Efficiency,
and the Distribution of Income
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. A lump-sum tax results in both income and substitution effects.
2. A consumer currently pays $500 a year retail sales taxes. She would be better off if she paid the same amount annually as a lump-sum tax.
3. Clothing is sold in perfectly competitive markets where no externalities prevail. An excise tax on clothing will result in a market price for clothing that equals the marginal social benefit and mar¬ginal social cost of service.
4. Assuming that the income effects are negligible and that beer is sold in a competitive market, a 10 cent per can tax on beer that causes a 10,000 can per month decline in sales will result in an excess burden of $1,000 per month.
5. A tax on land results in an income effect on landlords but no substitution effect. Then it follows that the excess burden of a tax on land will be zero.
6. The excess burden of a tax on interest income is $5 billion per year. Total interest income per year is $50 billion. The tax currently collects $15 billion in revenue per year. The efficiency-loss ratio of the tax is therefore 0.33.
7. A payroll tax results in a difference between the gross wages paid by employers and the net wages received by workers.
8. If the market supply of labor services is perfectly inelastic, a tax on labor income will reduce the net wages received by workers by the full amount of the tax per labor hour.
9. If a $10 per unit tax is levied on the output of a monopolist, more of that tax will be shifted to con¬sumers than would be the case if the same good were produced by a competitive industry.
10. A study indicates that taxes in the United States reduce the Gini coefficient for the nation by 10 percent. This implies that taxes make the income distribution more equal.
11. A lump-sum tax only results in income effects.
12. An income tax is an example of a price-distorting tax.
13. The more price-elastic the demand of a taxed item, the lower the excess burden of a tax on the sale of that item.
14. If the tax on the sale of gasoline is doubled from 20 cents per gallon to 40 cents per gallon, the excess burden of the tax will quadruple.
15. If the compensated elasticity of supply of labor is zero, then a tax on labor earnings will have zero excess burden.
16. Lump-sum taxes do not prevent prices from equaling the marginal social cost and benefit of any goods and services.
17. Lump-sum taxes can vary in amount based on income level.
18. A lump-sum tax can distort prices and affect consumption behavior.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. A lump-sum tax:
a. distorts market prices so that they do not simultaneously equal MSB and MSC.
b. can result in price changes but does not prevent prices from simultaneously being equal to MSB and MSC.
c. results in substitution effects that change prices.
d. results in both substitution effects and income effects that change prices.
2. The current price of compact discs, which are traded in perfectly competitive markets, is $10. A $1 per unit tax is levied on the discs. Annual record sales decline from five million to four million as a result of the tax. Assuming that the income effect of the tax-induced price change is negligible, the excess burden of the tax will be:
a. $500,000 per year.
b. $1 million per year.
c. $2 million per year.
d. $2.5 million per year.
3. The elasticity of supply of land is zero. A tax on land results only in an income effect to landlords. Then it follows that a 10-percent tax on land rents will:
a. have a positive excess burden.
b. be shifted forward to tenants.
c. be paid entirely by landlords.
d. have zero excess burden.
e. both (c) and (d)
4. Currently, a 10-cent per gallon tax is levied on gasoline consumption. The tax is increased to 20 cents per gallon. The excess burden of the tax will:
a. remain the same.
b. double.
c. increase four times.
d. decline.
5. The supply of new cars is perfectly elastic. A $400 per car tax is levied on buyers. As a result of the tax,
a. the price received by sellers will fall by $400.
b. the price paid by buyers, including the tax, will increase by $400.
c. the quantity of cars sold per year will be unchanged.
d. the excess burden of the tax will be zero.
e. both (c) and (d)
6. Other things being equal, the more inelastic the demand for a taxed good,
a. the greater the portion of the tax paid by sellers.
b. the greater the excess burden of the tax.
c. the greater the portion of the tax paid by buyers.
d. the less the portion of a tax on sellers that can be shifted to buyers.
7. The market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. However, the income effect of tax-induced wage changes are believed to be substantial. Then it follows that a tax on labor income will:
a. have zero excess burden.
b. have positive excess burden.
c. be paid entirely by workers as a reduction in net wages.
d. both (a) and (c)
e. both (b) and (c)
8. Suppose an economy is comprised of only two markets: one for food and the other for housing. A tax on food used to finance transfer payments is likely to:
a. decrease the price of food.
b. increase the price of housing.
c. decrease the price of housing.
d. have no effect on either the price of food or housing.
9. Differential tax incidence measures the effect:
a. that a tax and the expenditures it finances have on the distribution of income.
b. that one tax alone has on the distribution of income.
c. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while holding the size and composition of the budget fixed.
d. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while changing the kinds of government services financed.
10. Most studies of tax incidence assume that taxes on labor income and other input services are borne entirely by the workers and other input owners that supply the services. This implies that the:
a. supply of those input services is very elastic.
b. supply of those input services is of unitary elasticity.
c. supply of those input services is perfectly inelastic.
d. demand for those input services is perfectly elastic.
11. Most studies show that the price elasticity of demand for gasoline is –0.2. If the price elasticity of supply is 2, then a tax on gasoline will:
a. have no effect on the market equilibrium price of gasoline.
b. cause the market equilibrium price of gasoline to fall.
c. cause the market equilibrium price paid by buyers to rise.
d. cause the net price received by sellers to fall.
e. both (c) and (d)
12. The demand for medical care is very inelastic. If a 10-percent tax is levied on the sale of medical services and is collected from medical-care providers, then:
a. the incidence of the tax is likely to be borne entirely by medical-care providers.
b. most of the tax is likely to be shifted to those who purchase medical care.
c. the market equilibrium price of medical care will fall.
d. the excess burden of the tax is likely to be very high.
13. Which of the following is true about a lump-sum tax?
a. It prevents efficiency from being attained in competitive markets.
b. It causes substitution effects.
c. It causes income effects.
d. It causes both income effects and substitution effects.
14. Housing construction is generally believed to be an industry of constant costs. In the long run, which of the following is true if a $10 per square foot tax on housing construction is collected directly from builders?
a. The incidence of the tax will be borne by builders.
b. The excess burden of the tax will be zero.
c. The quantity of new construction supplied will be unaffected.
d. The tax will be fully shifted to buyers of new construction.
15. If the price elasticity of supply of labor is equal to 0.5 and the price elasticity of demand for labor is –2, then which of the following is likely to result from a tax on labor earnings?
a. The tax will be fully borne by workers.
b. Some of the tax will be shifted to employers as market equilibrium wages increase.
c. Market equilibrium wages will decline.
d. There will be no effect on market equilibrium wages.
16. If a lump-sum tax is imposed, the slope of the new budget line relative to the budget line prior to the tax:
a. remains unchanged.
b. increases.
c. decrease.
d. can increase and decrease in different regions.
17. Viewed from origin a price distorting tax creates a new budget line with a ______ slope relative to the budget line without the tax.
a. less steep
b. more steep
c. similar
d. varying
18. A $0.30 per unit tax is imposed on a good that reduces the quantity supplied and demanded by 1000 units. What is the deadweight loss (ignore price elasticities)?
a. $300.00
b. $100.00
c. $150.00
d. Cannot be determined.
19. If a per unit tax is imposed, but the quantity supplied and demanded does not change then:
a. the demand is perfectly inelastic.
b. the supply is perfectly inelastic.
c. there is no deadweight loss.
d. All of the above.
20. The efficiency-loss ratio relative to tax is:
a. the deadweight loss less the tax revenue.
b. the deadweight loss divided by the tax revenue reduced by one.
c. the excess burden divided by the tax revenue.
d. None of the above.

CHAPTER 12
Budget Balance and
Government Debt
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. From 1950 to 2009, the federal government budget has been in balance in most years.
2. The high employment budget deficit implies that increases in economic activity will not eliminate the actual deficit.
3. Other things being equal, an increase in government borrowing is likely to increase interest rates.
4. If taxpayers anticipate future tax increases when government borrows to finance deficits, increased government borrowing will increase interest rates.
5. As of 2008, the amount of federal debt outstanding was equal to twice the annual GDP.
6. From 1950 to 1980, the value of the federal debt as a percent of GDP declined.
7. More than 50 percent of the federal debt in recent years has been outside debt.
8. An increase in market rates of interest tends to decrease the market value of outstanding govern¬ment debt.
9. Deficit finance postpones taxation from the present to the future.
10. The burden of the debt is borne by those who purchase government bonds.
11. The federal government budget recorded surpluses between 1998 and 2001.
12. State and local governments are usually required by state law to keep the budgets in balance.
13. If business and personal saving are constant, then a federal budget deficit will have no impact on national saving.
14. Other things being equal, a government surplus increases the supply of loanable funds available for investment.
15. State revenue bonds are backed by the taxing power of state governments.
16. A federal budget surplus can lead to more credit being available for productive activity.
17. A federal budget deficit can strain credit markets forcing the real rate of interest to decrease.
18. The U.S. deficit in the 1980s was structural in the sense that federal spending would exceed federal revenue even at a level of full employment.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The outstanding federal debt will decline in value if:
a. budget deficits continue.
b. the government runs a budget surplus.
c. the market rate of interest increases.
d. either (b) or (c)
2. The federal budget has been in deficit:
a. for every year between 1970 and 1997.
b. for every year between 1950 and 1997.
c. only since 1980.
d. for every year between 1960 and 1997.
3. The high employment deficit is estimated at $100 billion. Assuming that the economy is operating below full employment and that it will not overheat during the year,
a. the actual budget is not in deficit.
b. increasing GDP will eliminate the deficit.
c. increasing GDP will not eliminate the deficit.
d. the actual budget is in surplus.
4. An increase in government borrowing has no effect on the willingness of citizens to save or on the demand for credit. Increased borrowing to cover deficits will therefore:
a. reduce interest rates.
b. increase interest rates.
c. have no effect on interest rates.
d. not require increased taxes in the future.
5. As a result of government borrowing to cover deficits, citizens increase the supply of savings to provide themselves with funds to pay anticipated increases in future taxes. Then it follows that increased government borrowing will:
a. reduce private investment.
b. increase private investment.
c. have no effect of private investment.
d. increase interest rates.
e. both (a) and (d)
6. The total dollar value of the federal debt outstanding is:
a. more than 50 percent of GDP.
b. more than 100 percent of GDP.
c. less than 50 percent of GDP.
d. less than 10 percent of GDP.
7. The federal government, its agencies, and the Federal Reserve System:
a. are not permitted to hold outstanding federal debt.
b. hold 50 percent of the outstanding federal debt.
c. hold between 15 and 25 percent of the outstanding federal debt.
d. hold 75 percent of the outstanding federal debt.
8. The largest portion of the net federal debt outstanding is owed to:
a. foreigners.
b. U.S. citizens and companies.
c. federal government agencies.
d. state and local governments.
9. The debt of state and local governments is mostly:
a. internal.
b. external.
c. owed to citizens of other nations.
d. worthless.
10. Government borrowing will:
a. postpone taxation to the future.
b. increase government interest cost.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. eliminate taxes.
11. Which of the following is true about the federal government budget balance in the United States?
a. The federal budget has never had a surplus.
b. The federal budget had a surplus every year from 1970 to 2008.
c. The federal budget had a surplus from 1998 until 2001.
d. The federal budget had a deficit from 1998 until 2001.
12. Which of the following can contribute to a decrease in national saving?
a. a federal budget deficit
b. an increase in the state and local government aggregate surplus
c. a federal budget surplus
d. an increase in personal saving
13. Other things being equal, a government budget surplus:
a. increases the demand for loanable funds.
b. increases the supply of loanable funds.
c. is likely to increase market equilibrium interest rates.
d. is unlikely to affect market equilibrium interest rates.
14. If the federal government runs a surplus consistently, then which of the following is likely to occur?
a. National saving will decline.
b. The gross federal debt will increase.
c. The gross federal debt will decrease.
d. Market equilibrium interest rates are likely to rise as a result of the surpluses.
15. General obligation bonds of state and local governments are:
a. backed by revenue from public facilities such as sports stadiums.
b. backed by the taxing power of state and local governments.
c. usually used to finance transfer payments.
d. usually used to finance capital expenditures.
e. both (b) and (d)
16. A bond that is backed by the tolls collected from a bridge to be constructed from the proceeds of the bond is an example of:
a. a general obligation bond.
b. a non-obligation bond.
c. a revenue bond.
d. none of the above.
17. Evidence of “crowding out” in the market for loanable funds at a rate of 8% could be:
a. private investors who will borrow only at a rate lower than 8%.
b. private investors who are willing to accept a rate higher than 8% for borrowing.
c. a government surplus.
d. a social security surplus.
18. High-employment deficit or surplus is:
a. an extreme economic situation requiring emergency measures.
b. the amount of deficit or surplus available assuming current employment levels.
c. the amount of deficit or surplus available when employment is at its approximately full capacity.
d. the amount of deficit or surplus available when unemployment is at a relatively high level.
19. A government’s internal debt is:
a. debt owed to other government agencies.
b. debt owed to other governments.
c. debt owed to its citizens.
d. both (a) and (c).
20. The National Income and Product Accounts budget balance reflects:
a. an inflation-adjusted budget balance less social security surplus.
b. new debt resulting from a federal budget deficit.
c. the real budget balance.
d. the nominal budget balance.

ECO 450 Week 9 Quiz

CHAPTER 13
The Theory of Income Taxation
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. The actual federal income tax currently taxes all income irrespective of its source or use at the same tax rate.
2. Comprehensive income excludes unrealized capital gains.
3. Under a comprehensive income tax, transfer payments received by Social Security recipients would be fully taxable.
4. Homeowners earn rental income-in-kind from their home that would be taxable under a compre¬hensive income tax.
5. A comprehensive income tax is a lump-sum tax.
6. A comprehensive income tax will result in a divergence between gross wages paid by employers and net wages received by workers.
7. A comprehensive income tax will always reduce work effort by taxpayers.
8. The substitution effect of a tax-induced decline in wages always leads workers to work less.
9. The market wage elasticity of labor is zero. If this is the case, the excess burden of a tax on labor income will also be zero.
10. Points on a compensated labor supply curve are always more elastic than points for corresponding wage levels on a regular labor supply curve.
11. Comprehensive income is the sum of annual consumption and the change in net worth.
12. A tax on interest income does not prevent credit market from efficiently allocating resources.
13. If an individual is subject to a 30-percent income tax, then the net interest on a certificate of deposit yielding 5 percent would be 3.5 percent after taxes.
14. Because a tax on interest income results in income and substitution effects, it is not possible to pre¬dict the effect it will have on saving.
15. Most empirical studies indicate that the interest elasticity of supply of savings is close to zero.
16. Income tax became a permanent fixture in the United States starting in the early nineteenth century.
17. The Haig-Simons definition of income is different from comprehensive income.
18. Comprehensive income equals consumption plus the change in net worth.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Comprehensive income:
a. is the sum of annual consumption and realized capital gains.
b. is the sum of annual consumption and changes in net worth.
c. excludes corporation income.
d. is the sum of annual consumption and net worth.
2. A tax on labor income:
a. results only in an income effect that always decreases hours worked per year.
b. results in a substitution effect that always decreases hours worked per year.
c. results in an income effect that increases hours worked per year if leisure is a normal good.
d. both (a) and (b)
e. both (b) and (c)
3. The market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. Then it follows that:
a. the substitution effect of wage changes is zero.
b. the income effect of wage changes is zero.
c. leisure is a normal good and the income effect of wage changes exactly offsets the substitution effect.
d. the excess burden of a tax on labor income will be zero.
4. The compensated labor supply curve:
a. will always be vertical.
b. will always be upward sloping.
c. will always be downward sloping.
d. reflects both the income and substitution effects of wage changes.
5. Using a regular labor supply curve instead of a compensated supply curve to calculate the excess burden of a tax on labor income will:
a. result in an accurate estimate of the excess burden.
b. overestimate the excess burden.
c. underestimate the excess burden.
d. accurately estimate the excess burden only if the market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic.
6. Most empirical research indicates that the market supply curve of labor hours by prime-age males is:
a. very elastic.
b. almost perfectly inelastic.
c. always upward sloping.
d. perfectly elastic.
7. A flat-rate tax on labor income will:
a. always reduce hours worked per year.
b. always increase hours worked per year.
c. either increase or decrease hours worked per year.
d. never have any effect on the amount of leisure hours per year.
8. A tax on interest income:
a. causes the gross interest rate paid by investors to exceed the net interest rate received by savers.
b. will always reduce saving.
c. will always increase saving.
d. is equivalent to a lump-sum tax.
9. If the market supply curve of savings is upward sloping, a tax on interest income will:
a. increase the amount of saving.
b. increase the market rate of interest.
c. decrease the market rate of interest.
d. have no effect on the market rate of interest.
10. If the supply of labor is perfectly inelastic, then the incidence of a payroll tax levied entirely on employers will be:
a. borne by employers as a reduction in profits.
b. split between workers and employers.
c. paid entirely by workers.
d. shifted forward to consumers.
11. Which of the following is true about comprehensive income?
a. Only labor income is included.
b. Only capital income is included.
c. Capital gains are not included.
d. Both realized and unrealized capital gains are included.
12. Which of the following will increase a person’s comprehensive income?
a. an increase in the market value of the person’s home
b. a decrease in the value of the person’s stock portfolio
c. a decrease in labor income
d. a decrease in consumption
13. A tax on labor income will:
a. increase the net wage received by workers.
b. decrease the net wage received by workers.
c. cause that net wage received by workers to decline below the gross wage paid by employers.
d. both (b) and (c)
14. If the return to savings, r, is subject to taxation at rate t, then in equilibrium a saver’s marginal rate of time preference will equal:
a. r
b. t
c. (1 + r)
d. [1 + r(1 – t)]
15. The higher the compensated elasticity of supply of savings,
a. the lower the excess burden of a tax on capital income.
b. the higher the excess burden of a tax on capital income.
c. the higher the excess burden of a tax on labor income.
d. both (b) and (c)
16. The Haig-Simons definition of income:
a. is the sum of annual consumption and realized capital gains.
b. is the sum of annual consumption and changes in net worth.
c. excludes corporation income.
d. is the sum of annual consumption and net worth.
17 Comprehensive income:
a. includes realized capital gains, but not unrealized capital gains
b. includes both realized and unrealized capital gains.
c. excludes cash from the sale of assets.
d. excludes increases in the value of assets.
18. Income-in-kind:
a. is exemplified by nonpecuniary returns.
b. is generally non-taxable because there is no monetary transaction.
c. is generally taxable.
d. both (a) and (b).
19. An example of a nonpecuniary return is:
a. job satisfaction.
b. unemployment benefits.
c. employer contributions to a retirement plan.
d. both (b) and (c).

20. Income from labor services (wages) account for what percentage of gross income in the U.S.?
a. 90%
b. 75%
c. 60%
d. 50%

CHAPTER 14
Taxation of Personal Income
in the United States
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Taxable income in the United States exceeds adjusted gross income.
2. Taxable income in the United States includes all capital gains earned, whether or not they are realized.
3. Taxable income in the United States amounts to less than 50 percent of personal income.
4. Tax preferences are really subsidies to certain activities.
5. A tax deduction allowed for an activity for which positive externalities are not likely to exist (such as home ownership) is likely to cause the marginal social cost of the activity to exceed its marginal social benefit.
6. The value of a personal exemption to a taxpayer varies with his or her marginal tax rate.
7. The U.S. personal income tax is not a progressive tax.
8. The highest statutory marginal tax rate under the federal personal income tax is 50 percent.
9. Under current rules, only real interest earned is subject to income tax.
10. Realized, long-term capital gains that reflect inflation are currently exempt from taxation.
11. The tax base under the personal income tax in the United States is the Haig-Simons definition of comprehensive income.
12. Tax credits vary with a person’s marginal tax rate.
13. The cuts in marginal tax rates initiated in 2001 are likely to reduce the excess burden of tax pref¬erences.
14. The earned income tax credit is a negative tax the subsidizes the earnings of low-income workers.
15. If a progressive income tax is replaced with an equal-yield, flat-rate tax, then work effort will unequivocally increase.
16. As of 2009, there is no marriage penalty for an adjusted gross income of $60,000.
17. Tax preferences are exclusions, exemptions, and deductions from the tax base.
18. Income-in-kind is not considered a tax preference.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Adjusted gross income, as defined by the United States Tax Code,
a. exceeds taxable income.
b. equals taxable income.
c. is less than taxable income.
d. is greater than comprehensive income.
2. Tax preferences:
a. are exclusions, exemptions, and deductions from the tax base.
b. are in the tax code by accident.
c. are extra taxes on certain taxpayers.
d. increase the amount of income that is taxable.
e. both (a) and (d)
3. Currently, the tax treatment of capital gains in the United States is such that:
a. all capital gains are taxed.
b. all realized capital gains are taxed.
c. most realized capital gains are taxed.
d. only capital gains adjusted for inflation are taxed.
4. The exclusion of interest of state and local bonds from taxation by the federal government:
a. decreases interest costs for state and local governments.
b. increases interest costs for state and local governments.
c. benefits lower-income taxpayers more than upper-income taxpayers.
d. discourages borrowing by local governments.
5. The value of personal exemptions in terms of taxes saved:
a. is the same for all taxpayers.
b. varies with family size.
c. varies with taxpayers’ marginal tax rates.
d. both (b) and (c)
6. A taxpayer is in a 33-percent tax bracket and itemizes deductions. He obtains a mortgage from a bank at 9-percent interest. The actual rate of interest he pays is:
a. 6 percent.
b. 9 percent.
c. 20 percent.
d. 25 percent.
7. Tax expenditures are:
a. expenditures made to collect taxes.
b. losses in revenue due to tax preferences.
c. less than 1 percent of tax revenue.
d. both (b) and (c)
8. Under the federal personal income tax rules prevailing as of 2009,
a. all interest expense is tax deductible.
b. the interest expense for mortgages on first and second homes is tax deductible.
c. the interest expense for mortgages only on first homes is tax deductible.
d. no interest is tax deductible.
9. The reduction in marginal tax rates will:
a. increase the excess burden of tax preferences.
b. increase tax expenditures.
c. decrease the excess burden of tax preferences.
d. have no effect of tax expenditures.
10. “Bracket creep” is no longer a problem in the United States because:
a. the tax brackets are indexed.
b. capital gains are now fully taxable.
c. only real interest is taxed.
d. capital gains are indexed.
11. Which of the following is true for the federal income tax in the United States?
a. All income irrespective of its source or use is taxed at the same rate.
b. Comprehensive income is the tax base.
c. The tax base is less than 50 percent of comprehensive income.
d. All realized and unrealized capital gains are included in the tax base.
12. Because of the Earned Income Tax Credit, the effective tax rate for the lowest-income taxpayers in the United States is:
a. only 15 percent.
b. higher than that paid by upper-income taxpayers.
c. zero.
d. negative.
13. The excess burden of tax preferences:
a. depends on average tax rates.
b. will be higher, the higher the marginal tax rate is.
c. will be lower, the higher the marginal tax rate is.
d. is independent of marginal tax rates.
14. A shift to an equal-yield, flat-rate personal income tax from the current progressive income tax rate structure will:
a. reduce the tax burden on upper-income groups.
b. increase the tax burden on upper-income groups.
c. increase the share of taxes paid by lower-income groups.
d. both (a) and (c)
15. Removing savings from the tax base of the personal income tax is likely to:
a. increase work effort.
b. decrease work effort.
c. lower market equilibrium interest rates by increasing the supply of loanable funds.
d. increase market equilibrium interest rates, thereby increasing the demand for loanable funds.
16. Which is a justification for tax preferences?
a. administrative difficulties
b. improving equity
c. encouraging private expenditures that create external benefits
d. all of the above
17. If the excess burden from tax is $10 million, lowering marginal tax rates should make the excess burden:
a. more than $10 million.
b. less than $10 million.
c. remain at $10 million.
d. none of the above is certain to occur
18. Which of the following is the result of The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act enacted in 2001?
a. reduction of the highest marginal tax rate
b. increased the marriage penalty
c. created a new 40% tax bracket
d. both (a) and (c)
19. As of 2009, the highest marginal tax rate is:
a. 39.6%
b. 38%
c. 35%
d. 32.5%
20. Which is an example of an itemized deduction under the U.S. code as of 2009?
a. state and local income tax
b. state and local property tax
c. all medical expenses
d. both (a) and (b)

CHAPTER 17
Taxes on Wealth,
Property, and Estates
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Wealth is a flow.
2. A wealth tax is equivalent to a tax on the return to saving.
3. If the supply of savings is perfectly inelastic, a comprehensive wealth tax will increase the market rate of interest.
4. Assuming that the supply curve of savings is upward sloping, a comprehensive wealth tax will reduce annual investment.
5. As administered in the United States, the local property tax is mainly a tax on real estate.
6. The property tax in the United States is likely to reduce the equilibrium return to investment.
7. The town of Oz has raised its property tax rates considerably above the national average. Other things being equal, capital is likely to flow into Oz in the long run because of the tax.
8. If a real estate tax causes rents to rise, it cannot be fully capitalized.
9. A tax on the value of land is likely to be fully capitalized.
10. The local property tax is likely to result in less than the efficient amount of investment in real estate.
11. A general tax on wealth will cause efficiency loss in labor markets.
12. The local property tax, as administered in the United States, is a general tax on wealth.
13. The local property tax in the United States will reduce the return to real estate only in the long run.
14. Other things being equal, if the property tax rate is above the national average for a jurisdiction, capital can be expected to flow out of the region in that area.
15. If a local property tax increase is fully capitalized, property owners at the time of the increase can¬not shift any of the current or future tax increase to buyers if they sell the property.
16. A person who never saves any income and receives no gifts and inheritances will never accumulate wealth.
17. Wealth taxes are a relatively new form of taxation.
18. Total wealth definitions never include intangible personal property.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Wealth is:
a. a flow.
b. a stock.
c. the market value of accumulated assets.
d. both (b) and (c)
2. A comprehensive wealth tax base includes:
a. all real tangible, intangible, and human wealth, less any claims against those assets.
b. only real property.
c. only intangible assets.
d. only tangible assets.
3. If the interest elasticity of supply of savings is zero, a comprehensive wealth tax will:
a. increase the market rate of interest.
b. reduce the income of savers.
c. reduce the income of workers.
d. both (b) and (c)
4. If the supply curve of savings is upward sloping, a comprehensive wealth tax will:
a. increase the market rate of interest.
b. reduce the market rate of interest.
c. have zero excess burden.
d. have no effect on investment.
5. A comprehensive wealth tax will:
a. impair efficiency in labor markets.
b. impair efficiency in investment markets.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. have no excess burden.
6. Assuming that investors seek to maximize the return on their investment, the long-run effect of a national tax on real estate will be to:
a. reduce the return to investment in real estate only.
b. reduce the return to investment in all assets.
c. reduce wages only.
d. increase the return to all investors.
7. A local property tax, such as that used in the United States, is likely to:
a. increase investment in the economy.
b. cause a flow of investment among jurisdictions.
c. decrease the return to saving in all uses.
d. both (b) and (c)
8. If a property tax on real estate is capitalized,
a. the price of real estate will rise.
b. the price of real estate will fall.
c. the price of real estate will be unaffected.
d. the burden of the tax will be transferred to buyers of real estate.
e. both (b) and (d)
9. Suppose that the current market rate of interest is 10 percent. The market rent on a parcel of land is $6,000 per year. A 10-percent land tax is imposed. As a result of the tax, the price of the land parcel:
a. falls from $60,000 to $30,000.
b. increases from $30,000 to $60,000.
c. falls 10 percent.
d. falls 20 percent.
10. If a tax on real estate results in a decrease in the supply of housing, the tax will be:
a. fully capitalized.
b. only partially capitalized.
c. not capitalized at all.
d. borne entirely by renters.
11. If the supply of saving is not perfectly inelastic in the nation, then which of the following taxes will cause efficiency loss in capital markets?
a. a general wealth tax
b. a national tax on real estate
c. a consumption tax
d. both (a) and (b)
12. The local property tax in the United States is levied primarily on:
a. personal property.
b. intangible property.
c. business property.
d. real estate.
13. Which of the following would not be included in a comprehensive wealth tax base?
a. real estate
b. personal property
c. intangible assets
d. residential rents
14. If the supply of real estate is not perfectly inelastic, then the local real estate property tax differentials:
a. cannot be shifted to tenants.
b. can be shifted to tenants through increases in rents.
c. will be fully capitalized.
d. both (a) and (c)
15. If the supply of saving is not perfectly inelastic, then substituting a value-added tax for an equal-yield general wealth tax will:
a. decrease market equilibrium interest rates.
b. increase the efficiency loss in labor markets.
c. decrease the efficiency loss in labor markets.
d. decrease efficiency in capital markets.
e. both (a) and (b)
16. Intangible personal property includes:
a. stock in companies.
b. corporate bonds.
c. cash.
d. all of the above
17. If the annual amount of savings is $10 billion, what is the effect of a wealth tax assuming supply is perfectly inelastic?
a. annual savings remains $10 billion
b. annual savings increases above $10 billion
c. annual savings falls below $10 billion
d. no particular effect is guaranteed to happen
18. If the annual amount of savings is $10 billion, what is the effect of a wealth tax assuming supply is responsive?
a. annual savings remains $10 billion
b. annual savings increases above $10 billion
c. annual savings falls below $10 billion
d. no particular effect is guaranteed to happen
19. From the point of view of the locality, increasing property taxes:
a. increases the price of locally produced goods.
b. decreases income of owners of land in the associated community.
c. does not affect buyers of locally produced goods fro outside of the community.
d. both (a) and (b)
20. Tax capitalization is:
a. a decrease in the value of a taxed asset at a level related to the discounted value of the future tax liability.
b. partially recognized when the supply of taxed asset is perfectly inelastic.
c. only partially recognized on assets like land.
d. both (b) and (c)

CHAPTER 18
Fiscal Federalism and State and
Local Government Finance
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. A federal system of government allows a wider diversity of preferences for government-provided services to be accommodated when compared to nonfederal, centralized government.
2. Income redistribution is a service likely to be most effectively administered by the federal govern¬ment.
3. Economic stabilization can be easily supplied to citizens by local governments.
4. When each local government supplies goods and services to its citizens, the political equilibrium in each jurisdiction corresponds to the median most-preferred outcome of all national voters.
5. A federal system of government allows both centralized and decentralized collective choices.
6. Local tax bases are less elastic than national tax bases.
7. Tax exporting occurs if the price of goods produced in the state and purchased by out-of-state residents rises as a result of in-state taxes.
8. Matching categorical grants can be used to internalize interjurisdictional positive externalities.
9. Matching grants only result in income effects.
10. A matching grant will increase local government expenditures by more than an equal-value, general purpose grant.
11. A federal system of government only has a central government that supplies all public goods and services.
12. According to the Tiebout model of fiscal federalism, a system of many local governments improves the efficiency of allocation of resources to and among public goods.
13. If a local jurisdiction’s tax base is elastic, an increase in tax rates will decrease tax revenue.
14. Taxing hotel rooms and restaurant meals in a city with lots of tourism is an example of tax exporting.
15. Financing local schooling with the local property tax can guarantee equality of opportunity in education.
16. According to Tiebout, individuals will self-select into communities where the government budget best satisfies their own personal preferences.
17. Mobility between communities is not critical to the Tiebout model.
18. Interjurisdictional externalities are costs or benefits of local government goods and services to residents in other political jurisdictions.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Under a federal system of government,
a. all government goods and services are supplied by a central government.
b. all government goods and services are supplied by local governments.
c. both central and noncentral governments supply goods and services.
d. all public choices are made nationally.
2. Economic stabilization is most effectively provided by:
a. a central government.
b. state governments.
c. local governments.
d. regional governments.
3. A decentralized system of government:
a. tends to result in uniformity in the quantity and quality of government services in all jurisdic¬tions.
b. allows diversity in the quantity and quality of government goods and services.
c. conducts national elections on all issues.
d. is undemocratic.
4. The political equilibrium in a local jurisdiction for a given public good corresponds to the median most-preferred outcome of:
a. all national voters.
b. the President.
c. local voters.
d. both (a) and (c)
5. In general, local tax bases tend to be:
a. less elastic than national tax bases.
b. more elastic than national tax bases.
c. equally elastic when compared with national tax bases.
d. very inelastic.
6. According to the Tiebout model of local government expenditure,
a. all local governments will supply the same kinds and amounts of services.
b. mobile citizens respond to differences in taxes and expenditures by moving to the jurisdiction that maximizes their well-being.
c. the average costs of government services is constant.
d. tax rates do not influence a citizen’s choice of residence.
7. A categorical grant:
a. does not restrict the use of transferred funds.
b. usually specifies the use to which the funds must be applied.
c. is used rarely in the United States.
d. is not used at all in the United States.
8. A federal highway grant will provide funds for roads supplied by state and local governments if these governments pay 50 percent of the cost of the roads. This grant is an example of:
a. revenue sharing.
b. a matching categorical grant.
c. a general purpose grant.
d. a nonmatching block grant.
9. A grant received by a local government will:
a. not affect the political equilibrium in that jurisdiction.
b. change the political equilibrium in that jurisdiction.
c. always increase government expenditures in the recipient jurisdiction by the amount of grant.
d. both (b) and (c)
10. Matching grants:
a. will not increase government spending in recipient jurisdictions.
b. increase government expenditures in recipient jurisdictions more than nonmatching grants of an equal amount.
c. increase government expenditures in recipient jurisdictions less than nonmatching grants of an equal amount.
d. increase tax rates in recipient jurisdictions.
11. Which of the following is true about a federal system of government?
a. There is only one level of government.
b. There are several levels of government.
c. A central government directs local governments to supply all public goods at levels determined nationally.
d. There are only local governments.
12. The central economic problem of fiscal federalism is:
a. the division of taxing and expenditure functions among different levels of government.
b. the choice of the collective choice rule for central governments only.
c. the level of public goods to be provided by a central government only.
d. how to achieve an equitable distribution of income.
13. Which of the following is best supplied by local governments?
a. national defense
b. income redistribution
c. money
d. fire protection
14. Local public goods:
a. are pure public goods for the entire nation.
b. are those whose benefits are nonrival only for the population of a particular geographical area.
c. have benefits that are subject to exclusion by pricing for local consumers.
d. are best provided by a central government.
15. An increase in the local retail sales tax rate will increase revenue collected by a local government:
a. if the tax base is elastic.
b. if the tax base is unit elastic.
c. if the tax base in inelastic.
d. no matter what the value of the elasticity of the tax base.
16. Which is an example of a interjurisdictional externality?
a. residential property tax
b. local sales tax
c. wage tax on all workers in a community
d. both (b) and (c)
17. Mobility:
a. is not essential to the Tiebout model.
b. can hamper a jurisdiction’s ability to raise revenues.
c. may be part of the reason for the reliance on local property taxes for the raising of local government revenue.
d. both (b) and (c)
18. A local wage tax can:
a. create tax competition if a neighboring jurisdiction does not have such a tax.
b. export tax onto workers in the local jurisdiction who live outside of the local jurisdiction.
c. prevent tax competition among other local jurisdictions.
d. both (a) and (b)
19. Fiscal capacity:
a. decreases with the ability of the jurisdiction to export tax.
b. is a measure of the ability of a jurisdiction to finance government-provided services.
c. is always enhanced by mobility.
d. is not dependent on the wealth of the community.
20. What is generally the best measure of fiscal capacity for local governments?
a. income per capita
b. per capita retail sales
c. assessed valuation per capita
d. per capita expenditure

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ECO 450 Week 10 Quiz – Strayer

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CHAPTER 15
Taxation of Corporate Income
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. The corporate income tax in the United States is levied only on economic profits.
2. Imputed interest from retained earnings are not deducted when computing taxable corporate income.
3. In general, the shorter the depreciation period allowed for tax purposes, the higher the tax burden on corporations.
4. Accelerated depreciation allows a firm to deduct more than the actual economic depreciation from its income each year.
5. Inflation causes an understatement of true depreciation cost.
6. If a corporation maximizes profits, an ad valorem tax on its profits will result in a reduction in output in the short run.
7. Assuming that the corporate income tax is not shifted to consumers in the short run, the long-run effect will be a reduction in the return to investment in both the corporate and noncorporate sector.
8. The excess burden of the corporate income tax stems from a misallocation of investment between the corporate and noncorporate sectors when the supply of savings is perfectly inelastic.
9. When the supply of savings is not perfectly inelastic, the corporate income tax can be shifted to workers.
10. In the long run the corporate income tax has no effect on the price of products produced by corporations.
11. The corporate income tax in the United States is levied on the sum of economic and normal profits.
12. The corporate income tax is levied only on retained earnings with dividends paid out exempt from taxation.
13. Because the corporate income tax base includes dividends, those dividends are taxed twice if they are also included in the personal income tax base.
14. Because the opportunity cost of a corporate equity is not tax deductible, the corporate income tax encourages borrowing, which allows interest cost to be deducted from corporate income.
15. If the corporate income tax is not shifted in the short run, then in the long run it will reduce the return to capital in the corporate sector only.
16. Depreciation is based on historic cost.
17. During periods of inflation historic cost overstates replacement cost.
18. Corporate dividends are paid from post-tax income.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The tax base for the corporate income tax in the United States is:
a. the sum of normal and economic profits of corporations.
b. economic profits of corporations.
c. normal profits of corporations.
d. retained earnings of corporations.
2. Accelerated depreciation allows corporations to:
a. earn more interest on their capital costs.
b. reduce capital costs to zero.
c. reduce labor costs.
d. increase the time period over which assets are depreciated.
3. If corporations maximize profits, the short-run incidence of a tax on its profits will be borne by:
a. consumers.
b. all investors.
c. corporate shareholders.
d. workers.
4. Assuming that corporations maximize profits and investors seek to maximize the return to their investments, the long-run impact of a corporate income tax is to:
a. reduce the incomes of corporate shareholders only.
b. reduce the incomes of workers only.
c. reduce the incomes of all investors.
d. increase the price of both corporate and noncorporate goods.
5. Assuming that the supply of savings is perfectly inelastic, the corporate income tax prevents the attainment of efficiency by:
a. reducing annual savings.
b. reducing annual investment.
c. reducing wages.
d. causing a misallocation of investment between the corporate and noncorporate sectors
6. Assuming that corporations maximize profits and investors maximize the return from their invest¬ment, a corporate income tax is likely to:
a. increase the price of corporate goods.
b. decrease the price of noncorporate goods.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. have no effect on output prices.
7. Inflation affects corporate income by:
a. understating depreciation and inventory costs.
b. overstating capital gains.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. always increasing taxes.
8. Assuming that corporations maximize profits, that investors maximize the return to their invest¬ments, and that the supply of savings is not perfectly inelastic, in the long run a corporate income tax will:
a. not prevent investment markets from achieving efficiency.
b. reduce investment.
c. reduce wages.
d. both (b) and (c)
9. Which of the following is true about the economic effects of the corporate income tax?
a. Its incidence is likely to be borne entirely by workers.
b. Its incidence is likely to be borne only by shareholders of corporations.
c. Its incidence is likely to be borne only by consumers of corporate products.
d. Its incidence is likely to be shared by owners of capital, workers, and consumers of corporate products.
10. According to the Harberger model of the incidence of the corporate income tax, the tax:
a. reduces the return to capital in the corporate sector of the economy only.
b. reduces the return to capital in all uses.
c. has no effect on the return to capital.
d. increases the return to capital.
11. If corporations maximize profit, a corporate income tax:
a. has no affect on the profit-maximizing output in the short run.
b. reduces the profit, maximizing output in the short run.
c. increase the profit, maximizing output in the short run.
d. increases the supply of corporate output in the short run.

12. Under the corporation income tax in the United States,
a. interest on borrowed money cannot be deducted from the tax base.
b. only economic profits are taxed.
c. only normal profit is taxed.
d. the opportunity cost of equity cannot be deducted from the tax base.
13. If the supply of savings is not perfectly elastic, the corporate income tax is likely to:
a. increase investment.
b. decrease investment.
c. increase the supply of labor.
d. decrease the supply of labor.
14. In the long run a corporate income tax that initially reduces the return to investment in the corpo¬rate sector will also:
a. reduce the return to capital in noncorporate sectors.
b. increase the output of corporate goods.
c. decrease the output of noncorporate goods.
d. both (b) and (c)
15. Under the corporate income tax,
a. dividends paid out to shareholders are deducted from corporate income.
b. dividends are included in corporate income.
c. retained earnings are included in corporate income.
d. both (b) and (c)
16. The double taxation of dividends under U.S. tax code means:
a. dividends are taxed while not being adjusted for inflation.
b. dividends are paid from after-tax corporate income and then taxed again as personal income
c. dividends are deducted as an expense at the corporate level, but as a gain at the personal level
d. both (a) and (b)
17. If an all-equity firm has after-tax income of $100,000 based on a 34% income tax, what is the after-tax income of an equivalent firm that pays $15,000 in interest that is tax deductible?
a. $85,000.00
b. $105,100.00
c. $90,100.00
d. $100,000.00
18. If interest on corporate debt is tax deductible, a firm’s return on equity increases because:
a. after-tax income increases with the presence of debt.
b. generally, the presence of debt reduces the amount of equity to a greater effect than the reduction in after-tax.
c. debt reduces equity and increases after-tax income.
d. the presence of debt to lead to increases in dividends.

19. Assuming no change in the payout structure, what measure would reduce corporate financing costs?
a. allowing dividends to be deducted from income prior to assessing tax.
b. a reduction in the tax rate.
c. limiting the amount of interest that can be deducted from income prior to assessing tax.
d. both (a) and (b)
20. The effective tax rate is:
a. the same as the statutory tax rate.
b. based on real economic profits.
c. based on the nominal profits.
d. not inflation adjusted.

CHAPTER 16
Taxes on Consumption and Sales
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. Comprehensive consumption is measured by excluding increments in net worth from comprehen¬sive income.
2. If two persons have equal labor earnings over their lifetimes and never receive any gifts or inheri¬tances, then the discounted present value of income taxes that they pay will be the same despite any differences in their rates of saving.
3. A tax on comprehensive consumption will not prevent the attainment of efficiency in investment markets.
4. Under a comprehensive consumption tax, liability for payment of taxes on the amount of income saved in any year is deferred rather than eliminated.
5. Under a consumption tax, borrowing money will increase taxes that are due in the year the funds are borrowed.
6. If a flat-rate tax on comprehensive consumption yields the same revenue as a flat-rate tax on com¬prehensive income, the tax rate for the two taxes must be equal.
7. Substituting a comprehensive consumption tax for an equal-yield comprehensive income tax will reduce excess burden in the labor market.
8. Sales taxes in the United States generally tax all personal services.
9. The value-added tax as used in Western Europe generally exempts investment goods from taxation.
10. The value-added tax, collected through the invoice method, exempts intermediate purchases from taxation.
11. A comprehensive income tax is more favorable to the incentive to save than a comprehensive con¬sumption tax.
12. A comprehensive consumption tax is equivalent to a comprehensive tax on labor income.
13. A comprehensive consumption tax will not prevent labor markets from attaining efficiency.
14. The retail sales tax is a major source of revenue for the federal government in the United States.
15. As used in Europe, the value-added tax typically excludes services from the tax base.
16. A consumption tax is the same as an income tax.
17. Annual comprehensive consumption is equal to annual comprehensive income if there is no annual savings.
18. A sales tax encourages saving and discourages consumption.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. A flat-rate tax on comprehensive consumption:
a. will reduce the market rate of interest.
b. will reduce net interest received by savers in any given year.
c. will not result in any difference between the gross interest rate paid by borrowers and the net interest rate received by savers.
d. causes no loss of efficiency in labor markets.
2. Assuming that a person never receives any cash gifts or bequests, a tax on comprehensive con¬sumption is equivalent to a(n):
a. tax on capital income.
b. tax on labor income.
c. income tax.
d. wealth tax.
3. A tax on comprehensive consumption:
a. will not influence a taxpayer’s work-leisure choice.
b. will not affect the incentive to save in ways that cause losses in efficiency.
c. is likely to reduce saving.
d. will exempt consumption of personal services from taxation.
4. Substitution of an equal-yield general consumption tax for an income tax will:
a. improve efficiency in investment markets.
b. impair efficiency in the labor market.
c. increase taxes paid by those earning interest on income.
d. both (a) and (b)
e. both (b) and (c)
5. The differential incidence of substituting a tax on comprehensive consumption for a tax on compre¬hensive income is likely to be:
a. regressive.
b. progressive.
c. proportional.
d. uncertain.
6. Suppose two individuals earn the same salary each year over their lifetimes. One individual saves 25 percent of his income each year, while the other saves nothing. Over their lifetimes under a comprehensive income tax,
a. the discounted present value of taxes paid will be the same for both.
b. the discounted present value of taxes paid will be greater for the saver.
c. the discounted present value of taxes paid will be greater for the nonsaver.
d. the saver will pay no tax on his interest income.
7. In most states, the retail sales tax can be regarded as equivalent to a:
a. comprehensive tax on consumption.
b. comprehensive tax on income.
c. set of selective excise taxes.
d. tax on the profits of retailers.
8. A consumption-type, value-added tax:
a. will not cause losses in efficiency in labor markets.
b. will not cause losses in efficiency in investment markets.
c. both (a) and (b)
d. taxes interest income.
9. The invoice method of collecting the value-added tax:
a. requires firms to compute value added.
b. taxes a firm’s sales at a fixed rate but allows a credit for taxes paid on purchases of interme¬diate goods.
c. requires firms to pay a fixed rate of taxation on both sales and purchases.
d. taxes only intermediate purchases at a fixed rate.
10. Which of the following statements about taxes on consumption are true?
a. Taxes on consumption do not distort choices between current and future consumption in ways that impair efficiency.
b. Taxes on consumption have the same economic effects as taxes on income.
c. Taxes on consumption are likely to reduce saving.
d. Taxes on consumption have no effect on real wages.
11. Comprehensive consumption is:
a. equal to comprehensive income.
b. is comprehensive income plus savings.
c. is comprehensive income minus savings.
d. excludes services.
12. A direct tax on comprehensive consumption:
a. requires taxpayers to report their annual income.
b. requires taxpayers to report their annual savings.
c. taxes savings.
d. both (a) and (b)
13. Which of the following taxes is likely to be most favorable for capital accumulation?
a. a comprehensive income tax
b. a comprehensive tax on wealth
c. a comprehensive tax on consumption
d. an excise tax on gasoline
14. As administered in most states in the United States, the retail sales tax:
a. has zero excess burden.
b. distorts the choice between taxed goods and untaxed services, resulting in some efficiency loss.
c. taxes all services.
d. discourages saving.
15. The value-added tax used in the European Union:
a. generally exempts services from taxation.
b. requires all taxpayers to report value added.
c. exempts investment purchases from taxation.
d. taxes all transactions at the same low rate.
16. Nicholas Kaldor argued:
a. consumption is a better index of the ability to pay than income.
b. savings entails sacrifice and results in no increase in well-being.
c. consumption provides little personal satisfaction and should be taxed for that reason.
d. both (a) and (b)
17. An adult’s life cycle is considered to begin:
a. 18 years old.
b. 21 years old.
c. upon earning fulltime employment.
d. none of the above
18. Consumption-in-kind:
a. is exemplified by services provided and consumed in the household.
b. is the same as income-in-kind
c. is easily determined.
d. both (a) and (b)
19. What below is taxable under a consumption tax system?
a. savings
b. contributions to social security
c. contributions to retirement funds
d. a bequest at death
20. A cash-flow tax is:
a. a modified version of a consumption tax.
b. a modified version of an income tax.
c. a tax that allows some savings to be excluded from tax.
d. both (a) and (c)